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JUNE 1, 1957 




Bruce Henry, C.P. 



New Testament-Liturgy 

Roger Mercuric, C.P. 
Moral-Canon Low 

Forrest Macken, C.P. 
Old Testament 

Carroll Stuhlmueller, C.P. 

Barry Rankin, C.P. 




by Ignatius McElligott, C.P. 

The Passionist is published bi- 
monthly by Holy Cross Province 
at Immaculate Conception Re- 
treat, 5700 N. Harlem Ave., Chi- 
cago 31, Illinois, U.S.A. It is is- 
sued on the 1 St of the months of 
February, April, June, August, 
October and December. 

The Passionist is financed by 
the free-will offerings of its read- 
ers. There is no copyright. The 
Magazine is a private publica- 

The Passionist aims to help its 
readers attain more perfectly the 
twofold end of the Congregation. 
For this reason it offers a variety 
of articles and special feature 

Contributions by members of 
the Congregation are welcomed. 
Anything that will be of interest 
or help to us as Passionists will 
be accepted. Articles should be 
approximately 4000 to 5000 
words in length. 


by Augustine Lane, C.P. 



by Edwin Ronan, C.P. 


by Costante Brovetto, C.P. 


by Andrew M. Gardiner, C.P. 








United Effort! 

■ Great deeds have been accomplished during the cen- 
turies by the cooperation of many men and women. In 
the early days ol the Church the faith spread through- 
out the world by the united effort of many. Religious 
orders were established and "deserts became cities." Na- 
tions were civilized because men and women worked 
together to bring about a reform in the lives of others. 

History traces through the ages the achievements 
brought about by the united efforts of men. We saw 
the great good done by the schools of the middle ages. 
It was also known as the Age of Preachers. After the 
Protestant reformation the modern congregations were 
founded. Although they had only small beginnings, 
today their members can be numbered in the thousands 
and God alone knows perfectly the great good they 
have accomplished. 

Our Holy Founder, St. Paul of the Cross, possessed 
by the idea of making known to the world the love of 
Christ Crucified, established our Congregation to help 
him fulfill this desire. He knew that he could not bring 
about this great work by himself. Therefore, he gath- 
ered together other willing workers to help him in 
his work of preaching to the world the Passion of 
Christ. Over two hundred years have passed and the 
work of St. Paul continues through the united effort 
and cooperation of his followers. 

■ Today, great things are still being accomplished by 
the efforts and cooperation of many people. What one 
man cannot do alone, can be done by many working 
together. It is for this reason that this magazine, The 
Passionist, through the cooperation of all its readers can 
continue to be a wonderful means of helping Passionists 
throughout the world attain more perfectly their two- 
fold end, the sanctification of their own soul and that 
of their neighbor. 

As we know, our Congregation has no other primary 
end in view than that common to all religious orders. 
"This Congregation has the same object in view which 
every Christian, and more particularly every Ecclesiastic 
ought to have . . ." (Rule No. 1). But, the means that 
we use to obtain this end is modified by our own ]iccu- 
liarly Passionistic spirit. 

Our Holy Founder is the model that we are to fol- 
low in tracing out our special spirit. Our spirit is not 
the spirit of a St. Dominic, a St. Francis or a St Igna- 
tius Loyola. We must copy the spirit of St. Paul of 
the Cross. 

June 1. 1957 

■ This ideal, however, is not without its difficulties. 
The principles always remain the same. They are the 
same today as they were in the time of our Holy 
Founder. Nevertheless, the application of them differs 
as does the age in which we live differ from the age in 
which St. Paul lived. We have our own modern prob- 
lems with which to cope. But, they must be solved in 
the light of the guiding principles that St. Paul of the 
Cross gave us. 

Our own sanctification is not the only object we 
have in view. We must also help our neighbor by 
means of the works of the ministry proper to us, espe- 
cially by preaching. This is the principal reason for 
our existence in the Church. But, here again there are 
many problems that must be solved. The mentality 
and attitudes of people today are different than in the 
1770's. Our people have their own peculiar problems 
that must be solved. By means of our apostolate as 
Passionists we must continually strive to find better 
ways of helping them work out their sanctification. 

■ Here is where The Passionist helps us attain our 
two-fold end better. By means of the articles and discus- 
sions appearing in The Passionist since its beginning, it 
has helped Passionists throughout the world realize this 
end a little more perfectly. 

But, greater good can still be brought about if each 
Passionist wall face our modern problems and try to 
work out a solution. And once these solutions are 
worked out, they should not be permitted to remain 
hidden, but should be presented for the consideration 
of other Passionists. Some have specialized in one field 
and so naturally they should consider how their ex- 
perience can be made to serve the Congregation better. 
Missionaries, retreat masters, lectors, each has his con- 
tribution to make. 

Most of our Catholic Magazines draw upon a wide 
field of writers. But The Passionist depends upon the 
cooperation of its own readers to write for it. Its readers 
are its writers. For this reason all the readers of The 
Passionist should do their share in keeping alive the 
spirit of St. Paul of the Cross and help apply that spirit 
to many of our modern-day problems. 

There are many fields that are open to writers for 
The Passionist. Theology, History, Scripture, Canon 
Law, Studies, Missions, Retreats, Preaching, etc., each 
one of these subjects contains many ideas that would 
be useful or helpful in realizing our twofold end. In 
fact, there is room in The Passionist for anythinii that 
would be useful or of interest to us as Passionists. 

And if all the readers of The Passionist would co- 
operate and work together, there is no reason why The 
Passionist cannot become one of the most outstanding 
magazines of its kind published today. It would become 
an ever greater help to all its readers and a means of 
forming them more and more into the likeness of their 
Founder, St. Paul of the Cross. 


Passionists are deeply 
grateful to the Holy Father. 

Pope Pius XII 
and the 

Audience with Pope Pius XII. Left to right: V. Rev. Fr. Ignatius, Most Rev. Fr. Mal- 
colm, Holy Father, V. Rev. Fr. Tarcisius, Rev. Fr. Amadeus. 


.IS Holiness, Pope Pius XII, has always mani- 
fested a marked predilection for his Passionist sons. 
This fatherly interest had its beginnings, no doubt, 
on January 12, 1930, when as Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli 
he took possession of the venerable Titular Church of 
Sts. John and Paul. On that occasion our Superior 
General, Fr. Leo Kierkels, concluded his brilliant ad- 
dress of welcome with a prophecy. He foretold that 
His Eminence Cardinal Pacelli would follow in the 
footsteps of eight of his predecessors, who went from 
the Basilica of Sts. John and Paul to the papal throne. 

Deeply moved, the Cardinal characteristically turned 
his thoughts to the Cross. He spoke of our duty of 
defending the Kingdom of the Cross, but warned that 
such defense calls for martyrdom, not of the body so 
much as the spirit, a martyrdom that seals one's union 
with Christ. Our master and teacher in this respect, 
he said, is our holy Founder, St. Paul of the Cross. 
Our sublime example is the genjtle figure of St. Gabriel 
of the Sorrowful Virgin. 

The first Saint canonized by Pope Pius XII was the 
self-effacing Passion-flower of Lucca, Gemma Galgani. 
To show his veneration for her whom he speaks of as 
the flos dominicae fassionis and his kindly Stella aus- 
picalis, he had a sumptuous marble altar erected to her 
honor in our Basilica. In June 1950 the Pope honored 
us again in the canonizations of Maria Goretti, the 12- 
year-old martyr, "no weak little soul but a real heroine," 
and Vincent Mary Strambi, the bishop "invincible and 
apostolic, defender of the freedom of the Church." 

Even in those uncertain days following World War 
II the Pope's affection for us never wavered. He was 
pleased to "recognize publicly the exemplary devotion 
of the Sons of St. Paul of the Cross for the Holy See 
and their ardent dedication to the cause of the Gospel 
and the salvation of souls". Unhesitatingly he confirmed 
the privilege, originally granted by Pius VII, whereby 
the Sovereign Pontiff is the Protector of the Congrega- 
tion of the Passion forever. 

And lately, on February 25 of this year, he has re- 
newed the grant of many faculties and indulgences be- 


stowed on us by St. Pius X. This "personal gesture of 
bountiful liberality" is unmistakable in its meaning: 
Pope Pius XII intends to carry on that tradition of par- 
ticular love for our Congregation that his Predecessors 

Our Superiors have not been slow to recognize this 
affection. Each fresh outpouring of benevolent love was 
met with heartfelt gratitude and promises of undying 
loyalty. Symbolic of this was the afternoon of prayer 
offered on November 19, 1954, in the Papal Chapel at 
St. Mary Major's by our two Roman communities with 
the General Curia at their head. Before the celebrated 
Icon of Mary Solus Populi Rornani, at the same altar 
where our holy Founder in 1721 had vowed to spread 
devotion to the Passion and where in 1769 he had as-^ 
sisted at the Mass of Pope Clement XIV to thank the 
Blessed Mother for the solemn approbation of the In- 
stitute, his Passionist sons gathered to beseech God to 
leave Pope Pius XII in our midst. 

On March 21 of this year a private audience was 
granted to Most Reverend Father General. In token of 
filial homage he presented to His Holiness the issue of 
L'Eco di San Gahriele commemorating the 100th An- 
niversary of St. Gabriel's vocation and a special booklet 
prepared by Father Amadeo. This booklet, entitled Pio 
XII e i Passionisti, was published to celebrate the Pon- 
tiff's 80th Birthday and the 17th Year since his eleya-, 
tion to the Chair of Peter. The Holy Father was most 
affable, as usual, and showed his great esteem for the 
Congregation. Father General then promised that the 
Congregation would make the coming feast of St. 
Gemma Galgani a day of special prayer for His Holi- 
ness, in gratitude for all his goodness to us. 

The Passionist gladly joins its voice to the swelling 
chorus of thanksgiving. We are sincerely grateful to 
God for giving His Church such an intrepid and com- 
passionate Leader in these troubled times. We are 
deeply grateful to Pope Pius XII for his thoughtful 
care of this least Congregation. We promise never to 
forget our holy Founder's words, bold in their vibrant 
faith: "Son, the Pope is God upon earth!" 

The Passionist 

For a proper assessment of our 

vocation we must go back to 

the end 

or purpose of our Congregation. 

Foiuidation of 


by Ignatius McElligott, C.P. 





HEN we look at the Passion- 
ist Life we find various elements in 
it— much prayer, choral office, a truly 
monastic observance, rigorous pov- 
erty, much penance and such like 
elements which identify our Con- 
gregation in some way with the great 
Contemplative and Penitential Or- 
ders in the Church. We find, too, a 
great deal of active ministry— cate- 
chising, preaching, home Missions 
and retreats, Foreign Mission work, 
confessional work and, in this coun- 
try at least, parochial ministry and 
"supply" work. 

Because these elements are so var- 
ied and, at first sight, seem even in- 
compatible, it can happen that much 
confusion may arise as to the real 
nature of our Congregation. Is ours 
a Contemplative Order? Is it an Ac- 
tive Institute? Is "the Observance" 
more important than "saving souls?" 
What apostolic ministry is proper to 
us— or are all forms of the ministry 
lawful as a means of fulfilling our 
Fourth Vow? From this uncertainty 
a whole sequence of disastrous ef- 
fects may follow, not only for the 
individual Passionist, but for the 
Congregation as a whole. It is im- 
perative that these uncertainties be 
resolved lest the Passionist xocation 
become, even for us, a vague and 
indeterminate thing— which it can- 
not in reality be, for, as a divine 
call, it is a precise and definite thing 
in the mind of God. 

For a proper assessment of our vo- 
cation and a true appreciation of the 
elements of our way of life and their 
relation to each other, we must go 
back to the end or purpose of our 
Congregation — that purpose for 
which Cod willed it should be 
founded and the function Me in- 
tends it should fulfill in the Mysti- 
cal Body of Christ. 

BECAUSE ours is a Religious In- 
stitute within the Church, the 
general end or pinpose of our Con- 
gregation cannot be other than the 
end and purpose of the Religious 
State as such— namely, the acquiring 
of Christian perlection by the faith- 
ful obserxance of the precepts of the 
divine law and the e\angelical coun- 

MONTE ARGENTARO, the cradle of the 



\ •...v: 

sels. And that is the burden of the 
opening sentence of our Holy Rule 
(H.R. n.l). 

But each Religious Institute with- 
in the Church is specified and dif- 
fereniated by its own secondary or 
particular end which consists in those 
special works of charity for which 
the Institute was founded under di- 
vine guidance and for which it is 
approved by the infallible authority 
of the Holy See. It is this ecclesiasti- 
cal approbation which alone gives a 
Religious Institute its juridical exist- 
ence as a moral person in the Church, 
establishing it as a permanent or- 
ganism within the Mystical Body. 
And once the Holy See has approved 
a Religious Institute, no other au- 
thority whatsoever can change the 
particular end of that Institute, or 
add, as a permanent and stable fea- 
ture of the Institute, any works of 
charity other than those included in 
the particular end (v. J.P. n. 9). 

The particular end of our Con- 
gregation is clearly set forth in the 
first and fundamental chapter of our 
Holy Rule: "Since . . . one of the 
chief objects of our Congregation is 
not only to devote ourselves to prayer 
that we may be united to God by 
charity, but also to lead others to the 
same end, instructing them in the 
best and easiest manner possible, 
those members who may be consid- 
ered fit for so great a work shall, 
both during Apostolic Missions and 
other pious exercises, teach the peo- 
ple by word of mouth to meditate 
devoutly on the Mysteries, Sufferings 
and Death of our Lord Jesus Christ" 
(H.R. n. 3). 

Repeatedly in his writings our 
Holy Founder stresses the nature and 
importance of this special purpose for 
which God inspired him to found 
the Congregation. "Our Congrega- 
tion," he says, "is entirely devoted 
to promoting the remembrance of 
the Sacred Passion from which all 
our good proceeds." "The secondary 
end of the Institute," he says ex- 
plicitly, "is to labor for the conver- 
sion of sinners to the greater glory 
of God and the salvation of souls, 
by promoting in the hearts of the 
Faithful devotion to the Sacred Pas- 
sion of Jesus Christ both in Sacred 
Missions and other exercises of 
piety." "To help the souls of the 

Faithful is the purpose of this poor 
Congregation, and to this end we 
take a fourth vow— to promote in 
the hearts of the Faithful, both in 
Missions and other pious exercises, 
devotion to the Sacred Passion" (S. 
Paul of the Cross, Letters, Passim.). 

This particular end, then, speci- 
fies our Congregation in the Church 
as an Institute devoted to the salva- 
tion of souls through the preaching 
of the Passion. This particular end 
likewise determines (a) the nature 
of our state or the form of Religious 
Life to which our Congregation be- 
longs, (b) the relationship between 
the contemplative and active ele- 
ments of our life, (c) the essential 
spirit which must animate the Con- 
gregation and (d) the particular ex- 
pressions of that spirit which con- 
stitute the necessary characteristics 
of the Passionist way of life. 

The particular end to which our 
Congregation is ordered is the Apos- 
tolate of the Passion. The Congre- 
gation, therefore, is an apostolic 
one. By definition the Apostolic Life, 
or as it is often called, the "Mixed 
Life," as applied to Religious Insti- 
tutes means a fixed and stable man- 
ner of living — i.e., a state — which 
is ordered to those special active 
works which flow from contempla- 
tion. Those active works which of 
their nature flow from contempla- 
tion are, in fact, the Spiritual Works 
of Mercy, and in particular teaching 
and preaching— "ioctnwfl et praedi- 
catio" (v. S.T. II.II. q. 188 a.6). 
Other works, even though done for 
God and inspired by Charity, are 
not, in this strict sense of the term, 

It is, however, only in the order 
of supernatural charity that such, ac- 
tivity as teaching, preaching and the 
like is truely apostolic. Hence, apos- 
tolic preaching, etc. is that which 
flows, not from the mere knowledge 
of divine things obtained in study 
and meditation, but from that super- 
natural light and love obtained in 
contemplative prayer and union with 
God. For this reason, the apostolic 
life is not less than or a derogation 
from the contemplative life. It is, 

Father Ignatius McElIigott, C.P., an ex- 
perienced missionary of St. Joseph's Prov- 
ince, England, has written articles before 
for The Passionist. Father taught Dogmatic 
Theology for a number of years. 

indeed, itself the highest form of 
the contemplative life, for it not only 
contains within itself the whole un- 
diminished perfection of contempla- 
tion, but adds the fullest effect of 
contemplative union with God— the 
bearing of fruit in the souls of others 
ex superahundantia contemplationis. 
The apostolic life is, as Passerini puts 
it, the contemplative life "intra et ex- 
tra jructificans, seu nondum contem- 
planti jructificans sed etiam proximo" 
(Pass. III. q. 188 a. 2 n. 18). That 
is what St. Thomas means when he 
says that the apostolic life "presup- 
poses an abundance of contempla- 
tion" and describes it as "contem- 
plari et contemplata aliis traders" 
(S.T. III. q. 40 a. 1 ad 1, & II.II. q. 
188 a.6). An Institute which is or- 
dered to such a life is, therefore, es- 
sentially and principally a contem- 
plative state, and that excellentis- 
simo modo, for it is "active" only by 
reason of the perfection or super- 
abundance of contemplation (v. Pass. 
Loc. cit.). 

THIS IS a vital principle for the 
Passionist. It is in this sense that 
our Congregation is an Apostolic In- 
stitute, for it is ordered to the spe- 
cific end of that apostolate implied 
in the content of our Fourth Vow. 
The mere preaching of the Passion, 
therefore, is not necessarily a pas- 
sionist activity as such. It is pas- 
sionist activity only when and in 
the measure that it flows from Pas- 
sionist contemplative prayer as from 
its cause. That Passionist contempla- 
tive prayer-life means the contem- 
plation of the Passion which termi- 
nates in love, which in its turn pro- 
duces union, identification with the 
object loved. Passionist contempla- 
tive prayer-life, therefore, is ordained 
to the effecting in each individual 
Passionist of a personal and vital 
union in knowledge and love with 
Jesus Crucified, and that necessarily 
includes a total identification also 
with the redemptive purpose of His 
Sufferings. Our Apostolate, then, is 
but the effect of our identification 
with the Passion, for it is from this 
that our activity flows. The Passion 
is "the thing contemplated" and it 
is this we are called to "hand on to 
others" in the Passion-Apostolate. 
We are to hand on our own per- 


The Passionist 

sonal knowledge and love of the 
Crucified so as to reproduce that 
knowledge and love in the hearts of 
the Faithful and thus make effective 
in the souls of others the Work of 
the Cross with which we are identi- 
fied, which we make our own in 
contemplation. In this way we are 
to continue and make effective the 
Redemptive Action of Christ and 
thus become, in a special way, co- 
redeemers with Him. 

Anything less than this may be 
"preaching the Passion," may there- 
fore be the material fulfillment of 
our Fourth Vow, may even, by God's 
grace, produce beneficial effects in 
the souls of others. But, unless there 
is an intrinsic connection, a true 
causalit) between our contemplative 
life and our active apostolate, so that 
our apostolate is in truth an effect 
o\crflowing from the completeness 
of our identification with the Person 
and the purpose of the Crucified, it 
can hardly be called a passionist 
apostolate in the full sense. 

This total identification with 
Christ Crucified and with the re- 
demptive purpose of His Sufferings 
is, in fact, the heart and essence of 
our vocation. It is the spirit which 
gives unity, direction and meaning 
to our way of life. For, the Spirit of 
an Order is not something vague and 
indefinable. It is a special grace or 
particular form of supernatural char- 
ity given by God to the Founder to 
be transmitted by him to his Insti- 
tute for the purpose of enabling that 
Institute to fulfill its function in the 
Church (v. A.D. II. p. 30). 

True, neither devotion to the Pas- 
sion nor the preaching of the Pas- 
sion is something new in the Church, 
and as such could not constitute a 
particular religious spirit. But that 
unique dedication to the Passion 
which distinguishes the sanctity of 
St. Paul of the Cross is a new form 
of Passion-devotion, a "particular 
form of supernatural charity" which 
makes St. Paul of the Cross pre 
eminently the Mystic and the Apostle 
of the Passion. Villiers sums this up 
when he says: "There is a reality of 
a higher order that dominates at one 
and the same time both the apostolic 
work of St. Paul of the Cross and 
his contemplative spirit. This funda- 
mental cause is his attitude with re- 

JuNE 1, 1957 

gard to the Passion of our Lord. It 
is the burning love which he has for 
the Sufferings of the Savior which 
gives particular color both to his 
contemplation and his action" (Vil.). 

And what is more, St. Paul of the 
Cross was raised up by God and 
divinely inspired to "institutionalise" 
this very vocation. Precisely because 
this special grace or spirit given to 
St. Paul of the Cross was bestowed 
upon him in view of his role as a 
Founder and is therefore to be per- 
petuated, it had to be incarnated or 
embodied in an organized and or- 
ganic way of life, for only thus could 
it become the permanent feature in 
the life of the Mystical Body which 
God intended it should become. This 
embodiment was accomplished by St. 
Paul of the Cross under divine guid- 
ance in the writing of our Holy Rule 
to enshrine and give expression to 
his spirit. And thus our Congrega- 
tion was born. It exists as a moral 
person within the Church to perpet- 
uate the special grace of the Founder 
and to reproduce his spirit in his 

Our Congregation, then, as an or- 
ganized form of Religious Life in 
the Church, is designed precisely to 
produce in each successive generation 
Apostles of the Passion— men who 
will not only be available for the as- 
signed task of preaching the Pas- 
sion, but who will be, through the 
living of the whole Passionist life, 
molded and formed interiorly for 
that work. The Passionist is to be so 
penetrated with the Mystery and the 
Message of the Cross that it will be 
evident in what he is no less than 
in what he preaches. 

THIS sublime Passion - Apostolate 
which is the particular purpose 
of our Institute is made the subject- 
matter of that fourth and special vow 
which above all else distinguishes us 
as a Religious Family in the Church 
—"to promote devotion to the Passion 
in the hearts of the Faithful." That 
is our raison d'etre in the Church. 
It is, in fact, the sole reason men- 
tioned in the Bull "Siiprevii Aposoto- 
latns" for which the Church canoni- 
cally established our Congregation. 
The Fourth Vow, therefore, is no 
mere juridical element in our lives. 
Bv it each individual Passionist 

makes the purpose of the Congre- 
gation peculiarly and personally his 
own by the personal consecration 
and dedication of a public and sol- 
emn promise. The preaching of the 
Passion to which the vow binds us 
is not merely an extrinsic task im- 
jiosed on us, as it were, from out- 
side; our particular apostolate arises 
from the very nature of our way of 
life and specifies the particular form 
in and through which we are to 
seek perfection, namely in and 
through the contemplative life intra 
et extra fructificans. 

But this specification goes even 
deeper. Our Apostolate is to pro- 
mote in the hearts of the Faithful the 
remembrance of the one basic, cen- 
tral and pivotal Mystery, of our 
Faith and in so doing to convert 
sinners and to save souls by putting 
them into contact, as it were, with 
Christ's redemptive Sufferings. The 
eminent cause from which this Apos- 
tolate proceeds is our own contem- 
plative union with the Passion of 
our Lord. The Sufferings and Death 
of Christ, therefore, in all their re- 
demptive value must form the domi- 
nant element of our contemplation 
and must enter predominantly into 
and color the whole of our interior 

This has far-reaching and ines- 
capable consequences in determining 
the particular manifestations or ex- 
pressions of our essential spirit of 
identification with the Person and 
the purpose of the Crucified. In the 
first place, our Congregation must 
be grounded on a spirit of prayer, 
because that is the necessary and in- 
dispensible means of personal union 
with the Suffering Christ, wTth 
Christ the Redeemer, to the effecting 
of our personal salvation and sancti- 
fication through the Redemptive Ac- 
tion of Christ. Hence the insistence 
in our 1 loly Rule of jiours of mental 
prayer; hence, too, the choral reci- 
tation of the Divine Office as "one 
of the principal parts of our Ob- 
servance (Regs. n. 9)." 

Similarly, our Congregation must 
be essentially a Penitential Institute, 
and that in no ordinary degree, for 
\ icarious suffering lor souls is an 
inevitable consequence ol our iden- 
tification with the Work of the Cross. 
Indeed, in the spiritual teaching of 


St. Paul of the Cross, contemplation 
is primarily the prayer of compas- 
sion, leading directly to union and 
conformity with— to some extent even 
physical resemblance to— Christ in 
His Passion, in order that we may 
"make our own," as our Holy 
Founder expresses it," the Suffer- 
ings of the Beloved." Through such 
contemplation the Mind of Christ is 
formed in us so that we have the 
same redemptive intention as Christ 
on the Cross. Hence the prominence 
given in our Holy Rule to disci- 
plines, fasts, midnight rising and 
other penitential exercises. 

Allied to the whole idea of pen- 
ance and reparation is the spirit of 
rigorous poverty which our Holy 
Founder makes "the standard under 
which the whole Congregation fights 
(H.R. n. 93)." The Passionist's iden- 
tification with Christ in His Suffer- 
ings is to find vivid expression in 
that effective and real poverty which 
characterizes the material standard 
of his life. Moreover, our poverty is 
not only personal but institutional, 
so that even as a corporate body we 
cannot possess any certain or fixed 
incomes, but are dependent on the 
alms of the Faithful. 

To safeguard the spirit of prayer 
and penance and to facilitate the 
contemplative spiritual formation of 
the Passionist Apostle certain well- 
defined material elements or condi- 
tions are necessary. And chief 
amongst these is a profound solitude. 
This too our Floly Founder insists on 
as a necessary part of the organized 
Passionist life and makes it an es- 
sential condition of our retreats, so 
that "the devout brethren after their 
apostolic labors . . . may withdraw 
from the society of men and the 
noise of the world to devote them- 
selves in solitude to their own spir- 
itual advancement to prayer, fasting 
and other pious exercises by which 
they may be more and more inflamed 
with divine love" (H.R. n. 10). 

These, then, are the necessary 
notes or characteristics of our way 
of life. Like the essential spirit from 
which they flow and which they ex- 
press, they are indispensable and un- 
changeable. "I impress upon all Su- 
periors," said our Holy Founder, "to 
preserve in the Congregation the 
spirit of prayer, the spirit of poverty 


and the spirit of solitude. If this 
spirit remains, the Congregation will 
shine resplendent in the sight of 
God and men. Filled with this three- 
fold spirit, let my sons go forth to 
win the hearts of the Faithful to a 
love and remembrance of the Passion 
of our Lord and the Sorrows of His 
Mother by conducting those pious 
exercises proper to the Congrega- 
tion." Prayer, poverty, penance, soli- 
tude and preaching are indeed to be 
found as elements in many Religious 
Institutes besides our own, but in 
the Passionist Rule these traditional 
and common means of Christian per- 
fection are organically arranged in a 
new way to constitute a new Re- 
ligious Family, a new Spirituality, in 
the Church. 

THIS distinctive Passionist way of 
perfection was not to be merely 
a temporary or local phenomenon in 
the Church. In God's design, the 
Passionist life, as an integral part of 
the Mystical Body, is to be universal 
in time and place, and it was insti- 
tutionalized in our Congregation so 
that this universalization might be 
realized. The embodiment of the 
Passionist way of life in a Religious 
Family ensures its continuance in 
time, and, as a living organism within 
the Church, the Institute is capable 
of growth and development to the 
scale of the world. But, because our 
Congregation is part of the Church, 
the form of its growth and develop- 
ment is dictated by the Will of the 
Church. And the Church has ruled 
that the spread of our Congregation, 
like that of all modern Institutes, 
should take the form of the estab- 
lishment of Provinces. 

Canon 488 define? a Province as 
the union of a number of religious 
houses under one Superior and con- 
stituting part of the one Religious In- 
stitute. A Province, therefore, is a 
unit or cell of the whole Institute 
and becomes a moral person in its 
own right in the Church. As such, 
a Province should have within itself, 
not only that completeness which 
makes it a self-supporting and self- 
sufficient unit, but also tlie means to 
ensure its own existence and con- 
tinuance. This implies that it must 
have its own means of support, its 
own intake of vocations and its own 

facilities for training and forming 
its members in that particular way 
of perfection which is proper to the 

In each Religious Institute these 
essential requirements of a Province 
are specified and qualified by the 
particular end and Spirit of the Or- 
der and its particular form of the 
Religious Life. The Passionist form 
of Religious Life is apostolic, i.e., 
ours is a contemplative life intra et 
extra fructificans; the particular end 
of our Institute is to preach the Pas- 
sion; the Spirit of our Congregation 
is one of total identification with the 
Person and the purpose of the Cru- 
cified expressed in a life of solitude, 
prayer, poverty, penance and preach- 
ing. It is solely in the light of these 
fundamental principles that the spe- 
cific requirements of a passionist 
province can be determined. 

In the first place, the means of its 
own support which a Passionist Prov- 
ince must have are dictated by that 
spirit of rigorous poverty which is 
ours. Our Congregation is, by its 
Constitutions, a mendicant Institute 
and therefore our support cannot 
come from permanent property or 
fixed incomes, but is dependent on 
the charity of the Faithful (cf. H.R. 
n. 93). In the light of that principle 
it must be the care of each Province 
to develop within its own territory 
the quest, an organization of bene- 
factors and those lawful stipends 
from the sacred ministry, all of which 
constitute the legitimate means of 
Passionist support (v. J.P. n. 329). 
For a Province to rely permanently 
for its support on other financial 
sources is to court the danger of that 
confusion and decadence of holy 
discipline which our Holy Founder 
has warned us must follow if our 
poverty is not preserved in its "vi- 
gour and integrity" (H. R. n. 111). 

Secondly, the type of aspirant to 
be accepted by a Province is dic- 
tated by our apostolic vocation. Those 
who would join our Congregation 
must have an attraction to and an 
aptitude for our particular form of 
Passionist contemplative life; that de- 
sire for contemplation must go hand 
in hand with missionary zeal for 
the salvation of souls; the demands 
of a penitential life call for normal 
good health and a sound constitution 

The Passionist 

in the aspirant; and the efficient 
exercise of the Passionist Apostolate 
in the modern world demands a rea- 
sonably high standard of intellectual 
ability. But, above all, the aspirant 
must be prepared to dedicate himself 
wholly and unselfishly to sanctity 
by living the Passion in his own life. 
Hence, the Holy Rule prescribes 
that, generally speaking, "youths only 
shall be received into the Congre- 
gation ... for these more easily . . . 
accomodate themselves to the cus- 
toms of the Institute and are formed 
according to the prescriptions of our 
Constitutions and Rule (H.R. n. 
26)." In describing the preliminaires 
to be observed before anyone is ad- 
mitted into the Congregation, our 
Holy Rule emphasizes the spirit of 
penance and willingness to suffer 
which the aspirant must evince 
(H.R. n. 11), and much of the novi- 
tiate training is designed to prove 
the presence of that spirit, so that 
"it may be clearly known whether 
he be dead to himself and to the 
world to live only in God and for 
God, willingly hiding his life in 
Christ, who for our sake chose to 
become the reproach of men and 
the outcast of the people (H.R. n. 
32)." And finally, the liturgy of our 
clothing ceremony portrays vividly 
to the young novice, crowned with 
thorns and bearing a cross, the spirit 
that must be his— that spirit of total 
surrender and dedication to the Mys- 
tery of the Cross. 

I I IS the function of a Proxince to 
develop and form these young re- 
ligious to the full maturity of Pas- 
sionist life, and hence the third re- 
quirement of a Province: that it 
ha\c within itself the means of 
achiexing this purpose, of producing, 
that is, men formed and moulded in 
that Passionist contemplatixe life 
which ol its nature must issue in 
the ajiostolate of "preaching to the 
world both the ignominies and the 
glory of the Cross. " The training of 
a Passionist is simply the transmitting 
to succeeding generations of the ful- 
ness of the Passionist life and spirit, 
the formation ol a man's whole spir- 
itual life and character and person- 
alit\ to what may be described as 
'the Passionist character and per- 
sonality." And this is achieved, not 

merely by an academic training, but 
by the day-to-day experience of liv- 
ing the Passionist life in its own 
proper environment and under the 
influence and example of other, ma- 
ture and formed Passionists. 

At the very minimum the neces- 
sity of this training demands that a 
Province have houses of formation, 
i.e., a novitiate and house of studies, 
and indeed such a minimum is pre- 
scribed by the Code for all Religious 
Institutes (Cc. 554, 587). But again, 
the nature of these houses and their 
regime are specified by the purpose 
and spirit of each particular Insti- 
tute, and for us that qualification 
means houses where our full monas-- 
tic, liturgical Observance is properly 
carried out and from which flows a 
vigorous and complete Passionist 

The proper fulfillment of this two- 
fold condition dictates, in the first 
place, the locality in which our 
houses are situated. They must be 
in a sufficiently remote place to en- 
sure that measure of solitude which 
the Holy Rule prescribes and which 
is characteristic of the Spirit of our 
Congregation. "The houses shall be 
built in remote places so that the 
devout brethren after their apostolic 
labors may withdraw far from the 
society of men ... to devote them- 
selves in solitude to their own spir- 
itual advancement (H.R. n. 10, cp. 
n. 5)." At the same time, while pre- 
serving that necessary solitude, our 
Retreats must be so located as to be 
accessible to a sufficiendy developed 
Catholic population so that our pro- 
per missionary apostolate may be ef- 
fectively exercised. What the nature 
of our way of life demands in our 
Retreats is, therefore, a relative soli- 
tude (v. J. P. n. 70). Because our 
way of life, both inside and outside 
the monastery, is a strenuous one 
prudence dictates that the location 
of our Retreats should be conducive 
to health, and on this point our Holy 
Founder was himself consistently 
adamant, lixcn the general style of 
building suitable for our Retreats 
can be deduced from our particular 
wav of life and is indicated in our 
Holy Rule (H.R. nn. 8-10). Our 
houses should be so constructed as 
to engender a truely monastic at 
mosphere, to facilitate our regular 

Observance and to express our spirit 
of penance and poverty. In a word: 
"The whole building and its ap- 
purtenances shall suggest poverty 
and religious decorum (H.R. n. 9, 
cp. Chpt. XIV & J.P. n. 68)." 

But, the location and style of our 
Retreats constitute only the physi- 
cal or material setting in which the 
formation of our religious can be 
most suitably achieved. Equally im- 
portant is the psychological factor of 
the impact and influence of the liv- 
ing community. If the professed 
communities in the houses of forma- 
tion are so small that the onus of 
the Regular Observance must be left 
largely on the novices and students 
while the priests are engaged on the 
active ministry, a situation is created 
in which it is all too easy to lose 
sight of the causal connection be- 
tween comtemplation and activity 
which is of the essence of our life. 
Hence, that the novitiate and houses 
of study may effectively contribute 
to the right formation of our young 
religious, they must be staffed by 
professed communities sufficiently 
large to guarantee that at all times 
our full monastic and liturgical Ob- 
servance will be adequately kept 
while at the same time a full and 
vigorous missionary apostolate is exer- 
cised by the community. It is in liv- 
ing in such a community that our 
young religious are given the sense 
and appreciation of the unity of our 
life and the wholeness of our voca- 
tion. The Code itself insists on the 
importance of the community in the 
houses of formation in that it pre- 
scribes that Superiors must station 
in the novitiate and houses of studies 
only those religious who are exem- 
plary in the regular Observance (C. 
554/3), and forbids the promotion of 
students to I loly Orders if the jicrfect 
common life is not followed in the 
studenate (C. 587/2). 

It is, of course, self-evident that 
those members of the community 
directly concerned with the training 
and education of noxices and stu- 
dents must have those special abili- 
ties necessary to the fulfillment of 
their important office. 1 lence the 
necessity in any Proxince of mature 
and experienced spiritual directors 
xvho are trained in ascetical and 
(Catitinued on x>age 254) 

June 1, 1957 


Promoting Devotion U the Passion 

IN THE many and varied forms of 
our Apostolate it is not always 
easy to see where and how our 
Fourth Vow operates to give our 
ministry its distinctive Passionist 
character. It will be helpful there- 
fore to discuss the question: what 
precisely do we aim to do in promot- 
ing devotion to the Sacred Passion, 
and how does this aim unify all our 
activities to make them truly Pas- 

It is hardly necessary to state here 
that the work of promoting devotion 
to the Sacred Passion is not just one 
of our many activities— a part, even 
an integral part, as it were, of our 
Apostolate. It is, of course, the rea- 
son for our existence as a distinct 
religious body in the Church. The 
Bull "Supremi Apostolatus," in 
formally establishing our Congrega- 
tion, describes us as those "Who by 
their preaching and example en- 
deavour to rouse and inflame all 
Christian people to partake of the 
sufferings of Christ" (No. 3). Our 
very habit and name make this ob- 
ject so evident that the concise Ox- 
ford Dictionary recognizes the word 
"Passionist" and accurately explains 
it as: a member of an order pledged 
to do their utmost to keep alive the 
memory of Christ's Passion. 

A description, however, is not a 
definition, and when it comes to de- 
fining what precisely we are pledged 
to do, and how this gives unity and 
character to all the forms of our min- 
istry, one is conscious that while a 
clear definition of our Apostolate 
must greatly promote its vitality, any 
confusion must weaken it, and any 
error kill it. 

The elements of a definition of 
our distinctive Apostolate can be 
gathered from the 3rd and 4th 
paragraphs of our Holy Rule, and 
stated thus: to instruct and induce 
all peoples to practice religious medi- 
tation on the Passion as a means to 


The work of promoting devotion to the Passion 

is the reason for our existence as 

a distinct religious body in the Church. 

by Augustine Lane, C.P. 

withdraw them from sin, and lead 
them on to Christian perfection. 

There are three elements in this 
definition : 

( 1 ) The purpose of our work : the 
sanctification of our hearers, by their 
withdrawing from sin and their de- 
votion to the service of God. 

(2) The object of our work: the 
practice of religious meditation on 
the Passion by our hearers. 

(3) The means to reach this ob- 
ject, and achieve this purpose: in- 
struction and exhortation. 

As the various practical problems 
that arise in our ministry should be 
approached in the light of these es- 
sential elements, let us consider them 
more fully. 

(1) The Purpose or end we have 
in view need not detain us because 
it is common to every form of the 
Christian ministry, namely, the 
sanctification of our neighbor. 

(2) The Object of our distinctive 
work must be stated clearly. It is 
our audience's prayerful contempla- 
tion of Christ Crucified, or, in the 
words of the Holy Rule, the "re- 
ligious meditation" (Latin text), the 
"devout meditation" (English text) 
of the Sacred Passion by our hearers. 
Our object is therefore something 
more than the knowledge of Christ's 
Passion imparted to our hearers; 
more even than the feelings of com- 
passion that such knowledge might 
arouse; more even than their adopt- 
ing an external form of devotional 
exercise commemorating the Passion. 
It is, in short, a simple but definite 
form of mental prayer which has as 

its basis the remembrance of our 
Saviour's Passion. "Preaching the 
Passion" is an expression that can 
have many meanings; for our min- 
istry it means arousing in our hearers 
the spirit of prayerful contemplation 
of Christ in His Passion. 

(3) The Means prescribed by our 
Holy Rule to reach this object are 
twofold, namely, instruction and ex- 
hortation. It is this, surely, that 
makes our Apostolate unique. As is 
well known, Canon Law (can. 1347 
No. 2) requires all preachers to 
"preach Christ Crucified." What, 
then, makes our preaching so dif- 
ferent? May it not be stated thus: 
the highest form of apostolic activity 
is to give to others the fruit of one's 
own contemplation, but the Pas- 
sionist does this in a way that is 
supremely unique. Not only does he 
share with his hearers the fruits of 
his contemplation, he actually com- 
municates his own prayer-life to 
them. He teaches them the art of 
making the Passion of Our Lord the 
great spiritual motive of their lives 
as it is of his own. If the supreme 
form of the Apostolate is to com- 
municate to others the fruits of one's 
own contemplation, surely ours is a 
unique function in the Church to 
turn these fruits into "seeds of con- 
templation" in the lives of all peoples, 
no matter what their social, mental 
or spiritual condition may be. As 
our Holy Rule says (No. 3): "Since 
one of the chief objects of our Con- 
gregation is not only to devote our- 
selves to prayer, that we may be 
united to God by charity, but also 

The Passionist 

to lead others to the same end, in- 
structing them in the best and easiest 
manner possible; therefore those 
members who may be considered fit 
for so great a work should, during 
apostolic missions and other pious 
exercises, teach the people by word 
of mouth to meditate devoutly on 
the Mysteries, sufferings and Death 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, from 
Whom, as from a fountain, all our 
good proceeds." 

THE means just described as es- 
sential to our distinctive Aposto- 
late cannot be effective without that 
special form of procedure which is 
the method prescribed by your Holy 
Rule. This method is so much part 
of our religious life that it has come 
down to us with the rest of our 
spiritual inheritance from our Holy 
Founder himself. It is not only pre- 
scribed by the Holy Rule, it is also 
subject to special legislation, as we 
see in our Regulations, and to more 
precise determination by the Direc- 
tory of each Province. This method 
comes under the obligation of our 
Fourth Vow, for we vow to promote 
devotion to the Sacred Passion in 
accordance with the Holy Rule. "As 
in other laws," wrote Most Rev. 
Archbishop Kierkels when General 
of the Congregation (1926), "we 
must consider the spirit and letter of 
the vow by which we are bound 
as by a law. The literal observance 
of the vow is certainly regulated in 
c. XVI of our Rule where it is clear- 
ly indicated what we are bound to 
by this vow. What is ordered by 
either a law or a vow must be gath- 
ered from the force of the words. 
They who devote themselves to giv- 
ing missions and hearing confessions 
should understand this correctly; nor 
should they belie\'e that the above- 
mentioned Chapter is not of precept, 
but directive only, which would be 
completely foreign to the norm to 
be followed in the right interpreta- 
tion and explanation of vows." 

As our Regulations declare (No. 
187), our Superiors are responsible 
for safeguarding our distinctive Mis- 
sionary Method. At the same time, 
if we are to exercise a vigorous apos- 
tolate and keep abreast of the times 
and the needs of the people; if, in 
the wise words of the I lolv Rule, we 

are to act "with prudence and assi- 
duity," according to the circum- 
stances of time and place," we must 
know when we may adapt what is 
accidental and variable in our 
method, while preserving what is 
essential and indispensable. 

This distinction is authorized by 
our Regulations, which state (No. 
187) that "though on account of 
local circumstances some of the cus- 
tomary practices may be omitted, it 
shall never be lawful for any of our 
missionaries to depart from the sub- 
stance of the method prescribed." 
What, then, we may ask, is of the 
substance of our method, and what 
is accidental and variable? 

What is absolutely necessary and 
indispensable to our method is, in 
the words of the Holy Rule, "to 
teach the people to meditate on the 
Sacred Passion." The Holy Rule 
prescribes two ways of doing this 
on our Missions, namely: (I) 
Preaching the Meditation on the 
Passion, and (2) giving the "Mo- 
tive of the Passion." 

THE Meditation on the Pasion 
is more than a discourse; in it 
we actually meditate with the people. 
We enter into their lives with all 
their problems and difficulties so that 
through our mind and heart they 
meditate on the Passion. The prayer- 
ful character of this service was per- 
haps better emphasized by the form- 
er practice of prefixing the "acts of 
the Presence of God" to the Medita- 
tion on the Passion than by the 
shorter prayers to the Floly Ghost, 
to our Lady and our own Saints 
which we say today. As teachers of 
"devout meditation on the Passion" 
we thus familiarize our hearers with 
the Sufferings of our Blessed Lord, 
and give them an actual demonstra- 
tion of what it means to meditate 
on the Passion. 

But this is not enough. The Holy 
Rule says we must "spare no pains 
to render this meditation very fre- 
quent and lasting" (No. 128). 

Father Augustine Lane. C.P., Master o£ 
Novices of St. Joseph's F'rovince. England, 
and former Provincial, has had a great 
deal of experience in mission and retreat 
work in England and Wales. Father has 
done out-door preaching and lecturing to 
non-Catholics for the Catholic Evidence 
Guild in Hyde Park. London and other 
cities. He received his doctorate in Phi- 
losophy while in Rome. 

Therefore it obliges us to give the 
necessary instruction to our hearers. 
"Let them briefly and clearly give 
rules for meditating upon these 
great Mysteries with piety and 
fruit" (ibid). Illiterate and unedu- 
cated persons are the special concern 
of the Holy Rule. We are obliged 
to instruct them according to their 
capacity. "Let them use a method of 
instruction that is easy, simple and 
fitted to such kind of men. Let them 
exhort them to suffer something each 
day for Jesus Christ; let them put 
before them the need of this prac- 
tice, teach them its merit, set forth 
the greatness of the reward, explain 
away and remove difficulties" (No. 
129). It is with this object in view 
that we are to teach them ejacula- 
tory prayers: "Let them suggest brief 
reflections which may enable them to 
gain the same end by pious extem- 
poraneous affections, or what are 
called ejaculations" (No. 128). No 
matter what the mental or spiritual 
condition of our hearers may be, we 
are bound to teach all how to make 
the Passion of Christ the great mo- 
tive of their service of God, and we 
must rouse and inflame them to do 

If c. XVI of our Holy Rule tells 
us what elements are indispensable 
to our method, we find in c. XXIV 
many elements which are necessary 
by precept. Such are, for example, 
the duty of the Missioner to visit 
difficult cases "to remove obstinate 
hindrances and difficulties with 
patient charity, and not once, but a 
second and a third time to return 
to work, till he succeeds" (No. 202); 
the duty of the Superior of the Mis- 
sion "frequently to hold consulta- 
tions on what has to be done" (No. 
207); and the prohibition of com- 
plaining or upbraiding if the people 
do not respond to our efforts (No. 
213). Similarly the Regulations im- 
pose the duty on the Superior of 
the Mission to give timely notice to 
the Parish Priest so that he may have 
the jilatform prepared and cver\ thing 
else that is necessary (No. 197); so 
also they declare the obligation of 
preaching the Eternal Truths and of 
giving the Instructions on Confes- 
sion and Holy Communion, and— 
what is distinctively Passionist— the 
duty of preserving the spirit of dis- 

luNE 1, 1957 


interestedness in regard to our per- 
sonal comfort and the remuneration 
received (No. 203). 

UNDER the heading of non-essen- 
tial and variable elements are, 
for instance, the order of the medita- 
tions and sermons given on retreats 
(Reg. No. 208); the question wheth- 
er in the evening service of the Mis- 
sion the Meditation on the Passion 
should be a discourse distinct from 
the Sermon (Reg. No. 200); and the 
different ways of treating the Pas- 
sion as a subject of meditation. 

The distinction made by our Reg- 
ulations between what is of the sub- 
stance of our method and what is 
not, preserves a necessary sense of 
proportion, and helps to avoid the 
danger of neglecting serious duties 
while observing what, though neces- 
sary, are but secondary. 

That this danger is a real one ap- 
pears from the fact that we have a 
Provincial Chapter Decree remind- 
ing our Missioners of their duty to 
teach the people how to meditate on 
the Sacred Passion. Some have even 
said that this does not concern the 
average Mission congregation in this 
country, and the duty is fulfilled by 
teaching them the ejaculations. So 
serious a duty of our fourth Vow 
may not be so lightly dismissed. Such 
generalizations fail to see that while 
the majority in a slum parish in a 
great city may have neither time nor 
ability, nor need for sustained reflec- 
tion, there are parishes where the 
majority have not only education and 
leisure, but perhaps a real need to 
meditate on the Mysteries of the Pas- 
sion and its bearing on their lives. 
With universal education today we 
cannot lightly assume a degree of 
illiteracy or lack of culture compara- 
ble to that of rural Italy in the 18th 

This duty requires on our part: 
(1) that our Meditation have a prac- 
tical character, and (2) that we use 
suitable means to enable our audi- 
ence to make these meditations them- 

The practical character of the 
Meditation demands that we under- 
stand the general social and moral 
condition of the people, and the spir- 
itual influences to which they are 
subject. If over a century ago St. 


Vincent Strambi advised: "Do j'our 
best to make known who Jesus 
Christ is, a thing often forgotten 
even by Christian people," how 
much more necessary this is today, 
when our people are influenced by 
a culture that has rejected the Divin- 
ity of our Lord. 

The practical character of the 
Meditation will also determine how 
the Passion is to be treated as a sub- 
ject of meditation. St. Vincerit 
Strambi enumerates three ways of 
doing this: 

(a) Take a virtue from the ex- 
ample of our Savior in His Passion, 
and meditate on it so as to come to 
appropriate practical resolutions. 

(b) Take as the theme of medita- 
tion a cause of the Sacred Passion, 
e.g. the Justice of God and His 
hatred of sin seen in the price of 
suffering paid by our Saviour. 

(c) Divide the whole Passion into 
scenes, and in each make appropriate 
reflections; arouse suitable affections 
of the will, and lead on to practical 

St. Vincent gives preference to 
this third method, as being less stud- 
ied than the others, and having more 
of the character of meditation. Fr. 
Stanislaus Grennan somewhat mod- 
ifies the Saint's judgment for the 
sake of the practical advantages of 
the other two methods. With us, 
generally, we seem to combine all 
three, dividing the Passion into 
scenes, but meditating rather on the 
virtue to be imitated, or contemplat- 
ing the mystery of God's love and 
mercy involved in the scene. Here 
also arises the pertinent question: 
how far are character studies from 
the Passion to be considered as suit- 
able for meditations on the Passion? 
Where the character is considered 
only to emphasize the sufferings of 
our Lord, as for instance St. Peter 
denying our Lord, this, of course, 
can be an excellent meditation on 
the Passion. But where the Passion 
is only a circumstance, and the medi- 
tation is on the character itself, this 
could be excellent material for an- 
other sermon, but is not a medita- 
tion on the Passion. 


RiEF, simple rules on how to 
meditate' can easily be given in 

the morning meditation on the Pas- 
sion, and the people exhorted to 
practice the exercise by themselves. 
At the evening service this is not pos- 
sible, and the Missioner has to be 
content with a simple thought to 
help the people recall the Passion 
from time to time — this is usually 
linked up with the . customary ejacu- 
lations. The Five Wound Beads and 
the Stations of the Cross are means 
suitable to all, and are all the more 
appreciated when they are showoi as 
means designed to help the people 
to meditate on the Passion. It is note- 
worthy how Archbishop Kierkels 
gave special praise to our Mission- 
ers in America who, he said, were so 
zealous to promote devotion to the 
Passion by the Stations of the Cross 
that, from the number of persons 
devoted to that exercise, it was easy 
to recognize the parishes in which 
the Passionists had given Missions. 
In conclusion it may be asked: 
does the present arrangement of our 
Mission services give us the best op- 
portunity for fulfilling our fourth 
Vow? That there are very real diffi- 
culties is only too obvious, and it is 
also true that they occasion some 
anxiety with regard to fulfilling our 
vow. In the morning services it is 
obviously easy not only to present 
the Passion to the people, but to 
give them a variety of means for 
meditating on it by themselves. The 
difficulty is, of course, that in these 
services we do not reach the greater 
part of the people who need them 
most. In the evening Mission service 
we no longer have the Meditation 
on the Passion as a separate dis- 
course, and the subject matter of 
the sermon plus the limitation of 
time makes it extremely difficult, and 
at times impossible, to incorporate 
the Meditation in the sermon. Apart 
from the sermon on the Passion and 
that on the Mercy of God, which 
may be considered a meditation on 
the Passion, the Missioner is left 
with only the two or three minutes 
for the Motive of the Passion. This 
interval seems disproportionately 
short for so serious a duty, and while 
the Missioner may be satisfied with 
the immediate effects of this exer- 
cise on his audience, he may well 
be dissatisfied with his inability to 
(Continued on page 258) 

The Passionist 


by Edwin Ronan, C.P. 

The day will come, and soon. 

when sated souls will turn from 

their frivolities and seek out the 

old style mission in preference 

to a watered down substitute. 

I SEE no occasion for alarm nor un- 
due criticism of our missionaries 
by reason of the comparatively small 
attendance at our missions. The 25 
jTcr cent turnout is quite the norm 
in the average city parish. That goes 
for all missions by whomsoever con- 
ducted. Excuses and alibis offered 
seem to obtain all over the country: 
the secularist times, the fast pace of 
modern life, a busy people trying to 
crowd spare moments with as much 
relaxation as possible by way of dis- 
tracting entertainment both at home 
and abroad, a less serious minded- 
ness, a more serious lack of mental 
effort, a subordination of spiritual 
interests to an ever mounting occu- 
pation with the good things of sense- 
life. A general field day it is, for the 
World, the Flesh, and the Devil! It 
is not a pleasing picture. The zeal- 
ous missionary feels that he has a 
.solution if only they will attend his 
preaching. Since so very, very many 
do not, he may incline to self-accu 
sation. "What is wrong with mc?" 
Very probably there is nothing wrong 
with him. 

At times we hear the words: "It 
is not unusual to find that a parish 

June 1, 1957 

which will fill the church six or 
eight times on Sunday morning can- 
not fill the church for an evening 
mission service." I might add, neither 
does that same concourse of people 
fill the church for an evening Bene- 
diction, nor a 40 Hours, nor a No- 
vena, nor a lenten course, nor for 
anything else within the purview of 
voluntary worship. Without being 
caustic, one might pose the ques- 
tion: How many of those filling the 
church on Sunday morning are there 
solely by reason of a siih grave ob- 
ligation? Holy Mass remains the su- 
preme act of worship whenever of- 
fered. And, yet again, with all this 
edifying outpouring of worshippers 
on a Sunday morning, we are in- 
formed by reputable computers, such 
as Father Fichter, S.j. of Loyola Uni- 
versity at New Orleans, that jx^ssi- 
bly not more than .-^5 per cent of 
Catholics attend Mass e\cry Sunday. 
I his should dispose of the unfair 
and irrevelent comparison between 
Sunday Mass and mission attend- 
ance. Just supix)sing we could raise 
the 25 per cent to 50 per cent how 
possibly could we accommodate them 
at e\ening services e\en allowing for 


separation of sexes over a two week 
periodic Statistics are funny things to 
play with. 

%Y / iTHAL, we have httle ground 
W for complacency. There is evi- 
dent need for alertness to seize upon 
whatever device seems effective to 
increase attendance at our missions. 
Ballyhoo, billingsgate, vulgarity of 
any sort, are definitely ruled out. 
Dignity of method and sacredness of 
mission must be ever kept in mind. 
Our Savior used strong language on 
occasion as He dissected the hypo- 
crites and the Fox, but those not 
electing to make a mission are not 
necessarily so classified. Appeals in 
persuasive language kept on courte- 
ous level become the proper ap- 
proach in urging attendance. How 
best to do this in pre-mission pub- 
licity? After half a century of ob- 
servation and active participation in 
missions my impressions, if not con- 
victions, have taken rather definite 
shape. I look with jaundiced eye up- 
on much that is being advocated to- 
day in promotion of mission attend- 
ance. Publicity through leaflets for 
distribution on several Sundays prior 
to mission could easily become so 
much waste paper, no matter how 
well written and buttressed with co- 
gent argument and well interspersed 
with scriptural texts. The will to 
read and the mind to concentrate are 
too often lacking. Consider the Mass- 
delinquents, the fallen - aways, the 
utterly indifferent, all of whom do 
not even meet up with this litera- 
ture. To burden the community with 
this chore would only add to expense 
and, quite likely, become a stereo- 
typed formula imposed upon all 
parishes regardless. 

Judicious and well composed press 
releases supplied to pastors offer, in 
my judgment, the best approach. 
Here we rest our case. It is up to 
them to seek outlets through local 
publications. Catholic and secular. 
How many of the clergy will in- 
convenience themselves to render 
this service? Playing up the individ- 
ual missionary, his oratorical prow- 
ess, his experience, even his phy- 
siognomy, would not be my idea of 
promoting salvation of souls through 
the mission. Pastors do not demand 
facsimiles of Bishop Sheen with his 

histrionic powers and props. What 
should we do with, and how treat 
the young and slightly experienced 
missionary whose ability has not 
been completely tested, whose ex- 
perience lies more in the future, 
even though he be photogenic a la 
John Barrymore? Must we keep him 
home until seasoned (and how can 
this be done), or, be sneaked in 
among the stalwarts as a tolerated 
minor? Pastors, for the most part, 
leave to the judgment of superiors 
the selection of properly qualified 
men. Of course there are differences 
of age, ability, virtue, etc., among 
our eligibles. The prudent choice 
rests with superiors who would see 
to it that one complements the other 
or others, and thus a team may be 
expected to carry through a success- 
ful mission. Reactions awakened by 
our missionaries in both laity and 
clergy would raise many an eyebrow 
were they revealed to us. It could 
well be that men regarded somewhat 
less than tops by our measurements 
are the real "men of God" on mis- 

After all suggestions regarding pro- 
motion and publicity gimmicks have 
been turned in, the hard fact re- 
mains that the pastor and his curates 
are the only ones upon whom we 
may rely for a full and hopeful can- 
vass of their people. And another 
fact of which we are equally cogni- 
zant, is that pastors, for the most part 
are allergic to communications, offi- 
cial or otherwise, particularly when 
they call for studied attention and 

A FIRST need, it seems to me, 
must be to convince local cler- 
gy of their major place and function 
in the conduct of the mission. To 
quote from an article I prepared for 
The Priest in March 1951: "The 
pastor is vital to a successful mission. 
His attitude is reflected in his peo- 
ple. His zeal for their Christian liv- 
ing is an infectuous thing. Its ab- 
sence leaves them unimpressed. Not 
a little of his attitude reacts upon 
the missionaries. It can stimulate 
them to earnest effort realizing that 
permanent good will follow, or, it 
may lay heavily upon their endeav- 
ors because they seem so futile." 

Father Edwin Ronan, C.P., is a member of 
Holy Cross Province and stationed at 
Holy Name Retreat, Houston, Texas. Fa- 
ther Edwin is an experienced missionary 
and retreat master and has written for 
The Passionist in the past. 

An effective plan could be sug- 
gested to reach all his people beyond 
the scope of uninspiring announce- 
ments about mission dates and Order 
of missionaries. The personal contact 
campaign overshadows all circulariz- 
ing by mail or church distribution, 
no matter the power of argument in 
the printed word. Priests and laity 
should lend a hand. A home to home 
visit, preferably by the priests but 
also productive when undertaken by 
laity. Social Service sisters when 
available, Catholic Action groups. 
Legion of Mary, Holy Name, or any 
similar organization, even a special 
committee set up for the purpose, 
could render fruitful service. The 
salesman peddling his wares at the 
frontdoor stands better chance of be- 
ing heard and listened to than flam- 
boyant advertising, or the repetitious 
and boring commercials over radio 
and TV with or without the jingles. 
Teams of dedicated men and women 
sent into a pre-mission drive would 
serve to justify the hope for a size- 
able if not capacity audience. This 
need not take on the proportions of 
a Father Peyton Rosary campaign. 
No one could claim to have been 
overlooked in the search, and all 
would be impressed with the mis- 
sion's importance. 

Frequent recurrence of missions 
rob them of novelty or sense of ex- 
pectancy. And by the same token 
energetic promotion cannot be built 
up and operated enthusiastically too 
often. However, the well card-in- 
dexed parish carries the record of 
chronic Mass-missing members, faul- 
ty marriages, Sunday-Catholics, with 
a large percentage of good Catholics 
whose spiritual energy is not quite 
up to requirements for making a 
mission. All these could be submit- 
ted to personal contact, as well as 
suspects run to ground. 

How well all this is pointed up 
by our Holy Father in his Christ- 
mas message of 1950: "Even in 
those places where the secular and 
religious clergy, aided by the whole- 
hearted collaboration of the laity, 
have quickened Christian life, even 


The Passionist 

there, the number of Christians who 
are spiritually undernourished, ener- 
vated, and vacilating in their faith, 
is such, that the Church in her ma- 
ternal solicitude cannot but be con- 
cerned. To arouse these sons of the 
Church from their easy-going but 
dangerous lethargy is the urgent task 
of the Catholic Apostolate" (italics 

MY FIRST thought here is: let's 
go slowly in reversing, chang- 
ing, adapting, or in any way altering 
our well organized and grace-giving 
method. Already, in our country we 
have witnessed concessions to a slack- 
ened spiritual fervor and to a people 
to whom sacrifice is repellant. The 
very early Mass on week-days, the 
shortening of evening services, are 
examples in point. Illusive optimism 
might advocate a new look in mis- 
sion procedure to the utter loss of 
identity, and still the pews would 
remain empty. 

The new type mission (embracing 
usually the lenten season) advocated 
by the Paulist Father James F. Fin- 
ley, and tailored to meet the needs 
of our changing society (sic), has 
indeed, merit. Particularly when well 
organized and promoted by a zeal- 
ous pastor who knows what he wants 
and goes after it. As normal routine 
to be advanced and striven for in 
large city parishes, will, I fear, fail 
of purpose. Let us remember that 
the Sunday morning congregation is 
a captive audience which viust hear 
the sermon on an eternal truth be- 
cause of obligation to hear Mass. Not 
even in a broad sense may we call at- 
tendance upon the sermon voluntary. 
Test this by having said sermon at 
one or two Masses only and you 
may be sure to find the proverbial 
empty i^evvs. Is not the case similar 
when we open mission at morning 
Mass? During this type of mission, 
usually evening services for special 
groups are held several times. One 
might inquire, as 1 ha\e, as to num- 
ber attending on voluntary basis, and 
suspect the findings will reveal the 
standard 25 per cent, possibly a lit- 
tle better but not much. 

A very high percentage in a nor- 

mal parish will receive Holy Com- 
munion between the first Sunday of 
lent and Easter, with or without the 
prompting of a mission. The point 
at issue is attraction to the mission 
on a voluntary motive. When jug- 
gling figures or quoting statistics, I 
think he is presenting a false claim 
who boasts of a near 100 per cent 
attendance and reception of the Sac- 
raments resulting from such style of 
mission. Sunday Mass would be the 
same regardless, and record of con- 
fessions and Communions would av- 
erage about the same. However, the 
people would be constrained to lis- 
ten to sermons on eternal truths 
either voluntarily or, which is more 
likely, per force. 

Re-styling our missions is not the 
answer nor even one of them, in my 
opinion. I cannot subscribe to the 
curtailed mission idea. It is definitely 
too short. Three or four days have 
come and gone before we realize; 
earnest ones are just getting warmed 
up when all is over; those struggling 
with decision need more time; others 
who by reason o4 circumstances be- 
yond their control cannot come ev- 
ery night could round out a fair mis- 
sion if more nights were available; 
the absent ones who may, per gra- 
tiam Dei, drop in for a week-end of 
it find the mission closed; no oppor- 
tunity given missionary to build up 
attendance by appeal; no proper 
length of time to treat of matters tied 
in with eternal truths, nor to train 
in meditation on the Passion. It 
easily resolves into a short parish 
retreat. And, of course we would 
have to count mostly on the good 
and fervent to make up the bulk of 
audience. Compressing time and in- 
tensifying sermons would ofi^er little 
in promoting quiet reflection and 
meditation. Multum in parvo would 
scarcely benefit here. 

Would shortening of the mission 
"lose nothing as regards essentials?" 
I do wonder. And, is it more spirit- 
ually beneficial "to address 500 for 
four days than 250 for eight days?" 
Is numerical attendance the sole ba- 
sis for judging a fruitful mission? 
Then, first honors should be accord- 
ed Billy Graham. He calls it a re- 
vival, we call it a mission. Note, he 
does not hurry along at rapid pace. 

June 1, 1957 

Perfection of Sunday morning 
talks on opening day is a valu- 
able asset not to be played down. 
But I do not think it the major an- 
swer. Should the preacher have 15 
or 20 minutes at his disposal, what 
with Masses on the hour, numerous 
communions, parish announcements 
(often letters from the Bishop to be 
read at all the Masses), etc., he is 
hard put, and his audience is not 
in receptive mood to absorb the pow- 
er of his thought. I have misgivings 
that the salesmanship of opening 
talks will so captivate the hearers 
that sudden judgment is arrived at 
and promptly followed by resolve to 
make the mission, come what may. 
Sincerity and enthusiasm demon- 
strated by the preacher is not spon- 
taneously caught up by the slow of 
mind and slower of heart in the 
pews. Allowance, too, and much of 
it, must be made for the infiltration 
of grace. The unction of the speaker 
alone, is not enough. Father Finley 
tells us that "despite eloquent per- 
suasion from the pulpit a small per- 
centage of parishioners are willing to 
leave the comforts of home and come 
to the mission." There is something 
rather symbolic in the taking of the 
discipline on the platform by our 
missionaries of the very early days. 

Once the mission is under way, 
repeated entreaty from the platform 
for Apostolic action becomes a must. 
Show the obligation to contact others 
and bring in the needy; tell them 
they are co-missionaries; impress the 
duty of Christian charity so apposite 
right here and now; have them in- 
clude too, the brethren not of the 
fold. Our Savior lo\'es them and 
would have us, all of us, love them. 
Well prepared words, few and point- 
ed would serve this end most effec- 
tively. We have often noticed how 
attendance increases about the sec- 
ond or third evening then levels off 
to stationary. It could be that those 
present carry the good word to others, 
or at least discuss the mission be- 

Thus my contribution to construc- 
tive thinking in the promotion of 
better turn-out at our missions would 
take this form: (1) Devise rather 
concise plans by which a pastor 
would become seriously interested in 
(Continued on page 258) 



St. Paul of the Cross 

Chapter three shows the formation of 
St. Paul's spirit to the ideal of the Passion. 

by Costante Brovetto, C.P. 


p TO now we have examined in- 
troversion in itself— the act of uni- 
tive contemplation of the Passion 
of Christ as it appeared to us con- 
figured in the spirituality of St. Paul 
of the Cross. It is not enough, how- 
ever, to know it speculatively. It is 
not true and total, as we have seen^ 
as long as the spiritual heart, that is, 
the innate appetite for happiness, is 
not de facto tranquil in the actual 
possession of its object. 

Our Saint was made an instrument 
of the Holy Spirit in order to arrive 
at such a realization of the sanctity 
of the Cross and he disposed souls 
for it, knowing well that in the in- 
terior dominion of the radical in- 
clination to happiness. Divine grace 
alone can enlarge and enlighten the 
spiritual heart, until it brings it to 
embrace the sole divine and eternal 
form of happiness." 

It will now be our task to show 
how he led souls from death to sin- 
by which the son of God is reborn 
over the ruins of the sinner— through 
the mystical death, by which the 
soul is joyfully transformed in the 
Paternal crucifying good pleasure, 


rising up again consecrated to the 
Passion, until the last and definitive 
death of love, by which it joyfully 
leaves the mortal remains of its sac- 
rifice—in order to enter triumphantly 
into the Holy of Holies, "having ob- 
tained eternal redemption.""^ 

It seemed to us to reflect the same 
psychological truth of life, describ- 
ing first the interior assimilation of 
the ideal of union with the Cross; 
and then the crucified and dying life 
that is the expression of it: a life 
already inchoately blessed and which 
will finally open, in a joyous vigil, 
upon eternity."* It is clear that to a 
certain extent the two phases inter- 
penetrate each other in real life. We 
have distinguished them for the sake 
of explanation — reserving the next 
chapter for the exterior effects, so 
to speak, of mystical death and na- 

Thus then, in the three articles of 
this Chapter, we shall follow the 
progressive increase of the power of 
the Cross on the soul which clings 
to it. But we do not intend to pre- 
sent these degrees of union with God 
in the Mystery of the Passion an- 

alagously to or in substitution for the 
classic degrees of prayer in Catholic 
Spirituality. We know that on occa- 
sion our Saint explained these tradi- 
tional degress."' On the other hand 
we will not delay too long on the 
purely subjective aspect of these, as, 
for example, the greater or lesser ab- 
sorption of the powers, etc., since it 
is difficult to extract such material 
from the letters of direction. 

Rather we shall follow the Saint 
while he proposes an always more 
solid food for souls more capable, 
unto the purpose of giving nourish- 
ment to each one, and not ruin.^ 
The most difficult aspects of the Di- 
vine Mysteries ought not then to be 
revealed save to those whose will is 
also well disposed.^ However, just 
as the foundation of a building, with- 
out changing its nature, is enriched 
by a superstructure in which the 
project of construction is completely 
realized, so too here the identical 
Mystery of the Passion will be com- 
municated in a way that is always 
more enlightening and divine, ac- 
cording as the souls approach final 

The Passionist 

YYTe are going to speak now only 
W of how the Saint began his spir- 
itual work in souls. Then it will be 
easier to understand how he perfect- 
ed them afterwards— when the mys- 
tical death and divine nativity can 
be spoken ol more properly. 

The missionary Apostolatc of our 
Saint never ended with the conver- 
sion alone of manners. I lis own med- 
itations on the Passion of Christ 
leave us a much deeper way. In 
many people the incidents which 
took place on those occasions" re- 
mained vivid even to the most mi- 
nute particulars, for forty years and 
more. In reading those records one 
marvels at the abundance of spiritual 
fruit obtained. At the foot of the 
platform, there were not only con- 
versions to a pious and austere hfe,^° 
but genuine vocations to a life of 
lofty spirituality'^ or religious lives 
properly so called.'- Moreover, the 
subjects of these conxersions con- 
tinued to remain always under the 
influence of the light which they re- 
ceived at those times. 

The sight itself of the missionary 
certainly contributed toward produc- 
ing a similar effect. Marked with 
apostolic wounds,'-' with bleeding 
feet'^ and often crowned with 
thorns,'"' he exix:rienced within him- 
self the horror and emotion which 
he described.'" In this way he com- 
municated to others his mystical at- 
tachment to the principal mystery of 
the Divine Economy.'" 

We therefore wish to emphasize 
again what St. Paul of the Cross in- 
sisted on in the basic elements of his 
spirituality: lie Who is crucified, is 
the Divine Word,"* and He is then 
intimately present to each one. 

For this reason his own colloquies 
with the Cireat Crucified One have 
an impassioned tenderness and an 
irresistible power, whether they refer 
directly to the Word, or whether 
they bring to life again the sorrowful 
scenes of Cood Friday in dramatic 

"O souls, redeemed by the Most 
Precious Blood of Jesus, come and 
see, and look with the eye of the 
soul and set how many injuries, how 
many insults, how much spittle, how 
many pains of every kind Jesus 
Christ suffers out of love for us; re- 
enkindle vour faith and consider 

how much the Son of Cod, the Re- 
deemer of the world, the Creator of 
heaven and earth suffers for us. . . . 

"O my most loving Cod, how 
much you have suffered for me! How 
many insults, how many injuries . . . 
and You are not just any person, but 
the Eternal Word, the Son of Cod, 
the Second Person of the Most 
Blessed Trinity."'" 

Here is the way he interprets the 
silent glances of Jesus and Mary: 

"Ah, Mother, said the Heart of 
Jesus, where are you going? What 
have you come to do here, O Im- 
maculate Virgin? Alas, to see you so 
afflicted— is a sorrow more bitter than 
death to me.— Alas, dear Son, what 
I would not do to give you comfort! 
I gaze upon you who are more dead_ 
than alive.— O sons of the world, to 
what an end you have brought the 
Word of the Father, Uncreated Wis- 
dom! . . ."-0 

The Crucified was thus presented 
in the light of Divinity and of eter- 
nity, before the perspective of death, 
which could change him from the 
sole refuge into the implacable judge. 

Father Costante Brovetto, C.P., is from 
Immaculate Heart Province, Italy, and Edi- 
tor of Fonti Vive. 

"Now you are making every effort 
to appear beautiful, are you not? In 
a little while, you will be a skull, 
you will be eaten by worms, by 
toads. And your soul? And the soul— 
if you do not change your life, will 
be in the depth of hell, in the in- 
fernal fire. Take counsel with death. 
O Death, thy judgment is good."-' 

While the large Mission Crucifix 
stands out in the midst of the crowd, 
the missionary does not fear to tell 
of a certain sinner who died with- 
out pardon, and 

". . . before burying him, while 
the priest, according to the custom 
of the faithful, solemnly prayed for 
him, that his sins would be par- 
doned, with those words: spare hivi, 
O Lord, the hands of the large Cruci- 
fix detached themselves from the 
cross, and the Crucified, stopjiing 
His ears, uttered these formidable 
words: Yoii have not spared, I will 
not spare. His cadaver was then 
dragged into the country. "-- 

npiiE procedure according to which 
-*■ the meditation on the Passion is 

always proposed for the closing of 
the big sermon on the Last Things, 
was left by St. Paul of the Cross in 
the Rules given by him to his sons 
a^ an obligatory norm.-' He had the 
greatest confidence in it: "One al- 
ways realizes more and more that 
the most efficacious means for con- 
\erting the most obstinate souls is 
the Most Sacred Passion of Jesus 
Christ, preached according to the 
method which the Ineffable Uncreat- 
ed Divine Mercy inspired His Vicar 
on earth to approve."-^ 

When souls will make progress, 
there will no longer be any fear of 
casting them into the loving arms of 
the Crucified God, but the atmo- 
sphere will still remain that— outside 
of time and at the confines of eter 
nity— by which God is made visible 
through the wounds of the infinitely 
lovable Charity of Jesus. Thus we 
return to the very origins of Chris- 
tianity, when life was keenly experi- 
enced as a temporary waiting-room— 
where one would wait to see again, 
as Judge, Him whose earthly mission 
was precisely to save us from the 
wrath to come. The Apostle sums up 
his own works by reminding the 
Thessalonians that they were con- 
verted "to serve the living and true 
God, and to await from heaven Jesus, 
his Son, whom he raised from the 
dead, who has deli\'ered us from the 
wrath to come."-'' 

The resemblance of St. Paul of 
the Cross to his glorious namesake 
was already noticed by his contem- 
poraries.-" He himself appealed to 
the \ery spirit of the Apostle in or- 
der to speak about the Last Things 
efTectively.-" But such an analogy is 
still stronger in the lineup of his 
work. In the beginning, the Cruci- 
fied is presented dramatically,-" re- 
lying upon the emotion which His 
sacrifice arouses in them "before 
whose eyes Jesus Christ has been 
depicted crucified" in vivid colors.-" 
To the perfect then he explains "the 
wisdom of C>od, mysterious, hid- 
den,"'"' still presenting the identical 
Object, Jesus Crucified, as the Di- 
vine Wisdom, Which is made visi- 
ble and reconciles with His Blood 
and recapitulates all things of the 
universe in Himself.^* 

(Conti)nied on page 258) 

June 1, 1957 




THE whole of the Old Testament 
looks forward with longing to its 
completion in Christ; while in the 
life of Christ, all events lead to the 
supreme moment of His death on 
the Cross. His death is the focal 
point around which the whole of 
Scripture is centered. 

In the pages of the Old Testament 
there are many figures and prophe- 
cies foreshadowing and foretelling 
the mystery of the Redemption. But 
among them one of the most rich in 
typology is the mountain of Sinai 
and the events that took place there 
when Moses led the Jewish people 
out of Egypt. On the bleak but ma- 
jestic mount in the heart of the Sinai 
peninsula, amid storm and thunder 
peal, the Covenant of the Old Law 
was established between God and 
man. On the little but more impor- 
tant hill of Mount Calvary outside 
the city of Jerusalem, also amid 
earthquake and lightning, the New 
and Eternal Covenant was born. On 
Sinai sacrifice was prescribed— that of 
cattle and sheep. While on Calvary 
the Only-begotten of God, the Lamb 
without blemish, became our Sacri- 
fice. The Law was given on Sinai; 
but charity became the law for Chris- 
tians when the New Covenant was 
born on Golgotha. 

Yes, the symbolism of Sinai is 
most profound. I will treat of but 
two aspects of the revelation on 


of Sinai 

by Andrew Mo Gardiner, C.P. 

Mount Sinai which find their fulfill- 
ment on Calvary: the revelation of 
God's Name, and the revelation of 
His Glory. 

Among men of twentieth century 
America a name is not something of 
tremendous importance. We would 
go along with Shakespeare's query, 
"What's in a name? A rose by any 
other name would smell as sweet." 
But it was not so among the Semitic 
peoples of the Near East where the 
Scriptures were written. 

Among these peoples a name was 
something of deep significance. As 
one author describes it, "In the Old 
Testament a name, far from being a 
simple veneer or mere external de- 
scription, expresses the profound 
reality of the being which bears it."^ 
It was a definition expressing the 
very nature of a thing. So true was 
this that the name was often taken 
for the thing itself and used as a 
synonym for it. The name of God 
was used for God Himself. Solomon, 
speaking of the building of the Tem- 
ple, stated, "Now I am planning to 
build a house for the name of the 
Lord my God."- To forget God was 
to forget the name of God.^ Our 
Divine Lord taught us to pray, "Fa- 
ther, hallowed be Thy name."* Such 
a concept of "name" had various ap- 
plications. To change a person's 
name meant a profound change of 
being and destiny, as was the case 

On Ihe Cross 

the dim- lit figures and 
obscure prophecies of the 

Old Testament burst forth in 

blinding radiance. 

The Passionist 

with Abraham and St. Peter. To 
speak or act in anyone's name meant 
to share in the very reaUty expressed 
by that name. Thus when the Proph- 
ets hurled their denunciations in the 
name of the Lord God they shared 
in some way in the very authority 
and power of God. 

All this must be kept in mind to 
understand what it meant to the 
Jewish people that God should re- 
veal His Name to them. The revela- 
tion of His Name meant a revela- 
tion of what He was in Himself, a 
glimpse into the Divine Nature. 

This revelation was made to Mo- 
ses. For many years he had been 
pasturing the sheep of his father-in- 
law in the barren Sinai peninsula. 
His soul was being prepared in soli- 
tude and silence for his great mis- 
sion in life. One day he had left his 
flocks and come alone to Mount 
Sinai. Suddenly he saw a bush that 
was burning but not consumed. A 
voice from the bush announced to 
him his vocation to lead the chosen 
people out of Egypt. 

But Moses had a question. What 
if the Jews should ask the name of 
the One who sent him. God an- 
swered, " 'I am who am.' Then he 
said, 'Thus you shall say to the Is- 
raelites: " 'I am' has sent me to you." ' 
God said further to Moses, 'Thus 
you shall say to the Israelites: "Yah- 
weh (He who is), the God of your 
fathers, the God of Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob, has sent me to you." This 
has always been my name, and this 
shall remain my title throughout the 
ages.' "^ 

This meant to the Jewish people 
that their God was a God of unlim- 
ited existence — the Living, Holy, 
Transcendant One. All this was 
summed up for them in the sacred 
name of Yahweh. 

LATER, God again spoke to Moses 
of his sacred Name saying to 
Him, "I am Yahweh (He who is); 
I appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and 
Jacob as El Shaddai (God the Moun- 
tainous One), but did not make my- 
self known to them bv mv name 

As marvelous and profoimd as was 
God's revelation of i limsclf, of His 
Name, on Sinai; it finds its comple- 
tion only on Calvarv. It is on the 

Cross that the "I am who am" is 
made most fully manifest. Jesus 
Christ is the manifestation of God 
to men. He is God made man. This 
revelation of the Godhead in Christ, 
of the Divine Name, shines forth 
especially in His Passion. 

In speaking of His coming Passion 
Our Lord deliberately uses the sa- 
cred Name of God given on Sinai. 
When the Jews asked Him, "Who 
art Thou?" Jesus answered, "When 
you have lifted up the Son of Man, 
then you will know that Z am."'^ 
Speaking again of His Passion Christ 
said, "I tell you now before it comes 
to pass, that when it has come to 
pass you may believe that I am."*^ 

Our Lord, being Himself Yahweh, 
the eternal "I am," was the manifes- 
tation to men of the Divine Nature, 
the Divine Name, which He shared 
with the Father. At the Last Supper, 
on the eve of His death. His su- 
preme joy was to have revealed to 
men His Father's Name. "These 
things Jesus spoke; and raising his 
eyes to heaven, he said, "Father . . . 

Confrater Andrew Mary Gardiner, C.P., is 
a member of Holy Cross Province and sta- 
tioned at Chicago, Illinois. 

I have manifested Thy name to the 
men whom Thou hast given Me out 
of the world." And a little later, 
"And I have made known to them 
Thy name, and will make it known, 
in order that the love with which 
Thou hast loved Me may be in them, 
and I in them."*^ 

Among the events that took place 
at Mount Sinai around the year 
1240 B.C. there is another of pro- 
found significance which was to be 
repeated at various times in Jewish 
history and to find its completion in 
Christ Crucified — the manifestation 
of the Glorv of God, the "Kavod 

The word "glory" is used in sev- 
eral senses in Sacred Scripture. But 
as used at Sinai it means, "A strik- 
ing, supernatural manifestation, 
which in certain circumstances, God 
makes of His Presence."'" God's 
Glory then, is a striking manifesta- 
tion of His Divine Presence. The 
Name of God, of which wc ha\'e just 
treated, signifies the Divine Nature; 
whereas the Glory of God does not 
refer so much to what He is, as to 

the manifestation in a striking man- 
ner, the showing forth of Himself, 
of what He is, to men. Name 
stresses Nature; Glory stresses its 
manifestation. The sacred text links 
these two notions together in speak- 
ing of the Glory of His Name, as in 
Psalm 78, "Help us, O God of our 
salvation, because of the glory of 
Thy name, and rescue us and for- 
give our sins for Thy name's sake." 

When God showed forth His 
Glory it was often in the midst of 
thunder and lightning. Frequently it 
took the form of fire, or again it de- 
scended in a luminous cloud. It left 
on those who witnessed it a tremen- 
dous impression of the majesty of 
God, and of His great power. 

Moses has led the chosen people 
out of Egypt, in answer to God's re- 
quest. The people were encamped 
in the plain at the foot of Mount 
Sinai. With great deeds of power 
had God smote the Egyptians and 
freed His people. Now He was about 
to establish a Covenant with them, 
that they should be His people, and 
He should be their God. 

"On the third day, when morning 
came, there was thunder and light- 
ning, with a heavy cloud over the 
mountain, and a very loud trumpet- 
blast, so that all the people that were 
in the camp trembled. Mount Sinai 
was completely en\'eloped in smoke, 
because Yahweh had descended up- 
on it in fire. "'^ "So Moses ascended 
the mountain, while the cloud cov- 
ered the mountain, and the glory of 
Yahweh rested on Mount Siniai. . . . 
The glory of Yahweh looked to the 
Israelites like a consuming fire on 
the top of the mountain."'- And 
again, "Then the cloud coxered the 
tent of meeting, and the glory of 
Yahweh filled the dwelling; Moses 
could not enter the tent of meeting 
because the cloud hung over it and 
the gIor\ of Yahweh filled the dwell- 

Though Moses saw the Glory of 
God, yet he longed for a fuller vi- 
sion of Yahweh. For at Sinai he still 
prayed God, "Show me Thy glory." 
God replied that He would fulfill 
the request only partially. "For," He 
said, "man cannot sec me and live. "''' 

[Contitiued on ;wqe 259) 

June I, 1957 





A commemoration of a sim,fle feria is not made at 
the Mass of the BVM in Sahhato. Why then must 
such a com,m.emoration he m.ade in votive Mass on a 
sim,fle ferial day? 

The rules for commemorations at a said votive Mass 
are given on page 29 of the 1957 Or do. In such vo- 
tive Masses the second oration is always that which 
is prescribed in the Office and Mass of the day. This 
means in effect that the second oration on a simple 
ferial day is the oration from the preceding Sunday, 
while on a BVM in Sabbato it is the oration of the 
Saturday Mass of Our Lady. 

Our inquirer seems to forget that the BVM in Sab- 
bato Office and Mass is the proper Office of that day. 
We should not consider the Blessed Mother's Mass 
on such a Saturday as a votive Mass, but rather prac- 
tically the same as a simple feast-day Mass, which does 
not permit the commemoration of a simple feria. The 
Ruhricae Generales Missalis IV, 3 require the com- 
memoration of the feria in a votive Mass said on a 
simple ferial day. The new changes did not touch this 
norm. Of course, if the votive Mass is sung, then the 
ferial commemoration, as well as all ordinary or non- 
privileged commemorations, is omitted. We might 
add, however, that the Lenten and Advent ferias are 
privileged, and so must be commemorated at all sung 


What collect is to he said at each of the two days 
when the Office of the Dead is recited am,ongst us in 
choir at the beginning of each m-onth? 

The rule in the Breviary calls for the "oratio con- 
veniens"— which means the collect appropriate to the 
intention for which the Office of the Dead is recited. 
This means that when we say it for our deceased re- 
ligious, we should recite the collect "pro plurihus sacer- 
dotihus" (for we are a clerical institute), and when 
for our benefactors, we should say the collect "Deus 
veniae largitor" (wathout any changes). 

Our present practice is, as we know, otherwise. Just 

how it arose I do not know. It would seem more pru- 
dent to retain our present practice until such time as 
the proper authority clarifies the matter. We hope 
that this will be done in the publication of our new 


Should the "Orationes Diversae" assigned in the CP 
Ritual and Prom.ftuarium for our functions (Benedic- 
tion, Novenas, etc.) still he said? 

It would seem more proper to omit them according 
to the norms of the decree on the simplification of 
rubrics (March 23, 1955). The new Ritual will most 
likely clear up this detail. Even now we may ask their 
precise binding force, in view of the rubrics accompany- 
ing: "Orationes diversae quae pro opportunitate im- 
perantur" and the added rubric: ". . . addi semper 

Roger Mercurio, C.P. 


What is the difference between mission faculties and 
the ordinary faculties which are spoken of in No. 4 
of the Directorium? 

Ordinary faculties confer jurisdiction for cases that 
occur commonly. They do not empower a confessor to 
absolve in extraordinary matters like reserved sins and 
reserved censures. 

Mission faculties, on the contrary, add wider juris- 
diction. However, not all dioceses give this added juris- 
diction for missions. By way of example we will treat 
two kinds of mission faculties. 

Power to absolve from sins reserved by the Ordinary 
to himself, is given "quo tempore m.issiones ad populuin 
habentur," in the following dioceses in the United 
States: Austin, Brooklyn, Cincinnati, Davenport, 
Evansville, Galveston, Indianapolis, Lansing, Madison, 
Providence, Rapid City, Sioux Falls, Steubenville. The 
same is given, subject to an added qualification "in 
ilia ecclesia," in these dioceses: Fort Wayne, Lafayette, 
Ind., Louisville, Owensboro, Superior.^ 

Another type of extraordinary jurisdiction given 
during missions is that needed to absolve from the 
excommunication reserved to the Ordinary by the 
Third Plenary Council of Baltimore. This affects any- 
one who dares to attempt marriage after civil divorce.^ 
Our Passionist privilege does not help here since this 
censure is reserved to the ordinary by particular not 
common law.^ Dioceses giving this added power dur- 
ing missions are: Alexandria, Austin, Baltimore, Bel- 
mont Abbey, Bismark, Boston, Camden, Chicago, 
Cincinnati, Davenport, Denver, Dubuque, El Paso, 
Galveston, Grand Island, Harrisburg, Lafayette, La., 
Lansing, Lincoln, Louisville, Manchester, Milwaukee, 
Nashville, Natchez, New Orleans, Owensboro, Peoria, 
Philadelphia, Providence, Raleigh, Richmond, St. 
Augustine, Saginaw, Santa Fe, Scranton, Sioux Falls, 
Springfield, 111., Toledo, Washington, Wheeling, Wil- 
mington, Winona.^ 


The Passionist 


Does every vohtntary and deliberate transiiression 
of our Rtde always constit-itte a I'enial sin? This is 
answered in the affirmative by the Author of "Catechism 
of the Religious Life," Chap. IV, 52. Can you tell me 
whether all agree with this ansM^er? 

A topic like this presents a twofold challenge. One 
lies concealed in the fairly widespread impression that 
avoiding transgression of the Holy Rule means perfec- 
tion of religious life. The second challenge consists in 
discussing a reply contrary to the one given by the 
editor of Catechism of Religious Life, whose venerable 
person we deeply reverence and respect. 

The first challenge can hardly better be met than 
with the words of Pope Pius XII, in which he points 
beyond mere keeping of one's 1 loly Rule, to perfection 
in supernatural love for God and neighbor. "All mem- 
bers of the states of religious and evangelical perfec- 
tion must ever bear in mind and frequently recall in 
God's presence, that it is not enough for the fulfillment 
of their bounden duty that they avoid mortal sin and 
with God's help, even venial sin, nor that they fulfill 
in a purely mechanical way the commands of their 
superiors, their vows which bind in conscience, or 
even the Rule of their community. 

"The Church herself in her sacred canons bids: 
'omne et singidi religiosi, Superiores aeque ac siihditi, 
debent . . . vitam componere atque ita ad -perfectionem 
sui status contendere (can. 593) in accordance with 
these same holy Rules. For they must do all these 
things wholeheartedly and v\ath burning love for 
God, nor merely from compulsion, but also for con- 
science' sake (Rom. 13, 5). In order to ascend to the 
heights of holiness, and to make themselves living 
fountains of charity for all men, they must be on fire 
with the most intense love of God and neighbor, and 
be adorned with every virtue."^ 

Now the second challenge must be faced. The 
author of Catechism of Religioiis Life states his reasons 
for answering this question in affirmative. They are 
three, namely, "by reason of the Rule itself which 
excludes only the obligation under mortal sin; also 
by reason of some sinful inclination, as self-love, sloth, 
human respect, etc., that ordinarily accompany the 
transgression; and lastly, on account of the harm to the 
common good and the religious discipline, which such 
transgressions by their very nature produce. "- 

y\s for the first reason, can one sav "most certainly, 
it is (a venial sin) by reason of the Rule itself," when 
the opposite is taught in various Novitiates as the in- 
terpretation in these respective Provinces of the Holy 
Rule's direct obligation?'' Moreover, Expositio Historica 
Juris Particidaris maintains that the Holy Rule obliges 
under venial sin more probably^, which e\cryonc ad- 
mits is, in these matters, ijuitc dillcrcnt from "most 

Incidentally, one who is taught the interpretation 
in his Province about no direct obligation under sin 
from the I loly Rule itself, can find some degree of 
intellectual satisfaction concerning the presence ol the 

word mortal sin in our Rides and Constitutions.'' An 
explanation of its presence can be found in the phrase 
immediately following it, "provided they be not violated 
in those points which touch closely upon the religious 
vows." Violation of one's \ows obviously admits of 
mortal sin. 

The second reason given for the affirmative answer 
to the question, refers to sinful motivation. The ques- 
tion, it will be noted, asks whether this "always con- 
stitutes a venial sin." "Most certainly," begins the 
answer, then changes to "ordinarily." The difference 
between always and ordinarily proves considerable for 
certain temperaments and for delicate consciences, as 
they probe their motivation in -Qcceding to an excusing 
cause. (The Church sanctions the teaching that, in 
limited circumstances, even God's Law admits of ex- 
cusing causes; a fortiori, our Passionist Legislation.) 

Furthermore, in this matter of evaluating sinful 
motivation, we must remember the notable difference 
among consciences— those convinced of the sinfulness 
of positive imperfections'^ and others convinced of the 
contrary.^ Finally, some theologians have analyzed 
three motives, laziness, sensuality, human respect. 
They have concluded that the sin lies, not prescisely 
in these motives, but in consequent neglect of duty.** 
That certain other motives are sinful in themselves, 
no one questions. 

So then, we see that while sinful motivation might 
be present ordinarily, all do not agree that such will 
"most certainly" be present "always". 

The final reason refers to the harm to the common 
good and the religious discipline, which such transgres- 
sions by their very nature produce. All do agree this 
harm is often verified. However, they do not agree 
that such is "most certainly" and "always" the case. 
All theolgians agree that scandal does not apply in cases 
of persons who are strong in \'irtue and firm in con- 
viction. Therefore, transgressions in their presence can- 
not in all literalness be said "by their very nature (to) 
produce " this harm. Further, something can transpire 
in the privacy of one's cell or in other complete privacy 
which could not directly produce such harm. 

In \'iew of all these considerations, one can ajipreci- 
atc more fully why Pope Pius XII points be\ond even 
the fulfilling of one's Holy Rule. This should be done. 
But the other must not be left undone, namely, fulfill 
it "wholeheartedly and with burning lo\e for God . . . 
(to) be on fire with the most intense love of God and 
neighbor, and be adorned with e\ery virtue." 

Forrest Macken, C.P. 


Ca)i we still use in sermons some of those fannliar 
Scriptural quotations of the \'tdgate which haxe been 
even std^stantially changed iu the new translation of 
the Confraternity of Christian Doctrines i.e.. Prov. 21, 
2S: Ps 42,4: Lcclus 24, 24-2^? 

■All three ol these favorite texts haxe "suffered" in 
the new American Catholic translation ol the Con- 

luNE 1, 1957 


fraternity of Christian Doctrine. "The supreme goal" 
sought in this translation is "vigorous fidelity to the 
meaning of the original (inspired text), expressed in 
simple and intelligible language" (Letter of the 
Episcopal Committee, Vol. I, p.v.). Therefore, it is 
not a translation from the Latin Vulgate, but rather 
"from the original languages or from the oldest extant 
form of the text," (Vol. Ill, p.v). This follows the 
wish of Pope Pius XII, expressed in his encyclical 
called the Magna Charta of Scriptural Studies, Divino 
Afflante Spkitu, n 14-16. The translators judged that 
the divinely inspired message of each of the three 
scriptural texts differs from the current Vulgate render- 


In the Vulgate, Ps 42,4 read: "I will go the altar 
of God, to God who giveth joy to my youth." It is 
now translated as follows: "Then wall I go to the 
altar of God, the God of my gladness and joy." This 
is similar to the Latin translation in the New Roman 
Psalter and is based upon the original Hebrew. 

The book of Ecclesiasticus (a name based upon its 
extensive liturgical use in the Church) is now called 
Sirach, derived from the author Jesus, son of Eleazar, 
son of Sirach (50,27). The new translation of this 
book varies quite a bit from the Vulgate, even in the 
numbering of verses. The later additions and Chris- 
tian glosses of the secondary text have been deleted. 
The Vulgate version is identical with the Old Latin, 
which St. Jerome refused to touch in his antagonism 
against the deuterocanonical books. This fact alone 
demanded a new translation that would give us the 
inspired word, rather than many pious additions which, 
though dogmatically true, are still not the Word of 
God. An example of this is present in ch. 24. In ch. 24 
there is a magnificent praise of Divine Wisdom. The 
author personifies Wisdom as singing "her own praises 
... in the assembly of the Most High" (v 1). The 
familiar verses (Vg. 24,24-25) were present in only 
two Greek manuscripts (v 24 alone in mss. 70 and 
248) and the Old Latin (which also has v 25). Modern 
exegetes consistently rejected them as non-inspired ad- 
ditions (C. Spicq in the Pirot-Clamer series; H. Dues- 
berg and P. Auvray in the Jerusalem Bible; C. J. Kearns 
in the Catholic Commentary, n 403c). The Confra- 
ternity version completely drops the verses. Unfortun- 
ately, they did not bring this to the attention of the 
reader in the footnotes. These verses read: "I am the 
mother of fair love, and of fear, and of knowledge, 
and of holy hope. In me is all grace of the way and of 
the truth, in me is hope of life and of virtue." 

The Vulgate text for Prov 21,28 reads in the second 
part: "An obedient man shall speak of victory," and 
is now translated by the Confraternity: "The false 
witness will perish, but he who listens will finally 
have his say." Even though the Hebrew text is obscure 
in the second part of this verse, still the Vulgate trans- 
lation is opposed to the Jewish laws of parallelism. 
The term "he who listens" is a technical term for a 
faithful and docile disciple or student. While the liar 
will be reduced to silence, the true disciple will speak 
wisdom that will always continue to be heard (H. 


Renard, Le Livre des Proverbes, Pirot-Clamer VI, 

The question arises: can the preacher use these texts 
in his sermons? Since they are contained in the Latin 
Vulgate and have the blessing of many centuries of 
Catholic usage and tradition, an orator can quote them. 
The mass for the Immaculate Heart of Mary, lately 
approved by Pius XII, includes the Vulgate rendition 
of Sirach ch 24. However, the preacher is advised not 
to use these texts as the principal introductory text of 
a sermon and he should indicate (if he is speaking to 
priests) that the text is taken from the Vulgate. He 
should never explicitly present the older version as 
the "Word of God". It is truly the sanctified word of 
Catholic tradition, but not the inspired Word of God. 

Carroll Stuhlmueller, C.P. 


What is the theological propriety of thinking of Our 
Lord in the tabernacle as a Victim? I would like to 
think that that is the case. 

When we say victim, we say sacrifice, for a victim 
is that which is offered in sacrifice. And sacrifice, of 
course, means perfect divine worship inasmuch as it 
expresses in a sense-perceptible way the irrevocable 
oblation of one's self to God in recognition of His 
supreme dominion. 

Christ may be said to have offered Himself as a 
Victim even from the very first moment of the Incarna- 
tion. "In coming into the world, he says: Sacrifice and 
oblation thou wouldst not, but a body thou hast fitted 
to me. In holocausts and sin-offerings thou hast had no 
pleasure. Then said I, Behold, I come— in the head of 
the book it is written of me— to do thy will, O God." 
(Heb. 10: 5-7) In virtue of this sacrificial mind of 
Christ, which was inspired by love and was intent on 
carrying out His Father's will, the unborn Babe of- 
fered a perfect interior sacrifice. Once made, this act 
perdured unchanged throughout His whole life. We 
see it constantly reflected in such utterances as "My 
food is to do the will of him who sent me, to ac- 
complish his work" (Jn. 4: 34) and "Did you not know 
that I must be about my Father's business?" (Lk. 2: 49). 

Thus Christ always kept the Sacred Passion reso- 
lutely in the foreground of His thoughts; He longed 
for it as the very purpose of His advent among men 
(cf. Lk. 12:50). This sacrificial intent, however, be- 
came actual sacrifice only when it was externalized 
in the bloodshedding of Calvary, there where Christ 
"delivered himself up for us an offering and a sacrifice 
to God to ascend in fragrant odor" (Eph. 5: 2). It was 
while He was raised aloft on the cross that Christ made 
His sublime act of sacrificial oblation. "He was offered 
because it was his own will" (Is. 53: 7). 

The sacrificial mind of Christ reached its divinely 
appointed climax, its unique and eternal expression, 
on the cross. But still we know that it continues on 
uninterruptedly in the glorified Humanity of the Re- 
deemer in heaven. "Jesus, having offered one sacrifice 
for sins, has taken his seat forever at the right hand 

The Passionist 

oF God" (Hcb. 10: 12). "Because he continues for- 
ever, he has an everlasting priesthood. Therefore he is 
able at all times to save those who come to God through 
him, since he lives always to make intercession for 
them" (ihid. 7: 24-25). Inasmuch as Christ presents 
His radiant wounds to His Father, He may be said to 
be offering a sort of heavenly sacrifice. "And I saw, 
and beheld, in the midst of the throne and of the 
four living creatures, in the midst of the elders, a Lamb 
standing as if slain. . ." (Apoc. 5: 6). Christ's loving 
homage as Head of all the saints is the celestial con- 
summation of the bloody sacrifice once offered on 

That spirit of total giving that tirelessly swept Christ's 
soul up to His Father in adoration, thanksgiving, sup- 
plication and propitiation was not properly speaking 
sacrificial apart from the cross. By the same token the 
"heavenly liturgy" does not involve sacrifice either. 
Christ was a Victim at one historical moment, and 
that moment in its temporal sequence, as bound up 
with bloodshcdding and actual death, is past and done 
with. "Once for all at the end of the ages, he has ap- 
jieared for the destruction of sin by the sacrifice c{ 
himself" (Heb. 9: 26). "By one offering he has per- 
fected forever those who are sanctified" Qhid. 10: 14). 
Nevertheless, divine wisdom and love have found a 
way to perpetuate Christ's state of victimhood among 
us, together with the correlative act of priestly offering. 
God left Calvary in our midst as the sacrifice of the 

The sacraments, those prodigies of divine power, 
effect what they signify. The priest says: "This is My 
Body" over the bread, and Christ the High Priest 
works the marvel of transubstantiation. The wine is 
similarly converted into Christ's Blood. Blood separated 
from Bodv— there can be no more expressive sign of 
death, and if wc know that it is Christ's will that this 
sacramental separation not only represent His sacrifice 
on the cross but also re-present it, we are kneeling in 
the presence of the same Priest and the same Victim. 
That identical same act of immolativc oblation that 
He once offered in His passible flesh is continued 
under the species of bread and wine and by the lips 
of human ministers. 

Answers to Questions 

The purpose of the Answers to Questions section is to pro- 
vide our Readers with ready answers to questions that touch 
closely upon our Possionist way of life. Questions on Low, 
Custom, Theology, Liturgy and Sacred Scripture that hove a 
special interest to Possionists will be answered. Priests who 
have specialized in these subjects hove graciously consented 
to answer these questions. Our Readers are invited to send 
their questions to the Editor who will forward them to those 
handling this special subject. 

On the cross the Priest and the Victim were one 
and the same, intimately united in the Person of the 
God-made-Man. At Mass we encounter, not the nat- 
ural historical order, but the sacramental order. Again 
the Priest and the Victim, Jesus Christ, are one and 
the same, but Christ the Priest stands at the altar in 
the person of His consecrated minister and Christ the 
Victim lies on the altar under the consecrated species. 
Liturgical sacrifice occurs when a priest offers a vic- 
tim. Hence the re-enactment of the sacrifice of the 
cross occurs only during the ceremonies of the Mass 
and precisely at the double Consecration. Outside the 
time of Mass, therefore, the sacrifice cannot be said to 
continue, even though Christ still remains present on 
the altar. Christ the Victim remains, but as far as this 
sacramental celebration is concerned, Christ the 
Priest has "departed". Christ is present accordingly 
under the sacramental species as "one who has heen 
offered in sacrifice." 

Perhaps we might see in this a dim reflection of the 
state of Christ's Body as It lay on the lap of His Sorrow- 
ful Mother in the repose of the Pieta. The moment of 
sacrifice was the moment when Jesus yielded up His 
spirit into the hands of His Heavenly Father in death. 
That was His sacerdotal self-oblation. And yet, as Mary 
caressed that bruised and bloody Body, surely the 
Victim somehow remained, even though the terrible 
moment had passed. So, as we kneel in the presence of 
our Eucharistic Lord in the tabernacle, we do well to 
contemplate in faith the Divine Victim, sacramentally 
immolated in the Mass-Liturgy, still abiding with us 
lest we forget the central mystery of our faith that 
embraces time and eternity. 

Barrv Rankin, C.P. 

Notes for reply on mission faculties: 

' Diocesan Faculties in the United Stales, edited by Snee and 
Clark, Woodstock College Press, Woodstock, Md., 1948, pp. 
19-21. The patella of each diocese should he consulted for 
limitinK phrases; all of these could not he added here. 

-Cone. Bait. Ill, n. 124. 

•* CoUectio Faciiltattint et Indulgentiarum, n. 49. 

•♦ Other than a change of page numbers to 41-2, what is 
in note 1 above, applies here. 

Notes for answer on the Holy Rule: 

' Sedes Sapientiae, as translated in The Pope Speaks, 
Winter, 1956 7, 29.^. 

- Second edition, Passionist Novitiate, St. Paul, Kansas, 
U.S.A., 1947, p. 16. 

•'In Holy Cross Province the interpretation (extending 
back to the Novitiate of the older Fathers) has consistently 
been that sinful violation does not derive directly from the 
I loly Ride itself. Ibis information is the result of a iirivate 
survey made by the writer. A similar survey made by him of 

representatives of several Provinces living then at the Retreat 
of Saints John and Paul in Rome, yielded the same informa- 
tion. Only one of these Provinces was reported to hold the 
contrary interpretation. 

■«n. 522. 

•'' n. 320. The word does not appear in the first Rule to 
be approved, namely by Benedict XIV's rescript of May 15, 
1741, but rather in the first latin translation made in 1746. 
It continues to appear in the te.xts of 1769, 1775, and 1930. 

"James C. Osbourn, O.P., The Morality of hiiperfections, 
Dominican House of Studies, Washington, D.C., 1943; Ver- 
meersch, Theol. Mar. (ed. 4), I, n. 405. 

" Garrigou-Lagrange, The Love of God and the Cross of 
lesus, I, p. 318 f and Christian Perfection and Conteniphition, 
pp. 428-33; Merkelbach, Siiniina Theol. Alor., I, n. 415; Prum- 
mer, Man. Theol. Mor., 1, n. 131; Tanquerey. The Spiritual 
Life, on obligation of religious rules; Guibcrt, Theolotiy of 
the Spiritual 1 ife. n. 80; Lumbreras. Praelectiones in I, II, q. 
18. p. 145; Regatillo Zalba, Theol. Mor. Suwnia, I. n. 634. 

» Cf. Review for Religious, VIII, 295. 

June 1, 1957 



The Direction of Nuns, by Vari- 
ous Authors, translated by 
Lancelot C. Sheppard. 259 pp. 
The Newman Press,. $4.00. 

NUMBER 182 of our Regulations 
exhorts those priests who are 
charged with the direction of souls 
to read books that will help them 
in their work. This recommendation 
is especially necessary for those who 
are engaged in the specialized work 
of directing the conscience of Sisters, 
whether as confessors or retreat mas- 
ters. The very nature of their particu- 
lar work requires that they keep their 
knowledge fresh and active. 

The Newman Press has given us 
a book that is especially suited to 
help the confessor and retreat master 
of Sisters. The book is entitled The 
Direction of Nvins, the seventh 
volume of the now familiar Re- 
ligious Life Series. This book brings 
together under one cover a variety of 
practical subjects pertaining to the 
religious life of Sisters. Every priest 
who is engaged in work with Sisters, 
even if only occasionally, owes it to 
himself to read this book. 

"The Direction of Nuns" is a 
compilation of papers delivered at a 
French national conference of priests 
whose work deals with nuns, held at 
Versailles in September of 1953. The 
papers treat of such subjects as: The 
Role of Nuns in the Modern World 
—Historical Outline of the Develop- 
ment of Religious Life Among 
Women— Theology of the Religious 
State (the Counsels, the Vows, and 

the Common Life)— Canonical Status 
of Female Religious Life— The psy- 
chology of Nuns— Ordinary and 
Extraordinary Confessors — The 
Preacher of Conferences and Re- 
treats, etc. Other points are also 
treated that may not be as imme- 
diately practical but the knowledge 
of which is at least helpful. For 
example: The Chaplain— The Can- 
onical Visitor— The Ecclesiastical 

Reviewers Wanted 

Reviewers ore wanted to review books 
to appear in future issues of THE PAS- 
SIONIST. If any of our Readers are in- 
terested, please send in your name to 
the Editor, indicating what type of book 
you would be interested in. 

Though the book originates in 
France, one does not read far before 
he realizes that the problems as well 
as the solutions proposed equally fit 
the American scene. While not every 
priest who is experienced in work 
with nuns will agree with every rec- 
ommendation, no one will finish the 
book without feeling that it has stim- 
ulated his thinking in very positive 

If we may single out individual 
parts of the book that are especially 
thought provoking, we might men- 
tion the following 1) The chapter 
on the Psychology of Nuns, by Sis- 
ter Marie de la Redemption, O.P., 
is written by a nun who is evidently 
ripe with the wisdom of experience. 

This chapter is a practical, down to 
earth, portrayal of the well balanced 
nun with which she contrasts the 
nun who has failed to attain the 
purpose of her consecration. After 
pointing out where the fault lies, 
she ends by proposing what the 
priest can do for the imperfect nun 
to help bring her back to the pur- 
suit of the ideal. 2) The chapter on 
Ordinary and Extraordinary Confes- 
sors, by Abbe Baechler, treats at 
length of the role of confessors, the 
problems they encounter, and pro- 
poses wise and realistic norms for 
properly fulfilling their purpose. 3) 
The chapter on the Preacher, by J. 
G. Pissonier, O.F.M. is also good. 
The experienced retreat master may 
not agree with everything that Father 
Pissonier says, but he will at least be 
stimulated to thought. Interestingly 
enough, the author states that two 
conferences a day should suffice, or 
three at a maximum. 

We may list two principal advan- 
tages to be derived from reading 
"The Direction of Nuns": 


1) The book will provide the con- 
fessor and retreat master of Sisters 
with clear and accurate ideas of the 
principles that underlie the religious 
life. No matter how experienced a 
priest may be, he should clarify his 
ideas on the fundamentals of the 
religious life from time to time. "The 
Direction of Nuns" will do just that. 

2) By bringing his ideas into 
clear focus, this book will strengthen 
the confessor's or retreat master's own 
religious ideals so that he vdll be 
better able to present them to his 
hearers in all their beauty. The con- 
fessor or retreat master necessarily 
deals so much with the problems 
that individuals develop in living 
the religious life. As a result, he can 
become altogether too negative in his 
thinking and preaching. This book 
will help to remind him that the 
problems he encounters are precisely 
deviations from the ideal. These de- 
viations in no way dim the lustre of 
the ideals themselves which must al- 
ways be preached in all their beauty. 

CoLUMBAN Browning, C.P. 
Des Moines, Iowa 


The Passionist 

The Cross and the Christian by 

Pius-Raymond Regamey, O.P., 
Herder, xiv and 177 pp. $3.25. 

APassionist is nothing iF not a 
specialist in the Passion of 
Christ. The genesis and scandal of 
suffering, the Word's mysterious es- 
pousal of a humanity only too ac- 
quainted with infirmity, the trans- 
formation of a Christian's pain into 
a cross— these are his stock in trade. 
When a Catholic wants to under- 
stand why God is permitting his 
body to be devoured by disease and 
his soul to be dried up like a pots- 
herd, he consults a Passionist. 

We can be thankful that in The 
Cross and The Christian a noted 
Dominican provides us with a man- 
ual of answers. But the reader will 
find no truisms here. Father Rega- 
mey arrives at traditional doctrine by 
ways that are little explored. One 
would not be wrong in saying that 
they have never been trodden be- 
fore, for the experience of every soul 
is unique. Father Regamey has ob- 
viously hewn his path amid sweat 
and tears. His \'ery first words to us 
are: "The truths these pages pro- 
pose have triumphed over discour- 
agement, disgust, revolt, and des- 

The work falls logically into three 
parts, although the division of the 
contents into six chapters somewhat 
obscures this unity and progression. 
First of all, there is a brief provo- 
cative study whose theme is, in the 
words of the author: "Suffering, far 
from being good in itself, requires 
the interxcntion of an external prin- 
ciple to counteract its ravaging ef- 
fects upon our being." With vivid 
realism he portrays the spontaneous 
reactions of egoism: escape, abdica- 
tion, struggle, dolorism. The Cross of 
Christ redeems man from this mis- 
ery by transforming it. 

Many jxiges are then devoted to a 
profound contemplation of the Pas- 
sion wherein the author handles the 
thought of St. Thomas with a mas 
tery that is rarely seen. Combining 
the boldness of a mystic with the 
care of a theologian he enters into the 
abyss of suffering that was Christ's. 
I Ic reverently measures the dimen- 
sions of the Cross: the depth of its 

human misery, the height of its di- 
\ ine meaning, the breadth of its 
merit, the length of its presence in 

Then it is time to confront the 
Christian with his cross. "Each one 
has his own measure of suffering. 
'If any man will come after Me, let 
him deny himself, and take up his 
cross, and follow Me.' We have called 
it the roughhewn cross. It becomes 
the cross pure and simple, the cross 
that saves, when we shoulder it. We 
can elude it to a certain extent and, 
more often, we can have it hoisted 
on our backs in spite of ourselves. 
The great event that completely 
changes our destiny is our acceptance 
of the cross, our shouldering it and 
walking under its weight in the foot- 
steps of Christ. This is what grace 
makes possible for us." 

In this last section, making up the 
bulk of the book, many ideas come 
up for thoughtful consideration. We 
can but enumerate some of them 
here: the diversity of crosses, the 
perennial newness of the cross, the 
Sacraments, life through faith in 
Christ Crucified. The supreme cross 
of the Christian, the silence of God, 
is shown to be the counterpart of 
Jesus's abandonment by His Father. 

The book closes with the descrip- 
tion of a strange dichotomy: the 
co-existence of sadness and joy. 
Crosses have their sadness according 
to nature, and charity absorbs it into 
a sadness according to God. But this 
sadness according to God is simply 
the reverse side of joy, the joy that 
our God is Love. "Divine joy is with- 
out shadow, but in its shadow we 
on earth weep. " 

Barry Rankin, C.P. 
Chicago, Illinois. 

A Guide to Good Writing, by Rev. 
Roger Gannon, C.P., and Rev. 
Cyril Scfiweinberg, C.P., St. 
Paul of the Cross Province. 

TiiH i^rescnt course, A Guide to 
Ci(>()dWritiiio,"\\ds as its ultimate 
jHirposc the training of the Passionist 
student to become an effective writer. 
1 here are two main di\ isions to the 
course. The first is a study of the 
basic grammatical and rhetorical prin- 

ciples used in good writing. The 
second part is designed to train the 
student in writing for speaking ra- 
ther than for reading. By this a solid 
foundation is made for the student 
in preparing him for his year of Sa- 
cred Eloquence." 

From a basic review of English 
Grammar the first division of the 
course proceeds through the rhetori- 
cal elements of Composition to prac- 
tice in different kinds of writing. 
The second division takes up "Basic 
Principles of Speech Composition," 
"Basic Principles for Writing Per- 
suasive Speeches," and "Basic Prin- 
ciples for Writing Effective Speech- 

At first sight the reader might be 
shocked at such fundamentals as the 
use of capitals, commas, and periods, 
being taught to Major Seminarians, 
but if he has ever taught Writing 
to a group of Major Seminarians he 
will not be shocked, but extremely 
pleased to see such a concise and 
clear presentation of basic Grammar 
made easily available. The main rea- 
son for this need of review^ is a fact 
we can all \'erify by honest reflection 
on our own experience: It is easy to 
forget! And for one who has set his 
heart on being a Passionist the need 
for a solid foundation and solid 
structure in writing is e\'ident. 

The chief value of this book lies 
in the way it is directed to Passionist 
writing within the limits of a stu- 
dent's time and experience. Again 
and again specific points of our life 
or Catholic doctrine or devotion are 
used for examples or assignments. 
But the treatment is by no means 
limited to this. Excellent examples 
of English from both modern and 
classical authors are given as models. 
And the student is encouraged to 
broaden his field of interest and in- 
clude his own experience. Anyone 
w ho has taught writing or ever been 
a student himself knows how easy 
it is to try to gi\e the whole Theol- 
ogy of Grace in 500 words, and over- 
look some common yet unique ex- 
perience which might be recreated 
so that it rings of reality. 

.Another contribution to writing in 
line with our work as Missionaries is 
the careful discussion of elements 
such as the jisychology of audience 
response, and what it means for the 

June 1, 1957 


writer. Here the latest finds of the 
advertisers as well as the ancient 
truths of rational psychology are in- 

The authors have been careful to 
limit the material to the transitional 
stage of the students' development. 
Never does it encroach on the proper 
grounds of Sacred Eloquence. But 
the course should enable the student 
to approach Sacred Eloquence vdth 
a clear idea of the basic techniques 
and a skill that only hard work and 
constant effort can acquire. 

The outline form, with sufficient 
but not extraneous detail, plus the 
good mimeographing, make the book 
most pleasant to read. 

The book might well find a place 
in every English speaking Passionist 
Monastery beside the excellent work 
of Fr. Fidelis Rice, C.P. as a most 
practical guide to good writing for 
any Passionist of any age. 

John Mary Render, C.P. 
Des Moines, Iowa 

Providence and Suffering in the 
Old and New Testaments, by 

Edmund F. Sutcliffe, S.J., 175 
pp. Nelson, London. 1 5/-. 

THIS work of Fr. Sutcliffe, S.J., is 
a specialized study in Biblical 
Theology. It is similar to his previous 
book The Old Testament and the 
Future Life (1947) and his article 
"The Religion of Israel" in the Cath- 
olic Commentary on Holy Scripture. 
The field of Biblical Theology has 
been developed by non-Catholics, no 
doubt as a reaction against the ra- 
tionalistic studies of the past century. 
The German works of W. Eichrodt 
and G. Prochsch still remain among 
the best Old Testament Theologies, 
although the French Catholic work 
of Van Imschoot deserves great 
praise. Davison, Rowley and the 
SCM monographs manifest the fine 
work done by English non-Catholics, 
while the Two-Edged Sword of Fr. 
John L. McKenzie, S.J., will rank 
among the best on a poular level. 
Catholic endeavours in this field 
should certainly be encouraged. 

Fr. Sutcliffe's book fails to give 
accurate attention to elements that 
are essential to any Biblical Theol- 

ogy. The progressive development of 
revelation in the Jewish religion is a 
key factor in Biblical thought. Schol- 
astic theology systematizes by logical 
criteria the com-plete data of Chris- 
tian revelation; Biblical theology 
systematizes its doctrine according to 
a long historical and dynamic process. 
Scholastic theology uses categories of 
thought inherited from Greek Phi- 
losophy; scriptural beliefs must be 
placed in the background of a Semitic 
people whose thought-processes and 
literary rules are in the main wholly 
independent of Greek influences. 
(The distinctions, for instance, of 
the soul on pg. 47 do not sufficiently 
recognize this.) 

Even though Fr. Sutcliffe devotes 
two chapters to extra-Biblical reli- 
gious ideas, he fails to distinguish 
any points of contact with the Bibli- 
cal writers. The work of J. Pedersen 
Israel (London: 1954) clearly shows 
the value of understanding the cul- 
tural, social and religious milieu of 
the Semitic world when interpreting 
the Bible. Even granted that the ideas 
contained in Gen 1-3 are the result 
of divine revelation, still the language 
and literary style are conditioned by 
the Semitic mentality of the wnriter 
who was certainly influenced by* 
Sumerian and Babylonian folk-tales. 
A more careful formulation to liter- 
ary genre (in ch. 3 of the book) 
could have helped immensely to clar- 
ify the exact content of revelation 
regarding original sin and the intro- 
duction of suffering into the world. 
Furthermore, some attention should 
have been given to the fertility rites 
and serpent worship of the Canaan- 
ites in studying the nature of original 
sin (pg 45-46). Whether original sin 
was one of sex remains open to seri- 
ous dispute. But it seems quite likely 
that Moses was opposing the sexual 
aberrations of the western Semites 
who worshipped the serpent amid 
gross sex orgies. 

The fourth chapter on "Corporate 
Solidarity" develops a theme constant 
throughout the Bible. Yet, the great 
steps in its development are not 
clearly distinguished: the tribal Pa- 
triarchal days and the early occupa- 
tion of the Promised Land when the 
individual was wholly dependent up- 

on the group, the false materialistic 
individualism of the days of Ozias 
and Jotham, the period of Jeremias 
and Ezechiel when the corporate na- 
tion collapsed and true spiritual in- 
dividualism emerged, and last of all 
the false collectivism in the post- 
exilic thought. 

From these examples it seems that 
Providence and Suffering in the Old 
and JSlew Testaments can be a source 
of Biblical texts, but will not always 
impart a true understanding of the 
text nor leave the reader with a clear 
idea of the progression of Scriptural 

However, the book can make a 
definite contribution to a Passionist 
reader. The problem of suffering is 
interwoven in almost every sermon 
on the Passion. Fr. Sutcliffe's work 
is the only Catholic English work 
that offers a full length study of the 
Biblical sources, although Fr. John 
McKenzie has a masterful presenta- 
tion in the chapter "Mystery of In- 
iquity." Despite its scientific defi- 
ciences, this book will enrich a Pas- 
sionist thought and preaching. 

Carroll Stuhlmueller, C.P. 
Chicago, Illinois. 


Autobiography of St. Gemma 
Galgani, translated by Colum- 
ban Browning, C.P., Herder 
Book Co., 25c. 

"The autobiography of St. Gem- 
ma . . . has a unique history . . . 
We leave it to the individual reader 
to judge why the devil was so jeal- 
ous of this document." — Columban 
Browning, C.P. 

Suggested List of Recent Books 
For Passionist Libraries 


Atlas of the Bible, by L. H. Grol- 
lenberg, O.P., Nelson, $15.00. 

The Bible and the Liturgy, by 
I. Danielou, S.J., Notre Dame, 

Discovery in the Judean Desert, 
by Vermes, Desclee, $5.00. 


The Passionist 


On Truth of Catholic Faith 
(translation of Contra Gentiles of 
St. Thomas, Book IV), Double- 
day, Cloth $3.00, Paper .95. 

Spirit and Forms of Protestant- 
ism, bv L. Bouyer, Newman, 

Protestant Churches of Amer- 
ica, by J. A. Flardon, S.J., New- 
man, $5.00. 

The Bridge, I and II (Jewish- 
Christian Studies), Pantheon, 
$3.95 each. 

American Catholicism, by J. 
Tracy Ellis, University of Chi- 
cago,' Cloth $3.00, Paper $1.75. 

Catholic Church in U.S., editor 
L. Putz, Fides, $5.95. 

JOSEPH Most ]ust, bv F. L. Filas, 
S.J., Bruce, $3.50. 


Introduction to Philosophy, bv 
D. J. Sullivan, Bruce, $3.75. 


Lives of the Saints, Butler-Thurs- 
ton-Attwater, Kenedy, $39.50. 

Right to by Merry, Sister Mary 
Francis, Sheed and Ward, $3.00. 

Shroud of Turin, by Bulst-McKen- 
na, Bruce, $4.75. 

Window in the Wall (Sermons 
on the FIolv Eucharist) bv Ronald 
Knox, Sheed and Ward, $2.75. 

Reflections on the Passion, bv 
C. II. Dovle, Bruce, SI. 85. 


Popular I Iistory of the Reforma- 
tion, by P. Hughes, Hanover 
House, $4.00. 

John H. Newman, Autobiographi- 
cal Writings, Sheed and Ward, 

Life of I Iilaire Belloc, by R. 
Speaight, I lollis and Carter, $6.50. 




Dear Editor: 

I wish to express my appreciation of 
the fine work The Paasionist is doing for 
our Province and for the Passionist world 
at large. The Passionist has risen from a 
very humble origin back in 1942 to a 
publication that we can be justly proud 
of. The high caliber of the articles in re- 
cent issues, as well as the new features 
recently added make the arrival day of 
The Passionist all the more welcome. 
May your efforts at progress continue to 
be blessed by God. 

I especially like the recent addition of 
the Letters to the Editor section. Such a 
department jirovides the opportunity for 
a healthy and constructive exchange of 
ideas that cannot but be helpful. The na- 
ture of the letters published so far al- 
ready indicates that vital questions will 
be discussed there. I refer especially to 
the letters on the missionary apostolate. I 
sincerely hope that those who are most 
active in our missionary apostolate will 
use the Letters to the Editor department 
to share their experience with those of us 
who are less infomied and for the time 
being must be content to admire from a 
distance. Is it too much to hope that we 
will soon be seeing letters on various 
types of retreat work? A discussion of the 
vital problems encountered in this area 
of our special work would also be inter- 
esting and helpful. 

May God and our Holy Founder con- 
tinue to bless your efforts to make The 
Passionist a better publication. 

Columban Browning, C.P. 
Des Moines, Iowa 


Dear Editor: 

I would like to take the opiiortiinit\ 
through the pages of The Passionist to 
thank all the brethren for the many 
masses, prayers and sacrifices they offered 
to God for me during my recent illness. 
Reports came from all sides assuring me 
that I leaven was certainly being stormed. 
How much those assurances meant to me 
cannot be expressed in words! There can 
be no doubt that it was the prayers of the 
brethren and of many other people that 

brought down God's mercy on me. I 
would also like to call attention to the 
wonderful solicitude all the members of 
Sacred Heart Retreat showed toward me 
during the long months in the hospital. 
1 hank you, one and all! May God abund- 
antly reward your charity! 

Owen Duffield. C.P. 

Louisville. Ky. 


Dear Editor: 

Please, Father, this is not a gripe. 
Neither do I intend to make this section 
of The Passionist an a\enue for personal 
whims or fancies. Possibly I am even too 
unrealistic, and if, .so, someone might be 
kind enough to write saying as much. 

The problem is not monumental, since 
it concerns a mere fifteen minutes of each 
day. What I am wondering is, whether 
anything can be done to safeguard the 
time set aside for Examen and Spiritual 
Reading. Are we gradually doing away 
with this Si>iritual Exercise Are we, or 
have we already lost sight of the value 
of these two aids in the Spiritual Life? 

I do not mean to say that we spurn 
them. But, they seem to be treated with 
such indifference and quite frequently are 
set aside and e\en consistently neglected. 
During the time prescribed for the Examen 
and Spiriutal Reading, typewriters can 
be heard clicking away in various rooms. 
Inevitably, someone will be shaving in 
the washroom. Another poor monk begins 
his Examen only to be interrupted by a 
knock on his door and the \isit of a fel- 
low religious. V\'e sometimes wonder when 
a Rector and X'icar are supposed to make 
their Spiriutal I^eading— we certainly give 
them little consideration at 11:00 A.M. 

Everyone recognizes the fact that occa- 
sional demanils will creep in on the 11:00- 
II: IS periotl. fJut are all of them neces- 
sary? Could we not put off many? Would 
it not be better to interrupt our work and 
devote these fifteen minutes to our spirit- 
ual improvement, thereby also meriting 
God's blessing on our other duties? And 
are not special lights and graces given at 
that precise time— lights and graces, which 
Goil intends to give us and which will 

June 1, 1957 


certainly be lost if He does not nnd us 
at our Examen and Spiritual Reading? 
How cleverly the devil suggests that we 
finish this letter, that conversation, the 
working out of an idea for a sermon— 
"we will make our Spiritual Reading later 
on in the day"— the devil sees to it, how- 
ever, that we seldom do. 

There can be no doubt as to the value 
and necessity of the daily Examen and 
Spiritual Reading, seeing as how the 
Saints so strongly recommended and so 
faithfully practiced them. We can gather 
this too from the fact that religious found- 
ers and foundresses have embodied these 
exercises in their rules, specifying the very 
hour and length of time to be spent in 
them— enjoining them as a daily practice. 
We can find this in or own Rules: "Aft- 
erwards, all shall have their Spiritual 
Reading in their cells, before which they 
shall make their particular examen" 
(Chap, xxii, No. 175). 

Is it too much to hope and pray for, 
that we might realize more clearly and 
appreciate the value of the Examen and 
Spiritual Reading? And as a consequence 
to this appreciation, that we both use the 
time allotted and respect the rights of 
others in this matter. If it is a time when 
God speaks to our own soul and to the 
soul of our neighbor might we not be 
guilty of rudeness and even downright dis- 
respect to God by our carelessness and 



Dear Editor: 

It pleased me to have read the thought- 
ful observations and suggestions of Father 
Roland Maher, C.P. in his article en- 
titled, "Our Modern-day Mission Prob- 
lems" which appeared in the April 1st 
issue of The Passionist. These observa- 
tions and suggestions were offered to meet 
the complex mentality and morality of 
what he assumes to be a more educated 
people in this our day. More extroverted, 
more sophisticated, more education-con- 
scious, and more bent toward pleasure, 
yes. More basically educated? One may 
question. There is unquestionably a chal- 
lenge to be met and Father Roland has 
acquitted himself well. 

Making allowance for rhetorical over- 
tones, I feel that Father Roland some- 
what strained the norms of accuracy and 
propriety with not a little of innuendo in 
spots. Such could easily make impression 
on youthful readers that the good people 
of olden days, being so impoverished for 
lack of mental and emotional stimulation 
came flocking to missions if only to re- 
lieve "humdrum existence" and inject 
some "delightful spiritual hysteria" into 
their "lackaday life." This, as an overall 
picture is patently overdrawn. Unfortu- 
nate too, is the condescending remark: 
"One cannot say that theirs was an un- 
happy life. It had been the way of living 
for untold generations of our people here 
and in various countries of Europe from 
which they stemmed— founded on and 

almost completely taken up with home, 
work, and the Faith." Does Father Ro- 
land imply that their generous occupa- 
tion with home, work and the Faith, 
whilst being deprived of "The forty-four- 
hour week, paid vacations, the airplane, 
movies, television, and the radio" made 
their life a mere humdrum existence? To 
modern escapists it could well be, but to 
them of simple tastes and less of sense 
distractions, there was more of genuine 
peace and happiness than one can dis- 
cover in "our own beloved people and 
with our own times." Definitely the mis- 
sion did not serve as an outlet for enter- 
tainment-starved people of those days. 

Deadline for August Isf Issue 
All news items, notices and letters to 
the Editor to be printed in the August 
1st issue of THE PASSIONIST should be 
in the hands of the Editor by July 1st. 
Articles, Book Reviews and Questions to 
be Answered should be sent in by June 

Certainly every missionary of the old 
school and times (and I delight to be 
called an alumnus) would deplore and 
reject the aspersion: "To such people 
missions were a combination of Disney 
Land, Coney Island, Ed Sullivan Shows, 
and the Brooklyn Dodgers," and, "The 
last faint echo of their day died when 
John Ringling North folded his tents and 
said Finis." Such obloquy bordering on 
the intemperate may pass for fanciful 
satire, surely not for truth and reverent 
regard for the sacred function of the 

Letters to the Editor 
Our readers are invited to send letters 
to the Editor, giving their comments ond 
opinions on articles and letters appear- 
ing in THE PASSIONIST. Letters on other 
subjects that will be of interest to our 
Readers will also be printed. If request- 
ed, the name of the sender will not be 
printed, but anonymous letters will not 
be accepted. 

mission. No one will, I am sure, draw, 
what seems the logical inference, that the 
missionaries of those days were gifted im- 
presarios feeding "delightful spiritual hys- 
teria" to a people whose emotional stimu- 
lations did not reach beyond the parish- 
supper or county fair. And that emanci- 
pation of both people and missionary 
dates from the time the great circus ceased 
to be. Let us be grateful that the great 
men of the past have indeed folded their 
tents and returned to Him Whom they 
served so well. 

Father Roland does pay just tribute 
when he writes: "The mission served as 
subject matter of conversation for months 
and even years after the last strains of the 
Holy God We Praise Thy Name had 
died in the rafters." They did think and 
discuss indicating impression had been 
made. Can the same be said of today? 

Appraising missions and missionaries of 
another day in the light of modern-day 
missions and one's subjective attitude is 
not good history. Had Father Roland con- 
fined his splendid paper to problems as of 
today, there could be little to contravene 
his findings. 

Edwin Ronan, C.P. 

Houston, Texas 


Dear Editor: 

May I sincerely commend you on the 
continued excellence and the welcomed 
new features of The Passionist. I shall 
not forgive you, however, if you cut 
down too much on the various worthy 
news items about the houses of the 

I would like specifically to mention my 
whole-hearted acceptance of and agree- 
ment with Father Forrest's presentation 
of "Cana in the Passionist Apostolate." 
... if our spirit is essentially apostolic, 
and if the love of which the Rule speaks 
is ingenious, and if the needs of the 
Church as specified by the Hierarchy are 
the fields to which this ingenious love 
leads a Passionist, then I am of the 
opinion that Father Forrest has done a 
splendid and gratifying job of showing 
how truly Passionistic this type of work 
may be. 

One must not detract from the Mis- 
sions; one can only be proud of our 
zealous missionaries, old and young, who 
are so evidently bent on spending them- 
selves in facing the challenge of the 
missions in our day and age. But for 
those whose work in the Order pre- 
cludes mission activity, surely such 
works as Cana Conferences and similar 
works offer the lector, director, etc. an 
apostolate worthy of those whose ideal it 
is to share with others the fruits of their 
contemplation of the wisdom of the 



Dear Editor: 

All of us agree with the letter that ap- 
peared in The Passionist (April 1st, 1957, 
pages 178-179), calling for articles that 
stimulate new streams of thought. How- 
ever, the letter left me confused and 
perhaps disagreeing. First of all, it seemed 
to imply that previous articles no longer 
retain an active power for good and are 
merely lifeless monuments of the past. 
I know of many Passionists who go back 
to them. A check of the files of past 
issues will reveal many excellent articles 
of enduring value. Any further work on 
the same subject will rely upon them and 
build upon them. 

Secondly, the letter makes too much 
of a distinction between learned "literary 
gems" and "short, lively articles." Even 
these latter must be shown to rest on 
solid Theological and pastoral founda- 
tions. Otherwise, we degenerate into 
some form of pragmatism. New ideas 
need buttressing with reasons and ex- 


The Passionist 

perience, and also (when possible) with 
references to other books or authorities. 
It is these latter which stir up further 
study and enable the readers to in- 
vestigate the reasons advanced by the 

Since the ideas are somewhat new to 
both writer and reader, is it not better 
to express them— not necessarily in a 
finished literary fomi (in that I agree 
with the letter) but— in a form that is 
somewhat longer than a short introduc- 
tion? We can summarize what we already 
know; the unknown must be presented 
with greater length and a slower pace. 
The articles of Father John Courtney 
Murray and Father Francis Connell, 
which the letter praised, are actually long, 
documented studies. 

Thirdly, the letter states that "we 
are not" prepared for a scientific periodi- 
cal. However, I myself prefer to agree 
with the opinion of Father Jerome Crowe, 
C.P., of Holy Spirit Province, Australia. 
(Jan.-Feb., 1956, pgs 5-6) / think that 
our English-speaking provinces have 
enough educated and experienced mis- 
sionaries and lectors to staff, and write 
for, such a magazine. We need only a 
man like Father Costante Brovetto, C.P. 
(Editor of the excellent Fonti Vive in 
Italy) to organize and spear-head it. Such 
a venture is more a question of prudence 
rather than of scientific or experimental 

A scholarly magazine is not necessarily 
a research periodical (like Recherches de 
Science Religieiise) but rather one like 
Cross and Crown published by the Dom- 
inican Fathers or Spiritual Life published 
by the Discalced Carmelites. It would 
give Theological foundations for our de- 
votion to the Passion and scientific ways 
of spreading this devotion. 

1 his naturally leads to the final point. 
To limit yourself to short articles, or at 
least to encourage them alone, is actual- 
ly discouraging a continuance of some 
of the finest contributions of the past. It 
is precisely these longer articles which 
continue to provoke the most thought 
and comment. 

Carroll Stuhlmueller, C.P. 
Chicago, Illinois 


Dear Editor, 

The articles in the last issue were ex- 
cellent. Let me thank everyone respon- 
sible for them; from Fr. General who 
wrote the first, to the unknown author 
of Fr. Arnold's obituary. The issue was 
a fine combination of the various parts 
of our life: the cidtural by Fr. John 
Mary ("The Passion in Painting Through 
the Ages"), pastoral by Fr. Rolantl 
("Modern-Day Mission problems") and 
Fr. Forrest ("C'ana Conferences"), the 
canonical by Fr. Paul Mary ("Invoca- 
tion: Rcgina Congregationis"), and the 
ascetical in the first and last articles. 
Book-reviews, iiuestions-and-answers, and 
news filled in the rest. 

Passionist Father 


The Psalms and the Stations 

In the college church of Madonna 
Delia Strada, Loyola University, Chi- 
cago, is a set of Stations of the Cross, 
intriguing in its possibilities for medi- 
tation and preaching. Each station 
carries a brief inscription from the 
new Latin Psalter. Though some are 
necessarily applied in an accomo- 
dated sense, most of the quotations 
are definitely messianic. And all are 
aptly placed in the mouth of our 
Savior, as He proceeds to Golgotha. 
They are especially meaningful when 
read in the full context of the psalms 
from which they are taken. In view 
of our traditional devotion to the 
Stations, and also of the large place 
the Psalms have in our way of life, 
wc publish the inscriptions here, to- 
gether with an English translation 
from the new Confraternity Old 

1) Convenientes simul contra me, 
vitam meam auferre meditati 

"They consult together against 
me, plotting to take mv life." 

(Ps 30,14) 

2) I lolocaustum ct \ictimam pro 
peccato non {■K)stulasti: tunc 
dixi: "Ecce venio." 

"Holocausts or sin-offerings 
you sought not; then said I, 
"Behold 1 come.' " 

(Ps 39,7-8) 

3) Sustinet omnes qui cadunt ct 
erigit omnes dcpressos. 

"The Lord lifts up all who 
are falling and raises up all who 
are bowed down." 

(Ps 144,14) 

4) Stillat iacrimas anima mea ex 
macrore; erige mc secundum 
\crbum tuum. 

"My soul weeps lor sorrow; 
strengthen me according to your 

(Ps 118,28) 

5) Opprobrium fregit cor meum 
. . . et expectavi commiseran- 
tem, sed non fuit. 

"Insult has broken my heart 
... 1 looked for sympathy, but 
there u'as none." 

(Ps 68,21) 

6) Serenum pracbc \ultum tuum 
servo tuo. 

"Let your face shine upon 
vour servant." 

(Ps 30,17) 

7) Prostrata est in pulvere anima 

"I lie prostrate in the dust." 
(Ps 118,25) 

8) Audi, popule mens, ct monebo 
te: Israel, utinam audias me. 

"Hear, my people, and I will 
admonish you; O Israel, will 
vou not hear me?" 

(Ps 80,9) 

9) Ego . . . sum \ermis ct non ho- 
mo, opprobrium hominum et 
despectio plebis. 

"But I am a worm, not a 
man; the scorn of men, despised 
bv the people. ' 

(Ps 21,7) 

10) Dixiclunt sibi indunicnta mea, 
et de \x'slc mea mittmit sortem. 

"They di\ide my garments 
among them, and lor my \esture 
thev cast lots." 

(Ps 21,19) 

11) Foderunt manus meas et pedes 
meos, dinumerare ]iossum om- 
nia ossa mea. 

"They have j^ierced my hands 
and mv feet; I can count all 
m\ bones." 

(Ps 21, 17-18) 

12) Macrore tabescit . . . anima mea 
et corpus meum. 

"With sorrow ... is consumcil 
m\ soul . . . and mv bodv. 

(Ps 30.10) 

13) In manus tuas commendo spiri- 
tum meum. 

June 1, 1957 


"Into your hands I commend 
my spirit." 

CPs 30,6) 
14) Inter mortuos est stratum meum, 
sicut occisorum, qui in sepulcro 

"My couch is among the dead, 
like the slain who lie in the 

(Ps 87,6) 


(Continued from -page 254) 

mystical theology and of fully quali- 
fied and competent lectors. 

A suitably located novitiate and 
houses of study where, with an ade- 
quate staff, the Passionist monastic 
missionary life is lived in all its rich- 
ness are the minimum requirements 
a Passionist Province must have in 
order to carry out its important func- 
tion of reproducing, generation after 
generation, fully formed Apostles of 
the Passion. "In every Province," 
says our Holy Rule, "one or more 
houses shall be set apart for study 
where the young men shall apply 
themselves to philosophy and theol- 
ogy that they may become fitter for 
the care of souls and may labor 
with all their strength in the Lord's 
vineyard (fl.R. n. 176)." 

BUT the implication of that sen- 
tence, and indeed the logical 
and natural development of a living 
Province, is that there should also 
be other houses, not for the train- 
ing of Passionists, but where fully 
formed and mature Passionists con- 
tinue to live the fulness of our voca- 
tion. The fact that such Retreats 
are not houses of study does not 
and cannot mean that they should 
therefore be houses of "modified ob- 
servance." Because our Congrega- 
tion is an Apostolic Institute, the 
basic principle of the Apostolic Life 
—"contemplare et contemplata alls 
tradere"— is of the essence of our 
vocation. That means that our active 
apostolate of preaching the Passion 
"on missions and other pious exer- 
cises" must flow ex natura sua from 
the Passionist contemplative life. 
And that contemplative life is en- 
shrined and preserved in the full 
monastic Observance detailed in our 

fioly Rule. It would seem, indeed, 
that to our Holy Founder it was un- 
thinkable that a Passionist Missioner 
should be anything but a religious 
of full Observance, and one of the 
most significant paragraphs of our 
Holy Rule is that which states: "We 
prescribe no rule for the spiritual ex- 
ercises which should precede and 
accompany a work of so great im- 
portance (i.e., the conducting of 
apostolic missions), and knowing 
that ALL the religious in the Re- 
treats of our Institute apply to this 
object above all and without inter- 
mission (H.R. n. 196)." 

And thus emerges the picture of 
the ideal Passionist Province— some- 
thing not arbitrarily arrived at, but 
built up from the study of principles: 
from the Thomistic teaching con- 
cerning the nature of the Apostolic 
or "Mixed" life, from the consider- 
ation of the essential spirit of our 
Institute and the purpose it is de- 
signed to fulfill in the Church, from 
the external form of organization 
willed by the Church for the growth 
and spread of our Congregation, from 
the basic requirement of Canon Law 
and from the prescriptions of our 
Holy Rule. That ideal Province is 
a living cell in the organism of the 
whole Congregation, its own exist- 
ence assured by means of support 
fully in accord wdth our Spirit of 
Poverty and its continuance guaran- 
teed by the due intake of suitable 
vocations and the right training of 
novices and students, not only in the 
proper environment, but under the 
expert guidance of competent di- 
rectors and lectors and through the 
influence of exemplary missionary 
communities. In such a Province, 
under enlightened Superiors, the 
Passionist contemplative life of 
monastic and liturgical Observance 
is maintained in all its vigor and 
finds its integral expression in the 
zealous exercise of our proper and 
specialized Apostolate of preaching 
the Passion in Missions, retreats, 
confessional work and other pious 
exercises in conformjity with the 
nature of our life. 

As such a Province develops, its 
life and influence cannot remain 
limited within its own territorial 
boundaries, but must flow out to 

contribute to the richness and life 
of the whole Congregation of which 
it is a part. Now, the apostolic pur- 
pose of our Congregation is, in fact, 
one with the whole missionary 
function of the Church herself. Our 
missionary apostolate is, therefore, 
universal, i.e. it is not identified 
solely with the preaching of Mis- 
sions and retreats to the Faithful, 
but embraces also the work of 
evangelization in locis infidelium in 
the form of Foreign Missionary en- 
deavour. The apostolate of the 
Foreign Missions is an integral part 
of the purpose for which our Con- 
gregation was founded and is ex- 
pressly contemplated in our Holy 
Rule (v. H.R. n. 209). 

There is, however, this important 
difference between the two forms of 
missionary apostolate: whereas the 
Home Mission Apostolate belongs to 
the proper function of each separate 
Province within its own territory 
and falls within the direct compe- 
tence of the Provincial Superiors, 
the Apostolate of the Foreign Mis- 
sions is committed to the whole Con- 
gregation as such and is "under the 
direct vigilance and authority of the 
Father General in accordance with 
canon law and our Constitutions 
(S.M. p. 3)." 

Nevertheless, because each Prov- 
ince is part of the Congregation, 
each must contribute in its own way 
to this universal apostolate of the 
Congregation. "Let no Province, even 
though it has not a Foreign Mission 
especially committed to it, consider 
itself exempt from the duty of co- 
operating efi^ectively in the apostolate 
to non-Catholics by prayer, by sup- 
plying vocations and by collecting 
alms. It (the Province) shall indeed 
hold it as a sacred obligation to 
work with all its strength towards 
the glorious purpose of this aposto- 
late (S.M. n. 2, cp. n. 9)." For the 
efficient conduct of the Foreign 
Missions committed by the Holy See 
to our Congregation, the various 
Missions Fields are assigned to in- 
dividual Provinces (S.M. n. 6), and 
it is for the General to make these 
assignments (ibid. n. 4). The terri- 
tory so assigned then becomes the 
particular care of that Province and 
is made part of its special apostolate. 


The Passionist 

In point of fact, our Congregation 
has so spread and developed that all 
but two of its eighteen Provinces 
care for twelve important Mission 
territories throughout the world. 

BY definition the only works of 
the activity ministry which are 
connatural to the Apostolic Life are 
the Spiritual Works of Mercy, for 
only these flow ex natura from con- 
templation. This principle is of vital 
application to our Congregation. Be- 
cause ours is an Apostolic Institute 
the only active ministry proper to 
us is the exercise of the Spiritual 
Works of Mercy in accordance with 
the prescriptions of our Holy Rule 
and Constitutions. Moreover, the 
particular apostolate of our Congre- 
gation is further specified by the 
particular end of our Institute ex- 
pressed in our Fourth Vow— to pro- 
mote devotion to the Sacred Passion. 

It is for this particular end or 
purpose that our Congregation has 
been approved by the Holy See and 
given juridical existence in the 
Church. By force of that approval 
the Apostolate of the Passion has 
been committed in a special way and 
officially to our Congregation as an 
organized body in the Church. But 
it is of the nature of organization or 
"order," not only that the end pro- 
posed should be clear and definite, 
but that the proper means should 
be selected and suitably arranged 
for the attainment of that end. 
Hence the means whereby we are 
to exercise our special Passion- 
Apostolate enter into the very con- 
cept of the organized Passionist Life. 

It is abundantly clear from our 
Holy Rule, from the life and writ- 
ings of our Holy Founder, as well 
as from the constant tradition and 
practice of our Congregation that 
the particular end of our Institute 
is to be attained principally through 
the work of Apostolic Missions. 
". . . Those members who may be 
considered fit for so great a work, 
should, both during apostolic 

CISES, teach the jieople by word of 
mouth to meditate devoutly on the 
Mysteries, Sufferings and Death of 
our Lord Jesus Christ (H.R. n. 3)." 
"The brethren engaged in preaching 

the Gospel in apostolic missions 
shall earnestly strive to induce 
Christian people to meditate upon 
and often call to mind devoutly the 
sacred Mysteries of the life-giving 
Passion and Death of our Lord 
Jesus Christ (ibid. n. 127)." And 
our Regulations state explicitly" . . . 
in promoting the sanctification of 
others, the Congregation uses as 
its special means the work of 
Sacred Missions (Regs. n. 187)." 
Allied to the preaching of Missions 
is the work of conducting retreats 
or Spiritual Exercises for particular 
classes of the Faithful, and this 
work too is proper to our Congrega- 
tion as one of the principal means 
of our Apostolate (v. J. P. nn. 733- 

Besides the ministry of preaching 
on Missions and retreats which 
forms the principal means of the 
Passionist Apostolate (v. J.P. II ch. 
4 a. 1), there are other works of 
the ministry which, though classed 
as SECONDARY means, are neverthe- 
less proper to our Congregation. "Let 
priests who are not destined for 
preaching study to promote this 
good (devotion to the Passion, in 
other ways which will give them the 
most favorable opportunities, par- 
ticularly when they hear confessions, 
teach catechism, or hold conferences 
on spiritual things, and on such 
other occasions which may arise 
from the performance of their duties 
or from circumstances (H.R. n. 13)." 
These secondary means of our Apos- 
tolate are threefold: 

a) The giving of catechetical in- 
structions in the neighborhood of 
our Retreats. "When a Retreat has 
in it brethren who are judged fit for 
undertaking Apostolic Missions . . . 
the Superior may select one of the 
priests or clerics to go on feast days 
to the neighboring places and in- 
struct the people in the doctrines of 
the Christian faith and their duties 
of piety, and promote among them 
an assiduous remembrance of the 
lifc-gi\'ing Passion and Death of our 
Lord Jesus Christ (H.R. n. 299)." 
Father Titus remarks in this connec- 
tion that where circumstances allow, 
the Superiors should be zealous in 
/ipplying this prescription of the 
I loly Rule, since it is a matter which 
touches the proper Apostolate of the 

Congregation (J.P. n. 727). 

b) The preaching of occasional 
sermons or devotional exercises such 
as tridua, novenas and the like. 
Though this ministry is not men- 
tioned in the Holy Rule, yet from 
the accepted practice of the Con- 
gregation it must be considered to 
form part of our proper apostolate. 
(v. J.P. n. 738). The official Sylloge 
of our Customs, however, makes it 
very clear that these "occasional 
sermons' and courses of sermons 
must not be undertaken to the detri- 
ment of our principal ministry of 
Missions and retreats (Syll. n. 2124). 

c) The administration of the Sac- 
rament of Penance in our Churches. 
"In the confessional they shall at- 
tend to the same point (promoting 
devotion to the Passion) with a 
prudent consideration of place, time 
and persons (H.R. n. 129)." "Let 
those who, at whatever time, come 
to our church to confess their sins 
be heard with the charity which is 
fitting by priests chosen and ap- 
proved for this service (H.R. 300)." 

Missions, retreats and allied forms 
of the sacred ministry are, then, the 
proper works of our Congregation. 
They constitute the proper means 
for the fulfillment of our Fourth 
Vow and the attainment of the end 
of our Institute. Such works are 
proper to our Congregation pre- 
cisely because they are works which 
ex natiira sua flow from contempla- 
tion, for only such works are com- 
patible with the Apostolic form of 
Religious Life to which our Con- 
gregation belongs. 

BUT our Congregation, in com- 
mon with all Religious Insti- 
tutes, exists only by the Will of the 
Church for the good of the Church. 
The glory of any Religious Order is 
not in the pursuing of its own in- 
terests or the procuring of its own 
good, but in the "building up of the 
Body of Christ" of which it is an 
organic part. Hence circumstances 
or the positive will of the I loly See 
may demand that, for the good of 
the Church, Passionists should de- 
vote themsehes to external works 
which are dc se alien to the nature 
of our vocation and way of life. Such 
alien activities arc, for instance, the 
care of the sick, chaplaincies in the 

June 1, 1957 


Armed Forces and such like minis- 
tries which come under the heading 
of "wholly exterior works" in that 
they do not, of their nature, flow 
from the contemplative life. The 
parochial ministry too, while cer- 
tainly demanding the exercise of 
the Spiritual Works of Mercy, also 
involves by law many purely active 
occupations, and is therefore alien 
to our way of life. Indeed, our Holy 
Founder consistently refused to al- 
low his men to be involved in the 
ordinary care of souls, even when 
sti'ongly pressed. 

But when such external activities 
are undertaken for the good of the 
Church and with the approval or 
at the command of competent author- 
ity, they constitute a legitimate form 
of apostolate for Passionists. But they 
can never become the permanent 
and proper apostolate of the Con- 
gregation. It is vital to the preserva- 
tion of our Institute and the in- 
tegrity of the true Passionist way of 
life that such activities, even when 
legitimate, be recognized and 
acknowledged as exceptional Apos- 
tolates, and therefore of their nature 
temporary in the Congregation, al- 
lowable only so long as the needs of 
the Church in particular circum- 
stances of time and place demand. 

The Church herself recognizes 
the necessity and legitimacy of Re- 
ligious undertaking forms of the 
ministry which are exceptional to 
their Institute, and in Canon 608 
directs Religious Superiors willingly 
to offer the services of their subjects 
to Local Ordinaries and Pastors as 
often as the needs of the Faithful 
require (C. 608/1). But the same 
canon prescribes that this must be 
done WITHOUT prejudice to re- 
ligious DISCIPLINE. Further, in leg- 
islating for Religious who have the 
care of parishes, the Church is care- 
ful to state that they "remain bound 
by the observance of the vows and 
Constitutions of their Institute, in 
so far as this observance is consistent 
with the duties of their office (C. 

Here in the Code, then, is con- 
tained a practical principle of the 
utmost importance for the guidance 
of our Superiors in accepting and 
regulating any form of apostolate 
exceptional to our Congregation. 

And this principle has a two-fold 
application, or rather it is to be ap- 
plied in two distinct spheres. 

The discipline of Religious Life 
is to be maintained in its integrity. 
As regards the moral personality of 
the Congregation as a whole or of 
its Provinces, this means that ex- 
ceptional work must not be allowed 
to develop to such proportions that 
it endangers our regular monastic 
Observance and the proper aposto- 
late of the Congregation in the 
Province as a whole. It is not easy 
to determine in practice when this 
danger-point is passed, but it must 
surely be obvious that if, in any 
given Province, the majority of Re- 
treats are centers for exceptional 
work, or if the number of Religious 
engaged in such work is dispropor- 
tionate to the man-power of the 
Province, that danger is at least 
acute. The Superiors are, therefore, 
under obligation to make provision 
that the "tone" of the Province is 
set, not by the needs of the Faithful 
which call for exceptional work on 
the part of Passionists, but by the ob- 
servance of the full and regular 
monastic Passionist Life and its con- 
natural apostolate. 

The other sphere in which the 
principle of maintaining religious dis- 
cipline in face of exceptional work 
applies is in regard to the individual 
Religious appointed to such work. 
Whatever be the individual Passion- 
ist's external status or occupation, he 
remains bound by the personal obli- 
gations of his vocation and profes- 
sion. Everywhere and in all circum- 
stances he is bound to tend to per- 
fection by the observance of the 
vows in accordance with the Con- 
stitutions. Everywhere and in all cir- 
cumstances he is bound to maintain 
in his life the spirit of contempla- 
tion intra et extra fructificans— that 
Passionist spirit of prayer, poverty, 
penance and solitude which ex- 
presses his total identification with 
the Person and the purpose of the 

The ordinary means whereby that 
spirit is engendered and fostered in 
our Religious is the regular monas- 
tic and liturgical Observance in the 
canonically erected Retreats of the 
Congregation. For the Passionist liv- 
ing that life and exercising its con- 

natural apostolate adequate provision 
is made in our Holy Rule. But be- 
cause the demands of the excep- 
tional forms of the apostolate suci 
as the care of souls in parishes, hospi- 
tals and institutions are such that 
the Religious appointed to such 
works cannot keep the regular Ob- 
servance, other provisions have to 
be made so that our priests legiti- 
mately appointed to pastoral duties 
can foster the contemplative life and 
maintain the spirit of their Passionist 
vocation. For, far from pastoral duties 
being allowed to diminish the spirit 
of the true Passionist, they demand 
rather that it be intensified and in- 
creased. Unless adequate provision is 
made whereby Religious engaged on 
exceptional apostolates can foster the 
contemplative life and maintain the 
true Passionist spirit, a grave injus- 
tice is inflicted on them in that they 
are deprived of the means necessary 
to the fulness of their religious life. 
It is therefore the duty of Superiors 
to cater for the spiritual good of 
these Religious by drawing up a 
suitable modus vivendi which they 
can follow. A mere modification of 
our full Observance on the plea that 
these Religious should strive "to 
keep as much of the Rule as pos- 
sible" does not seem to be any real 
solution. The vtodus vivendi must 
be such that the circumstances and 
demands of the exceptional aposto- 
late they are engaged in are realis- 
tically met and, while positively as- 
sisting these Religious efficaciously 
to perform the work to which they 
are assigned, will enable them to at- 
tend to their own spiritual advance- 
ment and the preservation of the 
contemplative spirit. Such provision 
would eliminate that dangerous and 
false idea that their work is merely 
tolerated as a necessary evil. Their 
work is blessed, enjoined and di- 
rected by authority and in the faith- 
ful discharge of their duties these 
Religious are walking in the path 
of true Passionist obedience. 

To sum up then: The unity and 
harmony of the Passionist way of 
life is rooted in and preserved by 
the contemplative life of monastic 
and liturgical Observance, and that 
contemplative life finds its integral 
and proper expression in the apos- 
tolic preaching of the Passion "on 


The Passionist 


Missions and other pious exercises." 
Nevertheless, de facto other forms 
of the active ministry which, not be- 
ing the direct and connatural effects 
of contemplation, are of their nature 
outside the scope of the Passionist 
vocation, are undertaken— and that 
legitimately— by Passionists. The ne- 
cessity and legitimacy of these ex- 
ternal activities do not remove the 
danger of their adverse influence on 
the life of a Province. But if they 
are recognized as exceptional Apos- 
tolates and proper provision is made 
for the regulation of such work, then, 
not only are possible evil effects 
avoided, but the exceptional apos- 
tolates themselves become an added 
contribution on the part of our Con- 
gregation to the advancement of 
God's glory and the salvation of 

THE living organism of the Mysti- 
cal Body of Christ has been pro- 
ductive of its highest activity in the 
institution of the Rehgious Orders 
and Congregations, each with its 
own specific character, each with its 
own particular spirit and aim, each 
with its own special place and in- 
fluence in forwarding the plan of 
human redemption. To some it is 
given to share vicariously in the 
prayer and suffering of Christ for 
souls by a completely hidden life of 
prayer and penance— and as a re- 
sult we have the great Penitential 
and Contemplative Orders. To others 
the call comes for a more active 
cooperation in the ministry of our 
Lord by works of zeal and charity- 
Orders established for the care of 
Christ's poor, for the healing of 
Christ's sick, for the teaching of 
Christ's little ones. It is the glory of 
our Congregation and the privilege 
of our vocation that Cod has called 
us to that mode of Religious Life 
which holds the highest place in the 
Church— the life of contemplation 
intra et extra friictificans. As St. 
Thomas says: "Sicrit viahis est il- 
himinare quani lucere sohim, ita 
mains est conteniplata aliis tradere 
ifuaiu solnni coritentplari." /\nd he 
concludes: "Sic cri^o sttmnnnii i^rad- 
t(»; i)i relioionihiis tenent quae ordi- 
nantiir ad docendtim et praedican- 
dum (H.IL q. 188, a. 6)." 

Our life answers so completely to 

St. Thomas' concept of the highest 
form of Religious Life that that pass- 
age of the Summa written live cen- 
turies before our Congregation was 
founded, reads like a commentary 
on the first chapter of our Holy Rule. 
There is set forth the grand plan 
of our life— to be ourselves united 
with Cod in love through the exer- 
cises of the contemplative life and 
to lead others to that divine union 
by preaching to the world the 
Message of the Cross. In prayer, 
penance and solitude at the foot of 
the Cross the Passionist identifies 
himself totally with the Person and 
the purpose of the Crucified, "makes 
his own the Sufferings of the Be- 
loved," says our Holy Founder, and 
from the fullness of his contempla- 
tive union with the Passion shares 
with others the fruits of his prayer. 
"Contemplari et contemplata aliis 
tradere" is, then, the fundamental 
principal of the Passionist Life. 
Seen in the light of that principle, 
our life is by no means a "mixture" 
of contemplation and action, by no 
means a "balance " between opposing 
elements, but a perfect unity. That 
principle recognized and allowed to 
inform and guide the organized Pas- 
sionist Life gives our Congregation 
its strength, its vitality, its effective- 
ness; it preserves the harmony of the 
Passionist Way of Perfection and 
enables the Congregation to adapt 
itself to changing circumstances of 
time and place while preserving in- 
tact its identity, its unity and its 
vigor. Thus our Congregation is a 
glorious and effective instrument in 
the Mystical Body of Christ for the 
advancement of the Kingdom of 
God and the redemption of the 
world in Christ and with Christ. 


A.D.: Acta et Docwnenlci Congressus 

Generally de Stiitiluis Perfectionis 

(Rome 1950). 
n.R.: Passionist Ride 
J. P.: Exposiiio Hisiorica URIS PARTI 

CLII.ARIS C^.oiifiri'^atioiiis Passionis— 

litus, C. P. (Rome 1946) 

Pass.: Passerini, O. P. De Hominiint Sta- 

tihus et Officiis (Lucca 1732) 
Regs.: Passionist Regulations 
S.M.: Passionist Statiita pro Missionihtis 

(Rome 1938) 
S.T.: St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theo- 

Syli.: Passionist Sylloge Praecipuarum 

Covsuetiidinum (Rome 1937) 
Vill.: Villiers, S. . Mystiqtie de la Passion 

chez S. Paid de la Croix (article) 



Acta el Dociinienta Congressus Generalis 

de Statibiis Perfectionis (Rome 1950) 

Bouscaren-Ellis: Canon Law Commentary 

(Milwaukee 1951) 
Clement XIV: Bull Supremi Apostolatiis 

(Rome 1769) 
Codex hiris Canonici 

Collegii Salmanticensis Cursus Theologiae 
Moralis: t. IV tract. XV De Status Re- 
ligioso (Venice 1750) 
Coronata, O.F.M.: Institutiones luris 

Canonici (Rome 1951) 
Garrigou-Lagrange, O.P. : 

De Sanctificatione Sacerdotum (Rome 

The Three Ages of the Interior Life 
Vol. II (St. Louis 1948) 
Passerini, O.P.: De Hominum Statihus et 

Officiis (Lucca 1732) 
Passionist Literature 
St. Paul of the Cross: 
Holy Ride 
Letters (trans, and ed. Holy Cross 

Province 1953) 
Spiritual Diary (trans, and ed. as 
Gaetan, C.P.: 

Doctrine de S. Patd de la Croix sur 
L'Oraison et La Alvstique (Lou- 
vain 1932) 
S. Paid de la Croix, Apotre et Mis- 

sionaire (Tirlemont 1933) 
S. Paul de la Croix et L'histitut des 
Passionistes (Tir. 1933) 
Leo Kierkels, C.P.: Epistola de Studio 

Passionis (Rome) 
St^ituta pro Missionihus Congregation! 

Passionis Concreditis (Rome 1938) 
Sylloge Praecipuarum Consuetudinum 

C.P. (Rome 1937) 
Titus, C.P.: Expositio Historica luris 

Particularis C.P. (Rome 1946) 
Ward Biddle, C.P.: Prtssionisf Spirit- 
uality (art. in The Passionist Mar. 
Phillipe, O.P. : Doctrina Mystica S. 

Tlwmae (Rome 1952) 
Pius XII: Mystici Corporis Christi (C.T.S. 

London 1944) 
St. Thomas Aquinas: Siiiiidm Theologica, 

ILL. ct III 
Villiers, S.J.: Mystique de la Passion chez 
S. Paul de la Croix (art. in Recherches 
de Science Rcligieuse 1952) 

(See also La Schole Calloliche di 
Spiritualita—Womv 1 943) 

JUNE 1, 1957 



(Continued from page 236) 

do more to establish that devotion 
to the Passion in his hearers which 
will endure when the Mission is 

We should spare no effort to make 
the technique of our Mission service 
more effective in propagating devo- 
tion to the Sacred Passion. The Mis- 
sion is the masterpiece of our Apos- 
tolate, and, in propagating devotion 
to the Passion, the model which all 
other forms of our ministry must 
imitate, each in its own way. Its 
true success is in the devotion to 
the Passion which we have imparted 
to others and which we have made 
a lasting influence in their lives by 
our instructions and exhortations. 
Whatever other qualities our work 
may have, we stand or fall by the 
way we promote devotion to the Sa- 
cred Passion. 


(Continued from page 239) 

a personal contact campaign and be 
willing to undertake it. This, the 
preparatory step. (2) When we take 
over, repeated appeals, as above men- 
tioned, should be resorted to when 
contacts are possible, and they are, 
from platform, in the confessional, 
and anywhere else, so that the peo- 
ple will come to regard the duty as 
more than a work of supererogation. 
(3) And all the while beseeching 
the grace of God for tlie people by 
our prayer and willingness to sacri- 

Neither let us lose heart nor run 
after novelties. The day will come, 
and soon, ff the signs of the times 
have meaning, when sated souls will 
return from their frivolities and seek 
out the old style mission in prefer- 
ence to a watered down substitute. 



(Continued from page 241) 

St. Paul of the Cross acted pre- 
cisely thus toward those souls who 
showed that they had grasped his 
own spirit better and who asked him 
to cultivate this same spirit in them.^- 


Chapter 111: Formation of His Spirit 

to the Ideal of the Passion 

' Cfr. p. 49 in Introduzione alia Spiri- 

tualita di S. Paolo della Croce; The Pas- 

sionist, Vol. IX, n. 5 (Sept.-Oct. 1956) 

p. 463. 

2 Cfr. Epes. I, 16-19: "I ... do not 
cease to give thanks for you . . . that the 
God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father 
of glory, may grant you the spirit of wis- 
dom and revelation in deep knowledge of 
him: the eyes of your mind heing en- 
lightened, so that you may know what is 
the hope of his calling, what the rirhes 
of the glory of his inheritance in the 
saints, and what the exceeding greatness 
of his power towards us who believe." 

3 Hebrews, IX, 12. 

■* "It is clear that if some body is to 
attain the condition of fire, it is necessary 
that it be assimilated to fire, acquiring a 
certain lightness, by which it would be 
moved by the proper motion of fire; so too 
for this, that man reach the happiness of 
divine fruition, which is proper to God, 
according to his nature, it is necessary 
that he be first of all assimilated to God 
through spiritual perfections, then— oper- 
ate according to these, and thus finally 
attain the aforesaid happiness." Contra 
Gentes, IV, 21. 

5 Cfr. POV 1370: 1100 v (this last 
testimony is recorded on page 21, note 4 
of this work and in The Passionist, IX, 
n. 3 (May-June 1956), p. 285, note 27); 
PA 202 sq. 

6 "Divine things are to be revealed to 
men only according to their capacity; 
otherwise matter for ruin would be given 
to them, when they would condemn what 
they did not understand." Summa Theo- 
logias, I-II, 101, 2 ad 1. 

" "In other sciences therefore it suf- 
fices that a man be perfect according to 
his intellect; but in those (in the doctrine 
of Sacred Scripture) it is required that he 
be perfect according to intellect and will. 
Deep mysteries are to be spoken of to the 
perfect. We speak wisdom among the per- 
fect. For each man judges according to his 
disposition; just as the angry man judges 
one way while the passion of anger en- 
dures, and another way when it ceases. 
. . . And therefore the Philosopher says 
that as each one is, so the end seems to 
him to be; and since those things which 
are revealed in Sacred Scripture pertain 
to the will and not only to the intellect, 
therefore it is necessary that one be per- 
fect in both." In omnes S. Pauli Ap. Ep. 
Comm,, in Hebr. V, lectio II. 

8 "The Man-Christ Himself, Who by 
His real flesh. His true cross, His real 
death, His real Resurrection, is said to be 
the pure milk of infants, is found to be 
the Lord of angels when He is possessed 
by spiritual souls. . . . Thence . . . neither 
are the children given milk lest they never 
understand or possess Christ the creator; 
nor is milk taken from them lest they 
ever desert Christ the Mediator. . . . Christ 
Crucified moreover is both milk for the 
infants and the food for the proficients. 
It is a more apt likeness of the foundation, 
because, in order that what is constructed 
might be perfected— the building is added 
to, but the foundation is not taken away." 
St. Augustine, In ]o. Ev. Tract., 98, n. 6; 
PL 35, 1883. 

9 Cfr. Gaetan, Apotre et Missionnaire, 
pp. 80-83; and also POR 2369 v; POV 
340; PAC 451; POV 838. 

1 " Cfr. some outstanding cases in Gae- 
tan, Apotre et Missionnaire, pp. 37-41; 
and also: C. 1, 187, 151; POR 249v (the 
case of a "chief-constable" who was con- 
verted and in turn became an aposde 
among his companions). 

11 Such was the case of Agnes Grazi: 
cfr. Francesco, Agnese Grazi, p. 22. 

12 Such was the case of Father Valen- 
tine of St. Mary Magdalen, C.P.: cfr. 
POC 832v; S. 1, 411, 197; 337, 170. 

13 Cfr. POC 506v (D. Angela RosaHa 
Ricci, O.S.B.). 

14 The witnesses note that he left traces 
of blood on the ground, POC, 105v; POR, 
220v-221; and that his bruised and bleed- 
ing legs evoked compassion, POC 276. 

15 During the sermon he pressed a 
crown of thorns upon his head until blood 
flowed, POC 506v. 

1 6 The priests who heard his preaching 
on the Passion feared that he might die 
from the anguish he experienced, POV 
56v, 57. When he spoke of the Taking 
down from the Cross, he almost fainted, 
POC 494v; cfr. POC 507; PAC 427v; 
Gaetan, Apotre et Missionnaire, p. 110. 

I'f He manifested the same irresistible 
charm in the confessional, POV 650; 837v; 
in the Monasteries, POC 343; in private 
spiritual conferences, POC 43 Iv; 438; and 
in his ordinary conversations, POR 2017v; 
POC 518; POR 2718-19. 

1 s "In his sermons to the people he 
raised his finger in an act of great admira- 
tion and then— more with his heart than 
with his tongue— said: "A God dead for 
me! A God scourged for me, a God bound 
with ropes for me' and other sentiments, 
by which he softened even the hardest 
hearts." POR 836; cfr. POC 557v; cfr. 
besides, Gaetan, Apotre et Missionnaire, 
pp. 79-89; POR 1019. 

19 BoIIeftJMO, 1929, pp. 329-330 (Med- 
itation V on the Passion: Jesus Christ 
Brought Before Caiphas). Read the whole 
text which is quite remarkable. 

^oihid., p. 332; cr. also POV 441v. 

21 Bollettino, 1926, p. 300 (Sermon: 
Counsels on Death to a Sinner). The cita- 
tion is taken from Ecclesiasticus, 41, 3. 

22 Bollettino, 1926, p. 301. 

23 Cfr. Rules and Constitutions, c. I, n. 
4; c. XVI, n. 127; Statuta . . . Part II, 


The Passionist 

c. VII, n. 200. 

-'• Letters, II, 234 (December 10, 1742 
—to the Abbot Geragni). 

-•'' I Thessalonians, I, 9-10. 

-'«PO 189v; POV 466; 331v. Clement 
XIV called him: "A Saint Paul the Apos- 
tle of our times," POR 779; 928; 1161 v. 
Luca, who attributes the phrase to Bene- 
dict XIV, in /.o spirito. ... p. 11, is to 
be corrected. 

^' Bollettino . . . , 1927, p. 41 (Ser- 
mon on Universal Judgment). 

-^ Cfr. e.g., the dramatic scenes record- 
ed by Cristoforo, 11 gigante della croce, 
pp. 172-179. 

-" Galatians 3, 1 : "... before whose 
eyes Jesus Christ has been depicted cruci- 

■'f' I Corinthians, 2, 7. This allusion is 
explicitly referred to in the colloquies of 
our Saint with the "spirituals." Whenever 
the occasions presented themselves of 
speaking with spiritual souls and souls of 
prayer, then it was that, holding back the 
veils, "he spoke of the wisdom of God, 
mysterious . . . ," speaking to each soul 
according to the way in which she had 
been guided by the Lord," POV 384 (Fa- 
ther John Mary of St. Ignatius); cfr. also 
POC 363. 

■^1 Cfr. the wonderful Pauline passages, 
Col., I, 9-23, which culminates in the 
cross: "For it has pleased God the Father 
that in him all his fulness should dwell, 
and that through him he should recon- 
cile to himself all things, whether on the 
earth or in the heavens, making peace 
through the blood of his cross." Such ap- 
pears to have been the process of the 
deepening of Christological contemplation 
followed by the Aposde (cfr. DS II, 
1707), and of his theology: cfr. Gerardo, 
C.P. La croce e la Chiesa, Roma 1951). 

;«^Cfr. POV 1148-1149. 

the Jews. /\ndicvv and Philip spoke 
to Jesus about it. "But Jesus an- 
swered them, 'The hour has eomc 
for the Son ot Man to be glorified. 
Amen, amen, I say to you, unless the 
grain of wheat falls into the ground 
and dies, it remains alone. But if it 
dies, it brings forth much fruit . . . 
Now my soul is troubled. And what 
shall 1 say? Father, save Me from 
this hour! No, this is why I came to 
this hour. Father, glorify Thy name!' 
There came therefore a voice from 
heaven, '1 have both glorified it, and 
I will glorify it again. "'^'' 

At the Last Supper, in that beau- 
tiful prayer of Christ recorded in 
chapter 17 of St. John's Gospel, Our 
Lord prayed for His coming Passion 
which was to be, as He so well knew, 
the manifestation of God to men, the 
Glory of God. "Father, the hour has 
come! Glorify Thy Son, that Thy 
Son may glorify Thee, even as Thou 
hast given Him power over all flesh, 
in order that to all Thou hast gi\'en 
Him He may give everlasting life . . . 
I have glorified Thee on earth; I 
have accomplished the work that 
Thou hast given Me to do. And now 
do Thou, Father, glorify Me with 
Thyself, with the glory that I had 
with Thee before the world ex- 

So many things are summed up in 
the Passion of Christ. It is there that 
the dim-lit figures and obscure proph- 
ecies of the Old Testament burst 
forth in blinding radiance. Only with 
the assistance of the Holy Spirit in 

prayer are the eyes of the soul able 
to penetrate deeply these mysteries. 
Two small aspects of the richness of 
the mysterx' of the Passion have been 
considered— the revelation of the Di- 
vine Name and the Divine Glory. 
May these thoughts enrich our ap- 
preciation of the Passion by helping 
to view it not only as the act where- 
by man has been redeemed, but as 
God's revelation of Flimself — His 
Name and His Glory. 


' \^ocabulaire Biblique, ed. by J. Von 
Allmen. Treatmen of "Noin" by H. iMich- 
aud, p. 191. 
^ 3 Kgs. 5,5. 

•'' "If we had forgotten the name of 
our God, and stretched forth our hands to 
a strange god: Would not God have 
searched this out?" Ps. 43,21-22. 
4Lk. 11,2. 
•''Ex. 3, 14-15. 
«Ex. 6, 2-3. 

' Jn. 8, 28. The Greek text has sim- 
ply "that I am". The " 'I am' is the di- 
vine name revealed to Moses, Ex. 3,14, 
and signifies that the God of Israel is the 
one true God, Dt. 32, 39. In applying 
this name to Himself, Jesus proclaims that 
He is the one true Savior, to whom all 
the faith and hope of Israel must look. ' 
BihJe de Jerusalem (one vol. ed., Paris: 
1956) p. 1410, footnote e). 
^Jn. 13, 19. 
"Jn. 17, 1.6.26. 
^'^ Dictionnaire de La Bihlc, art. 

" Ex. 19, 16.18. 

i-'Ex. 24, 15-17. 

i^^Ex. 40, 34-35. 

'-•Ex. 33, 18.20. 

i'''Jn. 1, 14. 

"ijn. 12, 23-25 and 27-28. 

1" In. 17, 1-5. 


(Continued from page 243) 

The fullness of God's Glory that 
Moses longed to see, wc of the New 
Dispensation, in a certain sense, have 
seen. For Christ is the manifestation 
of God to men— the Glory of God. 
"And the Word was made flesh, and 
dwelt among us. And we saw his 
glory . . ."'•'' But it is above all in 
the Passion of Christ that we have 
this striking and supernatural mani- 
festation of God, which is called I lis 

IT WAS but a few days before His 
death. Certain Gentiles had come 
to see Christ, perhaps to offer I lim 
a place of refuge from the hatred of 

St. Paul of the Cross and Suffering 

"Your little bodily and spiritual sufferings are the first steps 
of that sublime and holy ladder which great and generous souls 
ascend. Step by step they climb to the top where they find naked 
sufferings, without consolation either from heaven or from earth. 
If they are faithful not to seek solace in creatures, they will arrive, 
by means of this naked suffering, at the most pure love of God, 
unalloyed with anything whatsoever. But the fortunate souls who 
reach what I have just said are very rare. (Letters I, p. 153)" 

"The more deeply the cross penetrates and afflicts, the better; 
the more suffering is deprived of consolation, the purer it is. (Let- 
ters I, p. 298)" 

June 1, 1957 



HOLY CROSS PROVINCE Seminary Altar Consecrated 

Warrenton Fire 

The fire at Katy Jane Nursing 
Home, Warrenton, Missouri, a short 
distance from the new preparatory 
Seminary claimed the lives of 72 old 
people. As soon as the community 
of Our Mother of Good Counsel 
Seminary heard of the fire, three of 
the Fathers hurried to the scene of 
the disaster. 

Seven of the college students were 
walking in the area and arrived at 
the scene shortly after the blaze 
started. They gave whatever aid they 
could to the people from the home 
who were spared. 

On the following day priests from 
the monastery went in twos and 
threes during the day to console the 
afflicted and to be of whatever help 
they could. In the absence of the 
pastor of the parish who was in the 
hospital after an automobile accident, 
some of the fathers took over the af- 
fairs of the parish. Fathers Edgar 
Ryan and Raymond McDonough 
took Holy Communion to all the 
Catholic survivors the day after the 

Father Campion Clifford, C.P., 
was the celebrant of the Solemn 
Memorial Mass held in Holy Rosary 
Church, at Warrenton, Missouri. 
The fire attracted world wide atten- 
tion and was on many of the front 
pages of European papers. 

The Seminary altar of the new 
Prep at Warrenton, Missouri was 
solemnly consecrated on March 3rd 
by the Most Rev. Leo Byrnes, Aux- 
iliary Bishop of St. Louis. 

This marble altar, a gift of the 
Ghio family of St. Louis in 1925, 
was moved from the old Prep at 
Normandy, Missouri, when the 
Seminary was transferred to War- 
renton, Missouri, last September. 
Very Rev. Thomas More Newbold, 
C.P., Rector of the Seminary and 
Rev. Michael Brosnahan, C.P., Vicar, 
acted as Deacon and Subdeacon to 
the Bishop. 

Death of Fr. Eustace Eilers, C.P. 

Father Eustace Eilers, C.P., a 
member of the Sacred Heart Retreat, 
Louisville, Ky. died on Saturday 
morning, March 23. Father Thad- 
deus Tamm, C.P., Vicar of Sacred 
Heart Retreat and Brother Gabriel 
Redmon, C.P., were present when 
Father Eustace died. 

Father Eustace had been a mem- 
ber of the community at Ensley, 
Alabama, and was on his way to join 
the community at St. Paul of the 
cross Retreat, Detroit. While pass- 
ing through Louisville, Father be- 
came sick and was taken to the 
hospital. After a few days in St. 
Joseph's Infirmary, Father Eustace 
returned to Sacred Heart Retreat. 

On the morning of March 11, 
Father suffered a stroke and was 
rushed back to St. Joseph's Infirm- 

ary. Father never again regained the 
power of speech, but was conscious 
during part of the time. until Thurs- 
day evening, March 21. 

Father Eustace was buried on 
-Tuesday, March 26, in the monas- 
tery cemetery, adjoining the Church 
of Saint Agnes. The solemn funeral 
Mass was sung by the Very Rev. Fr. 
Neil Parsons, Provincial of Holy 
Cross Province. Father Daniel Ma- 
her, C.P., a classmate of Father Eus- 
tace was Deacon. Very Rev. Fr. 

Father Eustace Eilers, C.P. 

Walter Kaelin, Rector of St. Paul of 
the Cross Monastery, Detroit, was 
Subdeacon. Father Gilbert Kroger, 
Pastor of Holy Family Church, Ens- 
ley, Alabama, was Master of Cere- 
monies. The sermon was preached 
by Father Roger Mercurio, C.P., 
Lector of Sacred Scripture and 
Liturgy at Sacred Heart Retreat. 

Vocation Week in Texas 

Fathers Jerome Stowell, C.P., and 
Jordan Grimes, C.P., have been 
working with vocations for the Pas- 
sionist way of life. During vocation 
week in March, Fathers Jerome and 
Jordan visited 10 schools in the arch- 
diocese of San Antonio. They gave 
talks on vocations and then showed 
the new movie on the Passionist life. 


The Passionist 





Air view of new foundatioH in Wcirreton, Missouri. At left foreground is the new Retreat House. 
Background center is the main huilding. In the center of the huilding is the Seminary Chapel. 
The College and High School wings are to the left and right. At the extreme rear of the main 
building is the Monastery. 

■ance Hall to Laymen's Retreat House. 

On the Feast of Our Holy 
Founder, St. Paul of the Cross, April 
28, the new Preparatory Seminary 
and Laymen's Retreat House at War- 
renton, Missouri were dedicated. Be- 
cause of the sudden illness of Most 
Re\'erend Joseph E. Ritter, Arch- 
bishop of St. Louis, Bishop Leo C 
Byrne, Auxiliary to his Excellency, 
officiated in his place. Archbishop 
Ritter also authorized Bishop Byrne 
to use the episcopal throne during 
the pontifical Mass. 

The most important e\cnt of the 
day, was the solemn pontifical Mass 
celebrated by Bishop Leo C. Byrne. 
Very Re\'. Fr. Clarence Vowels, 
C.P., acted as arch priest to his Ex- 
cellency, with Very Rev. Fr. Fergus 
McGuinness, C.P., and Rev. Fr. 
Elmer Sandman, C.P., as deacons of 
honor. Very Rev. Fr. Kyran O'Con- 
nor, C.P., and Very Rev. Ignatius 
Bechtold were deacon and subdcacon 
for the Mass. 

t~*^t: ". 

■ t" ' ■r 

Monastery Choir. 


Coninniuity of Our Mother of Good Counsel Seminary and Retreat House. 

JUNE 1, 1957 


i - ■ v^ -r^^ .' . .{.- 

Seminary study hall for high school. 

Library for College and High School. 

Altar and Sanctuary of Seminary Chapel. 

High school recreation room. 

Gym for Seminarians. 

A very excellent sermon for the 
occasion was preached by Rev. Fr. 
Emmanuel Sprigler, C.P., showing 
the importance of the seminary in 
the training of the future mission- 
ary and retreat master. Following 
the Mass, Bishop Byrne spoke on the 
work and the history of the Passion- 
ists in the Archdiocese of St. Louis 
and extended his congratulations to 
all who were present. 

After the Mass a banquet was 
held in the gym at which over 300 

people were served. Ladies from the 
Warrenton area assisted by ladies of 
the Passionist Fathers' Guild helped 
serve the dinner. The toastmaster 
for the occasion was Rev. Fr. Richard 
Hughes, C.P. 

Open house was held all after- 
noon and approximately 2,000 people 
visited the new Seminary and Re- 
treat House. In the evening the en- 
tire ceremony of the morning that 
had been put on a tape recording 
was broadcast by the local radio 


Besides the many lay friends of 
the Passionists, members of the re- 
ligious orders and secular clergy were 
present for the dedication. The Pro- 
vincials and Superiors of both 
provinces, Holy Cross and St. Paul 
of the Cross, were also present. 

In preparation for the dedication, 
an open house was held on the 
previous Sunday for the people of 
Warren County. The Warrenton 
radio station announced the event- 


The Passionist 

Laymen's Retreat House Chapel. 

beforehand and signs were posted 
in store windows of the down town 

During the afternoon an estimated 
3,000 people, mostly non-Catholics, 
visited the Seminary and the Lay- 
men's Retreat House. At least four 
of the visitors were Protestant min- 
isters. One of the highlights of the 
tour was the new vocation movie- 
Crusaders for Christ. As it was 
shown continuously in the seminary 
and retreat house, it was seen by 
hundreds. Literature was also dis- 
tributed to all the visitors. 

Fatlter Emmanuel Sprigler, C.P., preaching at the Dedicatinn A/ww. 

Dur'ni}' the Mass of Dedication, celebrated ou 
I cast of St. Paul of Cross, April 2S. 



On Saturday, May 25, six students 
from Sacred Heart Retreat, Louis- 
ville, Ky., were ordained to the 
priesthood and five more were or- 
dained subdeacon. They were or- 
dained in the Cathedral of Louis- 
ville bv Archbishop John A. Floersh, 
D.D. ' 

The names of the new priests are: 
Fathers Gerard Steckel, Peter 
Berendt, Michael J. Stengel, Louis 
Doherty, Thomas A. Rogalski, and 
Henry Whitechurch. Father Henry 
Whitechurch is from Immaculate 
Conception Province, Argentina. 

The newly ordained subdeacons 
are: Fathers Raphael Domzall, Fran- 
cis Cusack, Casimir Gralewski, Se- 
bastian MacDonald and Philip 

St. Thomas' Day Symposium 

Under the guidance of their lec- 
tor, Father Barry Rankin, C.P., the 
students of Immaculate Conception 
Retreat, Chicago, 111., attempted to 
sound the depths of St. Thomas' 
teaching on the Sacred Passion in a 
special symposium on March 7th. 

The three papers, delivered for 
the community were entitled: 
"Through the Sacraments to the 
Passion" by Confrater Kevin Ken- 
ney; "The Loving Obedience of the 
Passion" by Confrater Leonard 
Kosatka; and "The Excess of the 
Passion" by Confrater Jerome Brooks. 
Confrater Martin Thomes acted as 
master of ceremonies for the oc- 
casion. Besides honoring St. Thomas, 
this year's symposium was intended 
as a special tribute to Father Garri- 
gou-Lagrange, O.P., on his eightieth 

Passionist Presents 
Theology for Laity 

During the past lenten season, 
Father Joseph Mary O'Leary, of Im- 
maculate Conception Retreat, Chi- 
cago, 111., delivered his yearly series 
of lectures under the auspices of the 
Thomas More Book Shop. The 
theme of Father's lectures this year 
was "Theology and Sanity." 

Many lay people, anxious to learv 
more about the dogmatic treasures 
of the Church, crowded the lecture 
room, as Father presented in brief 


and popular form the main lines of 
the Summa Theologica. 

Laymen Retreat News 

Houston, Texas. During a two 
month period. Holy Name Retreat 
House was able to average 42 men 
for each weekend. It was able to 
keep up this high average despite a 
last minute cancellation of a sched- 
uled group of 30 Air-Force Men. 
One weekend saw 56 men making 
the weekend retreats which was the 
largest number yet for this year. 

As has been the custom for sev- 
eral years, The Serra Club of Hous- 
ton spent Good Friday afternoon at 
Holy Name Retreat House. The 
afternoon schedule consisted of 
lunch, solemn stations of the Cross, 
private adoration and participation in 
the Solemn Liturgical Services. The 
gratifying number of Serra Club 
members in attendance shows how 
much they appreciate this privilege. 

The retreat league of Houston 
was well represented at the regional 
and diocesan meetings of the newly 
erected Diocesan Council of Cath- 
olic Men and its affiliation with the 
National Council. In response to the 
appeal of the Bishop, the first pro- 
ject of the new council was at- 
tendance at one extra mass each week 
for five weeks during the period of 
April 21 to June 1. The intention 
for which they offered these extra 
Masses was for the return of lapsed 


Brother Michael Wilson, C.P. 
made his temporary profession of 
vows on March 19th, the Feast of 
St. Joseph. The profession was held 
in St. Francis Church, St. Paul, 
Kansas. The Very Rev. Fr. Faus- 
tinus, C.P., Master of Novices, re- 
ceived Brother Michael's vows. The 
parents of Brother Michael and two 
sisters, one of them a Sister of St. 
Joseph, came from Santa Ana, Cali- 
fornia for the ceremony. 

News in Brief 

The Rev. James N. Hoagland 
celebrated his first Solemn Mass in 
the Monastery Church of St. Paul, 
Kansas, on Passion Sunday, April 
7th. Father was ordained for the 

diocese by Bishop Mark Carroll in 
Wichita on April 6th . . . The "Hour 
of the Crucified" is now reaching 
hundreds of people in the Cincin- 
nati area. It is broadcast every Sun- 
day morning over WKRC, the 
Times-Star radio station. 


Father Cyprian Leonard, C.P. has 
been transferred from St. Gemma's 
Parish, Detroit, to Louisville, Ken- 
tucky. Father Cyprian was assistant 
pastor at St. Gemma's. His place has 
been taken by Father Loran Au- 
buchon, C.P., the former assistant 
pastor at St. Francis' Church, St. 
Paul, Kansas. 

Father Lawrence Browning, C.P., 
has been transferred from St. 
Gabriel's Retreat, Des Moines, Iowa, 
to St. Francis' Church, St. Paul, 
Kansas, as assistant pastor. Father 
Cyril Mary Jablonovsky, C.P., has 
been transferred from St. Paul of 
the Cross Retreat, Detroit, Michi- 
gan, to Holy Name Retreat, Hous- 
ton, Texas. Father John Aelred 
Torisky, C.P., has been moved 
from Houston, Texas, and is now 
stationed at our Retreat in Detroit. 


Death of Fr. Arthur Benson, C.P. 

Father Arthur of the Sorrowful 
Mother (Benson) died in St. Agnes 
Hospital, Baltimore, Md., on the 

Father Arthur Benson, C.P. 

The Passionist 


evening oF March 26, 1957. Just a 
few weeks prc\'i()iis he had been 
suddenly stricken with what seemed 
to be gastric hemorrhages and was 
rushed to the hospital where due 
to the critical nature of his condi- 
tion he was immediately annointed. 
The medical diagnosis showed that 
the hemorrhages were caused by 
ruptured blood vessels in the esopha- 
gus. A further prognosis discox'crcd 
an advanced cirrhosis of the liver 
with a dangerous gall bladder con- 
dition, a complication that pre- 
cluded any immediate surgery. He 
seemed to improve for a while un- 
der specific treatment but death 
finally came to him on the night of 
March 26. He was in his seventieth 
year although his appearance belied 
such an advanced age and he was 
without even a grey hair. 

Father Arthur was born in Darl- 
ington, England, in July of 1887. 
As a child he came to America 
where the family settled in Pitts- 
burgh. I le attended school there and 
later in Chicago, where he attended 
business college. He derived Amer- 
ican citizenship through his father. 
Father Arthur was professed in 1914 
and ordained, February 4, 1923, 
when in his mid thirties, by Bishop 
Boyle of Pittsburgh at St. Vincent's 
Archabbey, Latrobe, Pa. 

Father Arthur left for the Hunan 
Missions that same year. After a 
period of service as Pastor of the 
Chenki Mission, he was assigned to 
the Procuration in Hankow. Later 
he became Procurator and from 
then until 1949 when illness com- 
pelled him to return to the United 
States he filled this office, except for 
the usual routine furloughs. 

Late in 1941, when Bishop Cuth- 
bert O'Gara, O.P., then Vicar Apos- 
tolic of Yuanling, was in Hongkong 
for medical treatment, the Bishop 
called Father Arthur from Shang- 
hai for business consultation. He 
was caught by the Japanese invasion 
of the Colony and together with 
the Bisho]! and 1 ather Ronald Nor- 
ris, C.P., held as a hostage and on 
Christmas Day taken out to be 
executed. A last minute repriexc 
saved his life. 1 le was then placed 
in a prison camp until repatriated 
on the Cripsholm in 1943. 

Newly ordained priests, St. Paul of the Cross Province. 

Since the Communist occupation 
of China prevented Father Arthur 
from returning to China, he was as- 
signed to the Baltimore community. 
As a member of that Community 
he served in various capacities, 
gracious, accommodating and ener- 
getic, until stricken with his fatal 

His funeral Mass took place from 
St. Paul's Monastery Church, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., on March 30. His Ex- 
cellency Bishop Cuthbert, C.P., to 
whom Father Arthur had been a 
trusted aide and associate for thirty- 
four years, pontificated. Fie was as- 
sisted as Archpriest by the V. Rev. 
Theodore Folcv, C.P., Rector of St. 
Paul's; Rev. Basil Bauer, C.P., a 
veteran China missioner. Deacon; 
Rev. Julian Morgan, C.P., Sub- 
deacon. Rev. Ernest Cunningham, 
C.P., also a China missioner, and 
Rev. Columkille Regan, C.P., 
Deacons of Honor. V. Rev. Gregory 
Fl^nn, C.P., Master of Novices, 
served as Master of Ceremonies. 

The eulogy was preached by Rev. 
Paul LIbinger, C.P., former Vicar 
Cieneral ol the Diocese of Yuanling, 
Hunan, and an associate of Father 
Arthur from the earliest vears of the 
missions in China. 


Twelve Deacons of St. Paul of the 
Cross Province were ordained to the 
Sacred Priesthood on May 3, in St. 
Michael's Monastery Church, LInion 
Citv, N.J., bv I lis Exeellcncv, Most 
Rev. Cuthbert M. OCara. C.P., 
D.D.. Bishop of Yuanling. 

The newly ordained are: Father 
Benedict Berlo, C.P., Gardner, Mass.; 
Clement Kasinskas, C.P., Derby, 
Conn.; Leo Joseph Gorman, C.P., 
Far Rockaway, N.Y.; Vincent Mary 
Boney, C.P., Mount Vernon, N.Y.; 
Louis Joseph McCue, Landsdowne, 
Pa.; Kiernan Earley, C.P.; Dorches- 
ter, Mass.; Augustine Sheehan, C.P., 
Long Island City, N.Y.; Colman 
ConnoUv, C.P., Dorchester, Mass.; 
Gerard ' Griffith, C.P., Brooklvn, 
N.Y.; Donald Mclnnis, C.P., North 
Dighton, Mass.; Gabriel Shields, 
C.P., Philadelphia, Pa.; Aelred La- 
comara, C. P., Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Silver Jubilees 

Thirteen members of the Province 
celebrated their Silver Sacerdotal 
Jubilee on May 22 of this year. 

Union City claims three of the 
Jubilarians; Father Donald Nealis, 
C.P., Business Manager of The Sign; 
Father Agatho Dukin, C.P., former 
Rector of St. Mary's Dunkirk, and 
Baltimore; and Father Lawrence 
Steinhoff, C.P. Holy Cross, Dun- 
kirk, also has three Jubilarians; The 
Rector, V. Rev. Boniface Buckley, 
C.P.; Father Columban Aston; and 
Father Silvio De Lucca, C.P. 

Springfield; Father Gilbert VVal- 
ser, C.P., Retreat Director; and 
Father VVinfred McDermott, C.P. 

Scranton; Father Xavier Welch, 
C.P., former Rector of I lolv Cross; 
and Father /Mfred \Vea\er. C.P., 
Pastor of St. Ann's Monastery 
Parish and a brother of Father 
Bert rand Weaver, C.P.. of St. 
Michael's Conimunitv, Union Citv. 

June 1, 1957 


Hartford; Father Ronan Carroll, 
C.P., brother of Fathers Alban and 
Hugh Carroll, C.P. 

Pittsburgh; Father Robert O'Hara, 

Germany; Father Germain Heil- 
man, C.P., formerly a China mis- 

The Province offers felicitations 
and prayerful congratulation. In a 
forthcoming issue of The Passionist, 
accounts and photos of the various 
Jubilees will be noted. 

Four members of this Class of 
1932 are deceased. Fathers Wilfred 
Morrisey, C.P., James Carney, C.P., 
Anselm Connolly, C.P., and Michael 
Sullivan, C.P. 

Evening Recollection 

Father Leo Gerrity, C.P., Voca- 
tion Director of Our Lady of Sor- 
rows Monastery, West Springfield, 
Mass., realizing from past experience 
how difficult it is to retain the in- 
terest of teenage boys in a weekend 
retreat or even a full day of recollec- 
tion, has devised a method that 
seems to solve the problem for our 
Retreat Directors. Father Leo chose 
an ordinary school - day and had 
fifty-two high school boys come to 
the monastery for an Evening 

The hours ran from three to nine 
p.m. In this time Conferences were 
given, strict silence insisted upon. 
Stations of the Cross, Holy Hour, 
Question Box and other interesting 
circumstances provided which went 
over in a big way with the group. 
The enthusiasm shown by those who 
made the first Evening Recollection 
opens up a new angle on specialized 
work among high school groups. 

Aged Benefactor Dies 

Mrs. Mary Brophy, mother of the 
late Father Kenneth, C.P., died in 
Brighton, Mass., in her 101st year. 
From the first days of St. Gabriel's 
Foundation the Brophy Family has 
been devoted benefactors of the 
Monastery. Father Felix Ward, C.P., 
gives the family special mention in 
his celebrated work. The Passionists. 

Mrs. Brophy was buried from St. 
Gabriel's Monastery Church, on 
March 5. The Pastor, Father Quen- 

tin Olwell, C.P., was the celebrant 
of the Mass, assisted by Father 
Claude Leahy, C.P., Deacon, and 
Father Bertin Donahue, C.P., Sub- 
deacon, all classmates of the deceased 
Father Kenneth. His Excellency 
Bishop Cuthbert, C.P., presided and 
gave the obsequies. 

Father Kenneth was ordained in 
November, 1921, and died of tuber- 
culosis the following March. In the 
summer of 1921, our Most Reverend 
Father General, Silvius of St. Ber- 
nard, while conducting the Canon- 
ical Visitation of the Province was 
struck by the saintliness of the 
young cleric, Kenneth of the Five 
Wounds, then a member of the Com- 
munity of St. Gabriel's. 

There was no hope of his recovery 

Father Kenneth Brophy, C.P., ordained to 
the priesthood before he even began the 
study of theology by a special dispensa- 
tion of the Holy Father. 

from the illness which threatened his 
life, the illness which prevented him 
from even beginning the study of 
theology although his class was then 
in its second year of theology. How- 
ever, Father Silvius on his return to 
Rome managed to obtain an unheard 
of dispensation and the Holy Father 
permitted the ordination of the young 

His Eminence Cardinal O'Connell 
was not available but he permitted 
Bishop Paul Nussbaum to come and 
ordain the young Student in Boston. 
Father Kenneth was able to offer but 
ten Masses after his ordination. The 
last one was on Christmas Day, 1921. 
From then on until his death in 

March he was too weak to attempt, 
even with assistance, an approach to 
the altar. 

Mrs. Brophy lived across the street 
from the main entrance to the Mon- 
astery in Brighton. She saw the foun- 
dation grow from a humble farm- 
house to the present imposing mon- 
astic building and she saw the trans- 
formed barn which served as a 
chapel, the chapel in which her son 
was ordained, replaced by the splen- 
did monastery church which now 
crowns the hilltop. 

On through her reclining years 
she prayed for her Passionist sons, at 
home and in China, with the monas- 
tery daily in her view overlooking 
the Community cemetery where her 
saintly priestly son was laid to rest 
thirty-five years ago, the first to be 
interred in that holy spot. 

Lenten Work 

With 1 50 missionaries 'on the road' 
during Lent and more than 450 
Provincial appointments for the sea- 
son, 1957 has proved to be the busiest 
and most successful Lenten Season 
in the history of the Province. 

Springfield Dedication 

His excellency, Most Rev. Chris- 
topher Weldon, D.D., Bishop of 
Springfield, Mass., on March 31st, 
blessed and dedicated the new stain 
glass windows of his cathedral. The 
windows offer a pictorial review of 
the apostolic work of the Successors 
of the Apostles. 

The Rector of the Monastery, V. 
Rev. Luke Misset, C.P., was invited 
to preach the sermon at the dedica- 
tion. Father Luke used as his theme, 
"Christ, the Light, the Truth and 
the Beauty". He received the well 
merited congratulations of the Bish- 
op and the clergy present for the 

Profession of Brothers 

On March 14, three of our Broth- 
ers pronounced their final vows at 
the Juniorate in West Hartford. The 
Rector of the Monastery, V. Rev. 
Aloysius O'Malley, C.P., received 
the vows and preached for the occa- 
sion. The Brothers professed are 
Philip Maggiulli, C.P., Virgil Pasi, 
C.P., and Anselm Catalucci, C.P. 


The Passionist 


Brothers Philip and Virgil were 
transferred to St. Michael's Monas- 
tery, Union City. Brother Ansclm 
was made a memher of St. Gabriel's 
Community, Brighton, Mass. 

Other changes among the Broth- 
ers concerned Brother Michael Stom- 
ber, C.P., from Brighton to Jamaica; 
Brother George Kowaleski, C.P., Ja- 
maica to SpringHeld; Brother Francis 
Dalton, C.P., Springfield to Balti- 
more; Brothers transferred from the 
Novitiate to Hartford, Edmund 
Fletcher, C.P., Reginald Laffond, 
C.P., Kevin McLaughlin, C.P., and 
Ignatius Bakish, C.P. 

Passion Plays 

The Lenten Season found the 
three Passion Plays of the Province 
playing to overflowing audiences in 
Pittsburgh, LInion City and Balti- 
more. These annual productions of 
"Veronica's Veil" never fail to cap- 
tivate the large numbers who wit- 
ness the sacred drama each year. 
There are other Lenten devotional 
stage off^erings in various cities but 
none seem to hold the same appeal 
as our perennial "Veronica's Veil". 

America's Passion Play, as "Veron- 
ica's Veil" has come to be known, 
was written by Father Bernardine 
Dusch, C.P., a saintly member of 
the Province. He completed the work 
in 1910. It was produced for the first 
time in 1913 in St. Michael's Audi- 
torium, Pittsburgh, and in 1915 in 
St. Joseph's, West Moboken (now 
Union City), N.J. Father Bernar- 
dine received his inspiration to write 
"Veronica's Veil" from the world- 
wide interest in Obcrammcrgau's fa- 
mous decennial jiroduction. 

Anton Lang, the celebrated Chris- 
tiis ol Oberammergau, greeted the 
players of "Veronica's Veil, of St. Jo- 
seph's, Union City, in 1922 with the 
following letter: 

Villa Daheim, 
February 18th,/22. 

Mr. W. L. 1 larty, 
Cieneral Secretary to the 
Plavers of Veronica's Veil, 
New York. 

Dear Sir: 

In reply to your esteemed com 

June 1, 1957 

munication of January twelfth, 
1 beg to say: 

To work diligently in the 
name of the Master of all Crea- 
tion is one of the most hopeful 
and efficient means to again All 
the peoples of all nations with 
milk of human kindness and 
unite them with brotherlv love. 

Thanking you and your as- 
sociates for the kind wishes, ex- 
tended for the success of the 
Passion play and the people of 
Oberammergau, I beg to remain 
in high appreciation, 

Sincerely yours 




Effective Mission in 
Model Parish 

Six Passionists preached the mis- 
sion in Santa Maria della Fede, the 
Model Parish of Naples, from Feb- 
ruary 9th to 24th. The mission was 
solemnly opened by the Cardinal 
himself when he welcomed the mis- 

sionaries in the public piazza. There 
in the piazza the Cardinal gave the 
mission Cross to the Missioners as a 
symbol of the life and grace that 
would flow during the mission. 

Santa Maria dclla Fede was one 
of the several parishes that did not 
take part in the "Gigantic' Passion- 
ist mission that took place in Naples 
in 1956. At the request of the Pas- 

Opening of Mission in Model Porish by Cordinol Morcellus Mimmi, m Noples 


tor and Cardinal Mimmi, the Pas- 
sionist were asked to preach the mis- 
sion this year. 

A good mission in a model parish 
should give good results, but the re- 
sults of the mission in Santa Maria 
della Fede parish surpassed the fond- 
est expectations. Thousands of peo- 
ple who had been distant from the 
Church came back. Others were en- 
couraged to continue their good life. 
Especially surprising was the thou- 
sands of men receiving Holy Com- 
munion at the midnight Mass. 

Before the mission, all the mis- 
sionaries who had been appointed to 
preach the mission carefully studied 
the situation and made careful plans 
that the Word of God should pene- 
trate all sections of the Parish. 

A Catholic Literature Exhibition 
was combined with the mission in 
order to bring the Gospel, the cate- 
chism and the best of modern Cath- 
olic books into the greatest possible 
number of hmes. The exhibition 
was opened by the Superior of the 

Special sermons were added to the 
traditional mission sermons for the 
different classes of people. The pub- 
lic schools opened their doors to have 
these conferences in the school halls 
for professional men, for university 
students, working men, mothers and 
for various groups of Catholic ac- 

At the same time the mission was 
going on there was public exposi- 
tion of the Blessed Sacrament in one 
of the chapels of the parish with con- 
tinual adoration and prayers for the 
success of the mission. 

About 30 aspirants to the Papal Gen- 
darmes also made their retreat in 
preparation for their initiation. 

Postgraduate Studies 

Priests from Immaculate Heart of 
Mary Province, Italy, are taking post- 
graduate studies in sociology and 
pedagogy in the Salesian Pontifical 
Institute, in Turin. This is in re- 
sponse to a resolution that was for- 
mulated in the Congress of Pedagogy 
held by the Province to have some 
of their priests take specialized 
courses in some Catholic Institute of 
higher learning. 

The course in sociology includes a 
variety of subjects: fundamental 
Catholic philosophical principles of 


Death of General Counsultor 

A few minutes before midnight 
of April 7th, the Very Rev. Fr. Se- 
bastian, C.P., General Consultor, 
died in the convent of the Passionist- 
Missionary Sisters, Mook, Holland. 

After Father Sebastian left the 
hospital a few months ago, he had 
been staying with the Passionist Mis- 
sionary Sisters. For a while Father 
acted as chaplain to the sister, but as 
his strength began to fail, he had to 
give up this office. During his sick- 
ness the Missionary Sisters took care 
of Father and nursed him. 

The solemn funeral Mass for Fa- 
ther Sebastian was sung on April 

Passionist house of Philosophy at Mandovi, Italy. 

Retreats at Sts. John & Paul's 

In spite of the fact that the Re- 
treat House of Sts. John and Paul 
has no heating system, many re- 
quests for retreats had to be refused 
because of lack of room to accom- 
modate all. Men from the various 
parishes who belong to groups of 
Catholic Action have been making 
their retreats at Sts. John and Paul. 

About 80 students from the Col- 
lege of St. Joseph, conducted by the 
Christian Brothers, also made their 
retreat here recently. The students 
were divided into three groups. 

sociology, taught by modern, out- 
standing sociologists; political econ- 
omy, finance, experimental psychol- 
ogy, national and international pol- 
itics, statistics, history of various po- 
litical parties, governmental organ- 
ization, pastoral problems and other 
related subjects. 

The same Salesian Institute also 
offers a course in pedagogy. Three 
of the Fathers of Immaculate Heart 
of Mary Province are taking this 
course. Four more of the Fathers are 
taking the regular four year academic 
course at the Catholic University of 
the Sacred Heart in Milan. 

11th in the Church of Mater Dolo- 
rosa, Mook. The Most Rev. Fr. Mal- 
colm, C.P., Superior General, offered 
the Mass. Besides the community of 
Mater Dolorosa Retreat, Passionist 
Religious from the other monasteries 
were represented. Neighboring cler- 
gy, and relatives and friends of Fa- 
ther Sebastian were also present. Fa- 
ther was buried in the cemetery of 
Mater Dolorosa Retreat. 

Increasing Vocations 

Since the end of World War II 
vocations in Mother of Holy Hope 
Province, Holland have almost dou- 


The Passionist 

bled. Before the war there were only 
100 students in the minor seminary 
and now there are 170. 

In order to take care of all these 
new vocations, an abandoned and 
partly damaged girls' school in Mook 
was purchased in 1948. After some 
repairs were made the two lower 
classes of 70 boys were taken care 
of there while the remaining higher 
classes stayed at Haastrecht. Plans 
are now underway to make some 
additions to the seminary at Mook 
and it is hoped that by September, 
1958 all the Prep Boys will be to- 
gether there. 

To insure a regular increase in \'o- 
cations to the Brotherhood a "Prep 
Sem" for them was opened in Nij- 
megen. Here the brother aspirants 
receive their religious and spiritual 
training under a capable Father. 

During part of the day the boys 
attend a professional school in the 
city or even work as beginners un- 
der a trade master. When their 
course here is completed they enter 
the Novitiate. 

New Minor Seminary 

Work has already begun on the 
new minor seminary for the Province 
of Mother of Holy F^lope. TTie new 
seminary is being constructed in 
Mook, Holland. When the seminary 
is completed, there will be three Pas- 
sionist communities in Mook — the 
minor seminary, Mater Dolorosa Re- 
treat, and the convent of Passionist- 
Missionary Sisters of St. Gemma. 


Vocation Promotion 

In an attempt to encourage Pas- 
sionist \''ocations for the Cjerman- 
Austria Vice - Province, Father An 
drew, C.P., visited 21 parishes and 
seven grammar schools during the 
first four weeks of lent in Schwar- 
zenlcld. It was the first time that 
many C.ermans had ever heard of 
the Passionists. 

A few days before visiting the 
churches, lather Andrew's picture 
slides, taiu'iecorder, combination lec- 
ture was headlined in the local news- 
papers. The lecture was announced 
in the churches and jxjsted in public 

Father Andrew's 140 slides illus- 
trated the founding of the Passion- 
ists, their life and work, the founda- 
tion of the Cierman Province with 
pictures of the three monasteries in 
Germany. Pictures were also shown 
of Passionist Saints, Passionists in 
other lands, their foreign missions in 
Ghina and Borneo, and the Passion- 
ists Nuns and Sisters. 

This was the first time that this 
type of Passionist vocation work was 
attempted in Germany. It was very 
successful because of the wonderful 
cooperation of the local clergy. 

First Passionist Priest 

The first Passionist priest from 
Schwarzenfeld, Father Anton Ziereis, 
C.P. was ordained in Holland on 
May 3rd. Father Anton will sing his 
first solemn Mass in Munchen-Pa- 
sing on July 7th. Father entered the 
novitiate in Holland and also studied 
his philosophy and theology there. 

Silver Jubilee 

On Sunday, May 26th, Father 
Germain Heilmann celebrated his 
Silver Jubilee of ordination to the 
priesthood. Father Germain is from 
St. Paul of the Cross Province and 
has been in Germany now for five 
years. During this time. Father has 
done quite a bit of work among the 
Armed Forces, especially conducting 
missions for the men and their fam- 
ilies who are stationed there. 

Before going to Germany, Father 
Germain spent 15 years as a mission 
ary in China. 


Conferences to Faithful 
on Palestine 

Father Miguel Angel Rodrigucs, 
C.P., Lector of Sacred Scripture and 
Archeology, has had great success in 
his cdort to acquaint the laithlul 
with the Palestinian milieu and the 
world where Christianity began. 

In the different parishes of Mieres. 
bather Miguel .Angel has been gi\- 
ing conferences on Palestine and 
the surrounding country. Father has 
made use of the numerous slides 
that he has of this area to make the 
people better ac(|uaintcd with this 

country. Many of the pastors have 
requested Father to gi\e these lec- 
tures in their parishes. 

Mariological Week 

The Spanish Mariology Society 
celebrated its week of studies in the 
famous Spanish Sanctuary of Aran- 
zazu, which is in charge of the Fran- 
ciscan Fathers. The Congress was 
presided over by the Rector of the 
Antoniano of Rome, Father Balic, 

Two of the papers read at this 
congress were presented by Passion- 
ists. Father Basilio, C.P. presented 
an excellent paper entitled, the Im- 
portance of the Maternity of Mary 
for the Church. Father Monsegu's 
paper was. The Church as a Power 
and Mary's Power in the Church. 


In the Sanctuary of Mary of Aran- 
zazu, sixteen Passionist Students of 
the Sacred Heart of Jesus Province 
in Spain were ordained to the Holy 
Prcsthood by the Bishop of San Se- 

On the lollowing da\ all the six- 
teen newly ordained priests cele- 
brated their first masses in the large 
Church of the Retreat of Our Lady 
of Lourdes. The respective families 
of the newly ordained knelt around 
their altar while thev said mass. 

Newly urcJaincd priests of Sacred Heart 
of Jesus Province, Spain. 

National Congress of Perfection 
and the Apostolate 

Passionists Irom the Most Precious 
Blood Prcnince took a very active 
pan in the National Congress of 

June 1, 1957 


Retreat of Our Lady of Lourdes, Sacred Heart Province, Spain. 

Perfection and the Apostolate that 
took place in the Capital of Spain. 
About 5000 men and women attend- 
ed the congress, presided over by the 
Prefect of the Sacred Congregation 
of Religious, His Eminence Cardi- 
nal Valerio Valeri. Those attending 
represented the secular and regular 
clergy, religious women, secular in- 
stitutes and lay congregations. 

Six of the important talks deliv- 
ered during the Congress, were giv- 
en by Passionists. Father Basilio, 
C.P., gave two of the talks entitled: 
Common Ties in the States of Per- 
fection, and the Efficacy of the Apos- 
tolate of the States of Perfection. 

The Urgency and Utility of a 
Specifically Missionary Preaching in 
Our Churches, was the theme of the 
paper read by Father Augustin Lo- 
pez, C.P. Father Paulino Calle, C.P., 
talked on the Selection of Vocations 
in Our Preparatory Schools. 

Father Eugiquio Lopez, C.P., pre- 
sented a paper entitled, the Causes 
of the Loss of Vocations in the Pro- 
fessed Students. Father Monsegu, 
C.P., sent several papers to be read 
during the Congress on ascetical- 
theological subjects which the Ex- 
ecutive Commission had expressly 
asked of him. 

One of the results of this Congress 
was the establishment in Madrid of 
a Central Committee for the promo- 
tion of missions for the people. This 
committee is made up of several rep- 
resentatives of the different mission- 

ary orders and congregations. Very 
Rev. Fr. Feliciano Rodriguez, C.P., 
Provincial of Precious Blood Prov- 
ince, was elected to represent the 
Spanish Passionists. 


Amazing Growth of 
Passion Magazine 

In less than five years, Passiologica, 
edited by St. Gabriel's Province, Bel- 
gium, has grown so fast that it now 
comes into almost all the monasteries 
of the Congregation. Passiologica 
provides for ils readers a list of im- 
portant literature on the Passion that 
has been recently published. 

The magazine had its beginning 
in 1938 when Fathers Hilarion, 
Rombout and Florence of St. Ga- 
briel's Province proposed a project to 
encourage a more profound study of 
the Passion. It was then that some 
sort of a magazine was considered. 
But, the war prevented any further 
work on the project. 

By means of letters and discussions 
during the following years it became 
evident that there was great interest 
in editing a bibliography of the Pas- 
sion. Since it was to be a real scien- 
tific work, plans were made for a 
systematic preparation of the work. 

In March, 1944, Father Gregory, 
C.P., prepared a Passion bibliogra- 
phy of the Index of Migne. This 
bibliography was first stenciled, but 

in December, 1945 it was printed 
for the first time in the Verkondiger 
Van Het Kruis, a periodical of in- 
formation for the missionaries of the 

Plans were completed in 1953 for 
an annual publication of the Passion 
bibliography under the name of Pas- 
siologica. The first number covered 
the years 1952 and 1953 and was 
rather restricted and destined only 
for the retreats in Belgium. Gradual- 
ly plans were made to offer the pub- 
lication for the use of the entire 

The scope of Passiologica is out- 
lined in the first number: A cover- 
age of literature on the Passion of 
recent date. The second number 
(1954) announced the magazine 
would not cover literature before 
1950. It also gave principles govern- 
ing the editing of the bibliography- 
principles followed by the editors of 
the Pevue d'Histoire Ecclesiastiqiie 
of Louvain. 

The editors of Passiologica hope 
that this publication will eventually 
grow into a scientific periodical on 
the Passion with articles and reviews 
of articles on the Passion appearing 
in various magazines. The bibliogra- 
phy would then be an appendix to 
the Passion Magazine. 


Bethany Still in Peace 

Despite the turmoil of the last few 
months in Palestine, the Passionists 
stationed at Bethany continue to lead 
a relatively calm life, and are able 
to carry on with their usual activi- 

Since Bethany is a suburb of Jeru- 
salem agitationis in Jerusalem usually 
have their reactions in Bethany. Or- 
dinarily the crowd goes to Jerusalem 
to demonstrate and the demonstra- 
tions in Bethany are mild and hardly 
reach the Passionist monastery. The 
religious stay home during this time 
until the enthusiasm dies down. 

For a while in Jerusalem there 
were hostile demonstrations against 
America, England and France. Flags 
were torn, consulates were burned 
and some dead and wounded were 
left behind. 



The Passionist 

So far all the trouble in Palestine 
has been on a political basis and not 
religious. Jerusalem does not want to 
be implicated in any war. It would 
mean that troops would make trench- 
es and barricades and open the city 

With the threat of war is found 
the danger of a communist regime 
in Palestine and all know what it 
would mean to have such a regime 
in the Holy Land. 


Passionist Apostolate Congress 

The Province of St. Joseph held 
a Congress on the Passionist Aposto- 
late in the Retreat of St. Anne's, Sut- 
ton, England. The aims of the Con- 
gress were to foster interest in the 
Apostolate ;to widen the view of the 
Passionist Apostolate; to provide an 
opportunity for expression of opin- 
ions and interchange of ideas; and 
to help in the compilation of a Mis- 
sion Directory. 

In his introductory talk, Very Rev. 
Fr. Patrick, C.P., Provincial of St. 
Joseph's Province, underlined the in- 
alienable characteristics which must 
mark the genuine Passionist Apos- 
tolate, as illustrated in the life of our 
Holy Founder. "These characteristics 
are a burning zeal, a deep knowledge 
of the Faith and an acute awareness 
of the needs of his time, " said Father 

"That zeal is the natural outcome 
of his (St. Paul of the Cross) con- 
templative life. Our zeal must come 
from the same source," Father Pat- 
rick continued. 

"That necessary knowledge which 
must underlie the Passionist Aposto- 
late can be gained only by a com- 
plete and realistic study of the Sa- 
cred Sciences. Such study was no 
less important in the mind of our 
Holy Father than the prayer-life 
from which our apostolate must pro- 
ceed. . . . But it is noteworthy that 
for our Holy Founder the primary 
purpose of our study was to be di- 
rected towards our missionary apos- 
tolate. ... In our day the pressing 
needs of the times make it obvious 
that the missioner must be adequate- 
ly equijiped in every branch of sa- 
cred and profane learning," Father 

Patrick said. 

A third characteristic discernible 
in the preaching of St. Paul of the 
Cross that Father Patrick pointed 
out, is an awareness of the needs of 
the times. It is an acute penetration 
behind the changing modes and fash- 
ions of any age; it is the ability to 
by-pass what the people think they 
want and to discern what in the di- 
vine order of things they really need. 

During the Congress the follow- 
ing papers were read: The Parochial 
Mission, by Father Leonard, C.P.; 
Mission Preaching, by Father Nor- 
bert, C.P.; Missions to Non-Cath- 
olics, by Father Paul Mary, C.P.; 
Community Retreats, by Father 
Stanislaus, C.P.; The Lay Retreat 
Movement, by Father Bertrand, 
C.P.; The Parish Apostolate, by Fa- 
ther Philip, C.P.; Other Forms of 
the Apostolate by Father Eugene, 
C.P.; The Swedish Mission, by Fa- 
ther Ignatius, C.P.; and Promoting 
Devotion to the Passion, by Father 
Augustine, C.P. 

Prior to the Congress preliminary 
conferences were held in each retreat 
of St. Joseph Province. During these 
conferences the religious were invit- 
ed to make suggestions and submit 
their views for consideration by the 
delegates to the Congress. 

The Congress was an obvious suc- 
cess. There was widespread interest 
taken in the Congress by all the 
members of the Province. The pa- 
pers read together with the discus- 
sions which followed, formed a sound 
basis for further intensive and ex- 
tensive study of the Passionist Apos- 
tolate in England. 

Parish Secretariat 

Since its foundation over live years 
ago, the Parish Secretariat has han- 
dled more than two thousand cases 
of housing problems that grew out 
of the war. This new venture in 
Catholic Action was started by the 
Passionists at St. Joseph's Retreat, 
Ilighgate, London. 

Immediately after the post - war 
years, it became increasingly appar- 
ent to the Passionists at St. Joseph's 
Retreat that something new in Par- 
ish Organization was needed to cope 
with the problems that had grown 
out of the war. Chief among these 
problems was that of housing. 

In the Spring of 1951, Very Rev. 
Fr. Harold, C.P., Rector of St. Jo- 
seph's, asked the help of the local 
parish St. Vincent de Paul Confer- 
ence. They responded by organizing 
the Parish Secretariat to help the 
parishioners in their housing and 
employment problems. 

A wide variety of cases have been 
handled. But, the majority of in- 
quiries have been for accommoda- 
tions—especially for married couples 
with children. The post-war growth 
of London's population, largely due 
to the influx of immigrants from Ire- 
land and the West Indies, made the 
housing problem difficult. 

The Parish Secretariat is now be- 
ing copied in many Parishes through- 
out England. It is a matter of real 
satisfaction that the Passionists were 
the pioneers in this field of practical 
Catholic Action. 


Peace-Time for Growth 

Although the persecution laws are 
still on the books, the Church in 
Mexico is enjoying a certain amount 
of calm and peace. The Passionists 
in Mexico are taking advantage of 
this period of calm to carry out more 
perfectly the work proper to the Con- 

Missionaries in Mexico visiting the plont- 

At the jiresent time there are two 
pro\inces of the Congregation doing 
full-time work in the country. I loly 
Family Province of Spain has three 
houses in Mexico— one in Guadala- 
jara, one in Toluca and the third in 

June 1, 1957 


Mexico City. Immaculate Heart of 
Mary Province, Italy, also has three 
houses there — two of these are in 
Mexico City itself and the third is 
in Apasco, Mexico. 

The Province of St. Paul of the 
Cross, U.S.A., is credited with found- 
ing the Passionists in Mexico, On 
the 15th of May, 1865, three Pas- 
sionists, Fathers Domingo, Amadeo 
and Pedro, left New York for Mex- 
ico. They were received by the Arch- 
bishop of Mexico City, Pelagio La- 
bastida, and invited to remain in his 

The Archbishop offered them the 
church of St. Joseph in Tacubaya, 
called San Diego. The Fathers took 
possession of this church on October 
20, 1865. This was the first real 
foundation of the Passionists in Mex- 

Because the Civil War, under the 
leadership of Benito Jaurez, was go- 
ing on at this time, the Passionists 
were driven out of their monastery 
in April, 1867, For the next four 
months the priests took charge of a 
Military Hospital and day and night 
they cared for the wounded soldiers. 

Although they were permitted to 
return to their monastery in August 
of the same year, they found it im- 
possible to carry out any apostolic 
work due to the new Reform Laws, 
With the death of Benito Jaurez and 
the election of Sebastian Lerdo de 
Tejada, the Fathers were driven from 
the Monastery on May 20, 1873 and 
sent to jail for one month. Then, 
they were sent into exile. 

At the request of the Bishop of 
Chiapas, German Villavaso, the Pas- 
sionists returned to Mexico in 1877. 
During the next two years until the 
death of the Bishop, the Fathers were 
able to carry on the work of the Or- 
der, preaching Missions. 

During the next thirty years the 
Church in Mexico under the gov- 
ernment of Profirio Diaz, enjoyed a 
certain amount of peace and the Pas- 
sionists were able to grow and con- 
tinue preaching missions. In this pe- 
riod the monasteries of Toluca and 
Cordoba were founded. It was also 
during this time that Father Diego 
de San Francisco, C.P., founded the 
Institute of Passionist Sisters in Mex- 

With the death of General Profirio 
Diaz, and the election of the new 
president, Venestuano Carranza, the 
religious persecution was renewed 
with the new 1917 Constitution. 
The majority of the clergy had to 
live in private homes. Some of the 
Passionists of Toluca were put in jail 
and later exiled to the United States. 
The three houses of Toluca, Cor- 
doba and Tacubaya were confiscated 
by the Government. At the end of a 
year Tacubaya and Toluca were re- 
turned, but Cordoba was lost for- 

Scale model of proposed Nationol Shrine 
of the Passion to be erected in Mexico. 

The most critical time of the reli- 
gious persecution was the period 
from 1926 to 1929. The houses of 
Toluca and Tacubaya were again 
confiscated along with the new re- 
treat of Guadalajara. Many of the 
religious in Mexico were sent by 
their Superiors to foreign countries. 

Although the persecution laws still 
stand to be enforced at any time, the 
Church in Mexico has enjoyed a cer- 
tain amount of tolerance since 1934. 


Church of St. Mungo Renovated 

The church of St. Mungo, Town- 
head, Glasgow, which was recently 
renovated, was described by Arch- 
bishop Campbell as "a lasting memo- 
rial and tribute to the good work 
done by the Passionist Fathers at all 

Continuing his address to the large 

congregation of people who were 
present to celebrate this event, His 
Grace said, "The Passionist Fathers 
who have been in charge of the par- 
ish from the very beginning have all 
been tremendously faithful to the 
apostolic example of their founder, 
St. Paul of the Cross. You may con- 
sider yourselves privileged that you 
have had in charge of your souls 
men who belong to that great Con- 
gregation, men who wear always the 
apparel which brings to mind the 
Sacred Passion of Our Lord." 

Very Rev, Fr, Valentine McMur- 
ray, C.P., who preached the special 
sermon for the occasion said that St. 
Mungo's was one of the Churches 
which marked the "Second Spring" 
of Catholicism in Scotland. The rec- 
ords of St. Mungo's Church go back 
to 1850, when there were only eight 
Catholic Churches in all Glasgow, 

Veronica's Veil 

The European premier of "Veron- 
ica's Veil", the Passion Play written 
by the American Passionist, Father 
Bernadine, C,P,, was presented by 
St, Mungo's Dramatic Club in St, 
Paul's Hall, Townhead, Glasgow, 
during Lent. 

The depth of the impression 
which was made on the audience 
was the finest tribute which all con- 
cerned with the play could receive. 

Lenten Series 

The Very Rev, Fr. Edmund 
Burke, C.P., was engaged by the 
Scottish Catholic Herald to write a 
Lenten Series on "The Seven Last 
Words," Father has also been asked 
to write a series for Lent of 1958 on 
"The People of the Passion," 


New Provincial Elected 

Owing to continuous ill health and 
following medical advice. Very Rev, 
Fr. Cyprian Aylard, C.P., resigned 
as Provincial of St. Patrick's Prov- 
ince, Ireland, Father Cyprian was 
succeeded by Very Rev, Fr, Fergus 
Loughrey, C,P,, who had been elect- 
ed first Consultor in the Chapter of 
May 1956, 

Father Fergus was provincial of 
St. Patrick's Province from 1953 un- 


The Passionist 

til 1956. Following his ordination in 
1942, Father Fergus was Lector of 
Moral Theology. Then from 1946 
until 1953 he was Educational Sec- 
retary in the Prefecture of Dodoma, 
now the Diocese of Dodoma, Tan- 
ganiyka. From 1952 until his first 
election as Provincial, Father Fergus 
was Secretary General of the Pas- 
sionist Foreign Missions at SS. Gio- 
vanni e Paolo, Rome. 

Very Rev. Fr. Maurice Egan, C.P. 
who had been second Provincial 
Consultor was appointed first Provin- 
cial Consultor. His place as second 
Gonsultor was taken bv Verv Rev. 
1 r. 1 inian 1 larte, C.P. ' 


Swedish Mission 
Canonically Established 

After four years of careful study 
and negotiation, a contract was final- 
ly signed by the ecclesiastical author- 
ities and the Passionist Superiors of 
the Swedish Mission establishing it 
as a Missionary Region. 

The Swedish Mission while still 
remaining under the jurisdiction of 
the Bishop of Stockholm, now en- 
joys a very large measure of auton- 
omy. The Passionist Superior be- 
comes the Regional Vicar or Vicari- 
us Delegatus of the Bishop and is 
endowed with all the faculties that 
can be delegated by the Bishop. He 
is in effect a quasi Vicar General of 
the new mission region. 

The new contract not only in- 
cludes the original mission territory, 
but also the parish of Jonkoping to 
the North. This now makes a total 
of 10,360 square miles under the care 
of the Passionists in Sweden. 

Another important provision in- 
cluded in the new contract is the 
right to establish a Passionist founda- 
tion, as distinct from a Foreign Mis- 
sion Foundation, in Gothenburg. 


Former General 
Appointed Bishop 

On June 29th, the Most Reverend 
Albert Dcane, C.P., former General 
of the Passionists and Provincial of 
Immaculate Conception Province, Ar- 

gentina, will be consecrated bishop 
of Villa Maria. His Excellency has 
been named Bishop of one of the 
twelve nev\'l\' created dioceses in 

The Bishop-Elect will be conse- 
crated in Holy Cross Church, the 
provincial house of Immaculate Con- 
ception Prox'ince. The consecrating 
bishop will be Mons. Fermin Lafitte, 
Archbishop of Cordoba and Apos- 
tolic Governor of the Archdiocese of 
Buenos Aires. 1 le will be assisted by 
bishops Charles Hanlon, C.P. and 
Anunciado Serafini. 

The Most Rcxercnd Albert Deane 
was elected Superior General in the 
thirty-fifth General Chapter, held in 
the retreat of Sts. John and Paul 
from the 16th of September to the 
9th of October, 1946. In March, 
1955, he was elected Provincial of 
Immaculate Conception Province. 

Passionist Preaches at 
Celebration in Honor of 
Founder of Argentine Navy 

Twenty-thousand persons attend- 
ed the ceremonies held in the na- 
tional shrine of Our Lady of Lujan, 
honoring Admiral William Brown, 
the founder of the Argentine navy. 
This ceremony was held to commem- 
orate the centenary of his death. 

A special delegation of the Irish 
Government was present for the cele- 
bration which was held on St. Pat- 
rick's day. The Irish-Argentine com- 
munity linked together the great 
apostle of Ireland with the great hero 
of Argentine independence. 

In attendance were the Cardinal 
Archbishop of Buenos Aires, James 
Louis Copello; Archbishop Lafitte; 
and Bishops Charles Flanlon and 
Serafine. The sermon for the occa- 
sion was preached by Father Peter 
Richards, C.P. In his sermon Fa- 
ther Peter made a parallel between 
St. Patrick and Admiral William 


Benefit for the Poor 

Linder the auspices of the Passion- 
ists in San Juan, Puerto Rico, a 
fiesta was held April 21, for the ben- 
efit of the Catholic Chajiel of Bar- 
rida La Ceramida. This fiesta was 
a one-day affair. 

Most Rev. Albert Deane, C.P. 

Barrida La Ceramida is a section 
in Puerto Rico near the capital of 
San Juan where the very poor peo- 
ple live. Two Passionist Priest from 
Spain have made an establishment 
in San Juan and are working among 
these very poor classes. 


National Marian Sanctuary 

Because of the thousands of pil- 
grims who visit the grotto of Miramar 
on the Feast of Our Lady of Lourdes, 
the Passionists of Vina del Mar, 
Chile, Precious Blood Province, are 
building a larger grotto to hold the 
growing number of pilgrims. 

This grotto of Miramar is a Ma- 
rian sanctuary ol national inifXirtance 
in Chile. It contains a statue of our 
Lady of Lourdes which is the oldest 
and first to receive public honor in 
Chile, dating back to 1887. 

Each year the Feast is celebrated 
with extraordinary solemnity, as de- 
vout pilgrims ]iray before the statue 
at all hoiMS ol the day. 1 hou.sands 
of pilgrims come from all o\er the 

June 1, 1957 


country to visit the church and grot- 
to. While there they receive the sac- 
raments and attend the Masses which 
are celebrated from 6 : 00 in the morn- 
ing until 12:00 o'clock noon. 

Each year the feast is preceeded 
by a solemn preached novena that is 
broadcast all over the country. The 

Facade of new chapel of St. Gemma, San 
Diago, Chile. 

feast ends with a large procession 
of the statue of Our Lady of Lourdes 
through the streets of the city, back 
to the grotto where a sermon is 
preached and benediction of the 
Blessed Sacrament given. 


Still Preaching at 88 

At the special request of His Emi- 
nence, Cardinal Gilroy, Father Fran- 
cis Clune, C.P., preached the occa- 
sional sermon in St. Mary's Cathe- 
dral, Sidney, Australia, on Anzac 
Day, April 25th. ijVnzac Day is a na- 
tional holiday in Australia. On this 
day they commemorate the members 
of the fighting services who served in 
the two world wars, and in particu- 
lar those who served on the Galli- 
poli Peninsula in 1915. 

Father Francis served on Gallipoli 
with the 5th Australian Infantry 
Brigade and afterwards in France 
and Flanders. There was no chap- 
lain serving with the 1st A. LB. bet- 

ter known or more highly respected 
than Father Francis. 

Despite the weight of 88 years, 
Father Francis is still hale and hearty. 

Golden Jubilarian 

The second oldest member of Holy 
Spirit Province, Australia, celebrated 
the Golden Jubilee of his Ordination 
to the Priesthood on May 25th. Fa- 
ther Casimir Maquire, C.P., 84 years 
old, was for some years one of the 
most distinguished missioners of the 

But Father's greatest work was 
done at Marrickville where he was 
Pastor for over 20 years. While pas- 
tor there, Father built the parochial 
school, accommodating over 1500 
children. Father Casimir is now 
spending his days at St. Ives. 

Student Activities 

Two new lectors have been added 
to the teaching staff at the House of 
Studies for Holy Spirit Province, 
Glen Osmond, South Australia. The 
new lectors are Fathers Marcellus 
Claeys and Jerome Crowe. Father 
Marcellus is from St. Gabriel's Prov- 
ince, Belgium and has been "loaned" 
to Holy Spirit Province for five years. 

Father Jerome arrived in Australia 
in early January. He had been in 
Rome and Palestine for the past three 

Fr. Francis Cluni, C.P., 88, and still ac- 
tive in missions and retreots. Holy Spirit 
Province, Australia. 

years studying for his Licentiate in 
Sacred Scripture. 

There are now nineteen students 
at the House of Studies at Glen Os- 

Fathers Victor and Stephen joined 
the teaching staff at St. Ives. There 
are now seventeen boys at St. Ives 
taking their preparatory studies. 
Fourteen of these boys just entered 
the seminary this year. 

St. Maria Goretti Guild 

Since its beginning in July, 1953, 
the Guild of St. Maria Goretti has 
grown to over 75,000 members scat- 
tered throughout Australia, New Zea- 
land, India, Malta, Ireland, Canada 
and the Islands of the Pacific Ocean. 

After the canonization of St. Maria 
Goretti, Rev. Fr. Bede, C.P., of Holy 
Spirit Province, Australia, established 
the Goretti Guild. Father was fol- 
lowing the Pope's recommendation to 
the Congregation to promote devo- 
tion to this new saint. "Who can 
doubt," said Pope Pius XII, "that 
Providence has willed to give to you 
this new Saint as a model, protectress 
and Intercessor?" 

The Guild spread rapidly especial- 
ly among the young. In two years it 
had 10,000 members in the schools, 
colleges, institutions and orphanages. 
The first enrollment was 900 boys in 
a school of the Marist Brothers. 

Each of the schools has its own 
Guild managed by the pupils them- 
selves. They elect their own presi- 
dent, secretary, treasurer and hold 
regular meetings. During the meet- 
ings a talk or address is given on 
some topic relating to the Saint or 
there is some discussion of the spir- 
itual life with practical resolutions. 

The Guild has been instrumental 
in introducing many new activities 
into the lives of the students. In one 
place undesirable literature was get- 
ting into the school. The Guild 
cleaned up the situation and sent 
the children to the school library 
for literature. In a school in New 
Zealand the Guild is divided into 
two sections. One looks after the for- 
eign missions and another provides 
what is needed for the Altar. 

Under the guidance of two young 
energetic and enterprising Passion- 
ist priests of Holy Spirit Province, 



The Passionist 

Father Gerard and Patrick, the Gor- 
etti Guild Magazine was started as 
the organ of the Guild. Today Fa- 
ther Bernard, G.P. is editor of the 
Magazine and Father Paul, C.P., is 
the manager. The magazine has over 
6,000 subscribers and hopes to soon 
reach the 20,000 mark. 

News in Brief 

During Lent all the active mis- 
sioners of Holy Spirit Province were 
kept busy. There is still a heavy pro- 
gram of work booked for the rest of 
the year. Many requests for retreats 
to religious communities had to be 
refused because the necessary number 
of priests were not available to give 
them. . . . The Provincial of Holy 
Spirit Province recently returned 
from his visitation in New Guinea. 
The Province now has four religious 
in New Guinea, two at Lae and two 
at Gumbi. All are in good health and 
spirits and are doing excellent work 
among both natives and whites. It is 
hoped that soon there will be more 
fathers available who will be able to 
help them. 


First Passionist Mission 
in Japanese 

For the first time in the histor\' of 
Japan, followers of St. Paul of the 

Popol Blebbing given by Father Peter 
Claver Kumie, C.P., at the closing of first 
Passionist mission preached in Joponese, 
in the Cathedral of Osako. 

Gross preached a Passionist mission 
in Japanese. Fathers Peter Glaver 
Kumle and Glement Paynter 
preached this first Passionist mission 
in Japanese in the Pro-Gathedral for 
the Osaka Diocese. The Pro-Cathe- 
dral is one of the biggest parishes in 
the diocese. 

The number of people making the 
mission was very large. The pastor 
of the pro-Gathedral parish was so 
pleased with the results that he im- 
mediately asked for another mission 
next year. 

While Father Peter Glaver was 
closing the mission at the pro-Cathe- 
dral, Father Clement opened another 
missions in a church in the center of 
the city of Osaka. This church is 
also the Catholic Center. Since this 
mission was for working people, Mass 
was celebrated at 7:30 in the morn- 
ing and evening services were held 
from 5:30 until 6:30 P.M. 

About 150 people attended the 
services each evening. For Japan this 
attendance is outstanding. Both 
priests and people had nev'cr seen 
anything like a Passionist mission be- 
fore. The large mission crucifix was 
the center of attention. One of the 
men asked if the crucifix could not 
be turned at an angle so the men who 
sat together on thi- epistle side could 
see more clearly the v\'ound in our 
Lord's side. 

Because of the large foreign ele- 
ment in Yokohama, Father Peter 
Claver preached a mission in Eng- 
lish in the Cathedral. The following 
week saw the opening of another 
mission preached in Japanese in the 
same Cathedral by both Father Peter 
and Father Clement. 

The following letter is typical of 
the many that the missionaries re 
cei\'ed from the people vxho made 
the missions, saying how their kne 
for Christ Crucified had increased. 
It was written by a \()ung woman 
who is a senior in High School: 

"Hex crenel Peres: 

I am \ery grateful that we 
could be present at the mission 
c\ery morning and night bv 
(iod's grace. Hearing the Fa- 
thers' sermons, we felt as if Jesus 
had spoke himsell and I ioiind 
nnsell to have inMiliii iiiil liui- 
lor jesus. I could uiulcrsianil 

enough ol the significance of the 
Savior's Passion and I wish to 
try never to commit an\' sin even 
a small one. If I should commit 
a crime unfortunately, 1 will re- 
call the Savior's Passion and 
apologize to him for my fault 
with much repentance and love. 
I am very glad and thankful to 
Jesus to have been able to have 
help so abundantly for my spir- 
itual life. Here, may 1 and all 
those who attended the Mission 
offer Flim our thanks. I want to 
thank the Fathers, too. Thank 
you very much. I pray for all 
the Fathers. 

Deo gratias. 
My name is only 
Midori Matsuda" 

Community in Japan and Visitors. Bot- 
tom row, I. to r. Japanese Houseboy, 
Very Rev. Fr. Matthew Vetter, Fr. An- 
thony Moloney, Fr. Paul Placek, Japa- 
nese House-boy. Top row, I. to r. Fr. Carl 
Schmitz, Fr. Lucian Hogan, Fr. Peter C. 
Kumle, and Fr. Clement Paynter. 

News in Brief 

/\t their retreat house in Mcfu, 
from the first Sunday of Lent, 
through March and April "business 
was booming." During this time 
there were retreats or days of recol- 
lection e\'ery Sunday. Most of these 
retreats were preached by either Fa- 
ther Paul Placek or Father Clement 
Paynter. During lent Father Mat- 
thew Vetter, superior of the Japa- 
nese foundation, ]ireached three re- 
treats to sisters while I ather Peter 
Claver Kumle preached one retreat 
l<) sisters. All these retreats were in 
l.ipanese. . . . lining I loK Week all 
the I alliers had special assignmenis. 

liiNt 1, 1957 


At a port-town in Kobe that has thou- 
sands of foreigners, Father Matthew 
conducted a combination parish re- 
treat and Holy Week service. . . . 


Church Blessed at Mandeville 

The Church of St. Paul of the 
Cross was solemnly blessed and for- 
mally opened for public worship on 
March 31, in the Passionist Mission 
of Mandeville, Jamaica, B.W.I. 

The church was packed to over- 
flowing for this occasion and nearly 
as many persons again had to stand 
outside for the Solemn High Mass. 
Officiating prelate was the Very Rev. 
Fr. Ernest Welch, C.P., Provincial 
of St. Paul of the Cross Province. 
He was assisted by the Very Rev. 
Fr. Denis T. Tobin, S.J., Vicar Gen- 
eral of the Diocese of Kingston and 
Superior of the Jesuit Fathers in 
Jamaica, and the Very Rev. William 
Whelan, C.P., Superior of the Pas- 
sionist Fathers in Jamaica. The Rev. 
Fr. Dunstan Guzinski, C.P., was 
master of ceremonies. Cross bearer 
was the Rev. Fr. Callistus Connolly, 
C.P., accompanied by the acolytes, 
the Rev. Fr. Anthony Feeherry, 
C.P., and the Rev. John Baptist 
Maye, C.P. 

New Church, Mandeville, Jamaica, B.W 

The sermon was preached by Fa- 
ther Tobin, S.J. In his sermon. Fa- 
ther Tobin spoke amusingly of the 
fact that the Passionists had moved 
in exactly two years ago on a Jesuit 
stronghold, where hitherto the peo- 
ple had known no order priests ex- 
cept the Jesuits. For this they had to 
thank Bishop McEle^ney for inviting 
the Passionists and Father Welch 
for his generosity with men and 

funds for the Jamaica Mission. 

He remarked on the beauty of the 
church and praised the work of the 
Very Rev. Canisius Hazlett, C.P., 
who led the pioneer group of Pas- 
sionists to Jamaica and initiated the 
plans for this church and Father 
Ernest Hotz, C.P., for his overseeing 
of the construction and the furnish- 
ing of the church. 




The Passionist 

li'i I 

The PfflOilST 

AUGUST 1, 1957 




Bruce Henry, C.P. 



New Testament-Liturgy 

Roger Mercurio, C.P. 
Moral-Canon Law 

Forrest Macken, C.P. 
Old Testament 

Carroll Stuhlmueller, C.P. 

Barry Rankin, C.P. 

The Passionist is published bi- 
monthly by Holy Cross Province 
at Immaculate Conception Re- 
treat, 5700 N. Harlem Ave., Chi- 
cago 31, Illinois, U.S.A. It is is- 
sued on the 1 St of the months of 
February, April, June, August, 
October and December. 

The Passionist is financed by 
the free-will offerings of its read- 
ers. There is no copyright. The 
Magazine is a private publica- 

The Passionist aims to help its 
readers attain more perfectly the 
twofold end of the Congregation. 
For this reason it offers a variety 
of articles and special feature 

Contributions by members of 
the Congregation are welcomed. 
Anything that will be of interest 
or help to us as Passionists will 
be accepted. Articles should be 
approximately 4000 to 5000 
words in length. 




by Valentine Plaetinck, C.P. 


by Herman Stier, C.P. 


by David Haberbush, C.P. 


by Bennet Kelly, C.P. 


by Ward Biddle, C.P. 


by Eugene Kennan, C.P. 


by Costante Brovetto, C.P. 







Many AND Good. 

■ "Few, but good." This could easily be the answer of 
some Passionists to the fruitless search of years for a 
solution to the lack of increasing vocations. "Are not 
these the words of St. Paul of the Cross himself, " they 
ask? Of course wc know that St. Paul did say this. But, 
was this his solution to the problem of lessening voca- 
tions? Did these words mean the same thing to Paul as 
some today are inclined to believe? 

A further consideration of what Paul thought about 
vocations may help us to understand what he meant 
when he uttered these words, "Few but good," and pro- 
vide us with a solution to our vocation problems. 

It is hard to believe that Our Holy Founder intended 
that his congregation should be few in numbers. Even 
a cursory search into his letters will show that he thought 
otherwise. "God wants His Congregation to extend from 
sea to sea," he wrote. And again, he said: "I desire many 
more, et niinquam satis (there will never be enough of 
them) for I hope to establish a great and holy nation for 
the glory of God." 

■ But, even though Paul desired numerous vocations, he 
never sought quantity at the expense of quality in his 
religious. He realized that the good quality of the first 
recruits for the Congregation was the surest means of 
obtaining quantity. He was opposed to the suggestion to 
mitigate some of the strictness of the life in order to 
attract more vocations. One of the suggestions was to 
mitigate the strict solitude of the retreats. Paul's answer 
was: "If we love solitude the Congregation will spread; 
if solitude be destroyed, the Institute is ruined." 

St. Paul made use of every means he could to encour- 
age and promote vocations to his institute. Of course, he, 
above all others, realized the p)ower and importance of 
prayer in obtaining vocations. From his letters we learn 
his insistance on prayer. "Pray often that God will send 
us valiant, fervent, learned, holy, zealous laborers, who 
will preach penance to the people, together with devo- 
tion to the most holy Passion according to our institute," 
he wrote. Time and time again he repeated this request 
in his letters and spiritual conferences. 

his future companions to join him." It was the renown 
of his holiness that led Bishops and people to ask him 
to found so many retreats. 

Our modern age would probably find it hard to recon- 
cile his ability to attract vocations with the severity of 
his life. But, one must remember that while an austere 
life may repel mediocre souls, it can attract generous 
souls. And this was the type of vocation St. Paul was 
looking for. 

Paul of the Cross was not ignorant of the power of 
sanctity to attract generous souls. In a letter to an Abbess 
he tells her of her obligation to watch over the common 
life and the observance of the vows and rules, and then 
adds, "If you act thus, God will send you fervent young 
aspirants. You will have more postulants than you want 
because of the flourishing observance. The fame of your 
sanctity will bring flocks of pure doves and holy virgins 
to your convent." 

■ Paul also realized the excellent opportunity that mis- 
sions aftbrded of seeking new members. Because of this 
he was constantly on the watch for vocations. "If God 
inspires you to open the door of our diocese for me to 
give missions," he wrote to his old Confessor, "you might 
mention the matter to the Bishop. This possibly would 
give me the chance of being invited to neighboring dio- 
ceses. I would come for the autumn Apostolic Campaign, 
all the more willingly, as 1 have hopes of finding some 
valiant apostolic workers to increase our newly-horn Con- 

Paul did not hesitate to write to other priests and ask 
them to help him gather new vocations. These priests 
eventually became so numerous that he sent them a let- 
ter outlining the qualifications he looked for in future 

■ It is therefore evident from the life and letters of Our 
Founder that he wanted vocations and lots of them. He 
did use the phrase "Few but Good" but it is clear from 
his words and manner of acting that he did not intend 
that his Congregation should be few in numbers. It was 
in reference to the dismissal of his brother, Anthony, 
that Paul said: "Few religious but good." He added, "I 
have the observance more at heart than a great number 
of subjects. God has no need for anyone." 

It is plain that Paul was using these words in opposi- 
tion. Rather than "Many and Poor," Paul would have 
them "Few but Good." But, he also desired that his Con- 
gregation should extend from sea to sea. "I desire many 
more, et nunqiiaiii satis (there will never be enough of 
them) for I hope to establish a great and holy nation 
for the glory of God." Rather than "Few but Good" Paul 
desired "Many AND Good" Passionists for his Congre- 

■ We must also look for something in Paul himself that 
drew men away from the world. And that something was 
the magnetic power of his own holiness. A companion 
of his said: "It was the fame of his sanctity, that induced 

August 1, 1957 

dSruce J^enruj C f-^. 




Christ's Passion in Preaching 

in Modern Times 

If you wish to follow the example of your Founders, then do as they 
did. Become acquainted with the current, the mentality, the way of living 

of your contemporaries and their environments. When you discover something 
good and sound in it, then make that your own. You have no other remedy at 
hand to bring them to the light, to help them upwards, to lead them on. 

^^RiGEN comments on Mt. 12, 19: 
"When we preach Jesus Christ it is 
necessary that we preach about Him 
as the Crucified. It is worthless to 
preach about Him and be silent 
about His Cross. He who announces 
Jesus Christ but is silent about his 


Virgin Birth, or the star that glim- 
mered at His Nativity, or the angels 
who sang at His birth: glory to God 
and peace to men; or who is silent 
about the other signs and wonders 
that His worked, is not so far from 
the truth as he who hides His Cross." 

Pius XI wrote as follows to reli- 
gious: "We urge all religious to turn 
their gaze to their Founder, Father 
and Lawgiver. He is the exemplar 
they must follow; at least if they wish 
to share abundantly in the grace of 
their vocation. All, as perfect chil- 

The Passionist 

dren, must direct their efforts and 
thoughts in such wise as to honor 
their Father and Lawgiver not only 
by following out his instructions and 
admonitions but also in such a way 
as to make his spirit their own." 

Pius XII, in 1950, opened the Con- 
gress of Religious with the following 
words: "When the young are told 
that they must be 'in step with the 
times,' 'bring their methods up to 
date,' they feel themselves fired with 
enthusiasm and they would march on 
under the banner of their religious 
institute, with a desire to reorganize 
all its future activities. In a certain 
sense they are right. Founders of re- 
ligious institutes have, for the most 
part, looked upon their new aposto- 
late as an urgent need in the Church 
that could no longer be put off, and 
thus they directed their initiative to- 
ward the actual necessities of their 
own times. If you wish to follow the 
example of your Founders, then do 
as they did. Become acquainted with 
the current, the mentality, the way 
of living of your contemporaries and 
their environments. When you dis- 
cover something good and sound in 
it, then make that your own. You 
have no other remedy at hand to 
bring them to the light, to help them 
upwards, to lead them on." 

ALTHOUGH every Passionist, no 
matter what he does, is bound 
to spread the Passion of Our Lord 
Jesus Christ, we shall consider here 
only the apostolate of preaching. 

Let us in the first place consider 
the meditation on the Passion itself 
according to St. Paul of the Cross. 
How did St. Paul of the Cross preach 
this meditation on the Passion? 

He never went up into the pulpit 
without preparation. He drew his ser- 
mons mostly from books. "The few 
sermons that I have written I took 
mostly from Svegliarino Christiano." 

More than once he went into ec- 
stasy during his sermons and then 
said things he had never written. At 
times a voice told him what to say, 
but this happened only rarely. Be- 
fore each sermon he spent from two 
to three hours in adoration of the 
Blessed Sacrament. 

His style was simple, easy to un- 
derstand, powerful and convincing. 

The impression that he made on 

Translator's Note 
This article was translated at the re- 
quest of the Editor of The Passionist. 
The translator (though he has tried to do 
so to the best of his ability) does not 
guarantee that he hos, in every cose, 
given the exact meaning of the author. 
Nor does the translator necessarily agree 
with all the opinions of the author. 

his audience was profound. "Before 
Paul appeared in the pulpit there 
was a hum in the church, but as soon 
as he began all became most quiet 
and during the consideration of the 
Passion all began to weep." 

"He overwhelmed his listeners 
with the vividness and zeal of his 

"He seemed to see the truths with 
his eyes and touch them with his 
hands. " 

According to Father John Mary, 
who was a witness, our Founder 
would give a short motive on the 
Passion and another on the Sorrows 
of Mary after the sermon. "If the 
sermon was too long the motive was 
worked into the sermon itself." "On 
some of the missions Paul of the 
Cross gave only the Passion consid- 

He would begin with an act of 
faith, then the presentation of the 
particular phase of the Passion. He 
pointed out the unlimited love of 
Jesus, reminded sinners of their in- 
gratitude, aroused in them a trust in 
the Divine goodness and in Jesus' in- 
finite merits. 

The considerations (of the Pas- 
sion) were Paul's greatest triumph. 
Usually everyone wept. What he 
could not otherwise accomplish, wit- 
nesses to his sermons said, he did 
accomplish through these medita- 

Was it because he said something 
new, or was it his beautiful manner 
of presentation that caused people to 
weep? Was it the tone of his voice 
or because he was himself so affect- 
ed? Witnesses emphatically affirm 
the latter. He was moved himself and 
he was convinced of what he said. 
He spoke with unction and pathos. 
All who heard him attest to this. One 

Fr. Valentine Plaetlnck, C.P., is the Rector 
of the student house at Leuven. St. Ga- 
briel Province, Belgium. He delivered this 
paper at the Passion Congress that was 
held In the Seminary of St. Paul of the 
Cross, Mook, Holland. 

witness said of the missions of Paul 
of the Cross: "During missions 
preached by others from 1 5 to 20 per- 
sons made a general confession; dur- 
ing Paul's missions there were only 
15 or 20 who did not do so." 

BY MEANS of these considerations 
on the Passion St. Paul of the 
Cross intended to spread devotion to 
the Sufferings and Death of Our 
Lord Jesus Christ among men. 

He wanted the faithful to think of 
the Passion, to unite their lives and 
sufferings daily with His. The 
Founder was not primarily concerned 
with the publication of books on the 
Passion, the preaching of the dogma 
of the Passion, the theology of the 
Passion, the exegetical explanation 
of the Passion to men, but only to 
get people to think of the Passion 
and through this devotion to bring 
them to penance, sorrow, conversion 
and sanctity. 

In his circular letter concerning 
the study of the sufferings of Our 
Lord Jesus Christ, Father Leo writes: 
"Devotion is here not considered in 
the strict theological but in the as- 
cetical sense. It is the effort and the 
will to give Our Lord's suffering a 
special place in our interior life that 
is the first means to Passibn spirit- 

We must lead the faithful to this 
devotion by way of discussion, but 
most of all by way of affection. We 
must try to move their wills. The e\'i- 
dence itself has not the weight of 
the deed. We must move the v\ ill by 
making it see the "honestuni, utile et 
delectahile" of the mysteries of the 
Passion. We all know \'ery well that 
conversion and the persuading to the 
performance of deeds is not accom- 
plished principally by argumenta- 
tion, learned presentation or lectures, 
but by sharing with men some of 
our own convictions, affections and 
experience. It is one thing to relate 
the history of the Passion and an- 
other to ha\e men draw appropriate 
lessons therefrom. The one diK's not 
necessarily and not even ordinarily 
produce the other. 1 lence the most 
learned priests and laity are not nec- 
essarily the most dexout. They should 
be, they could be. but they are not 
always nor even ordinarily so. Statis- 
tics of spiritual direction prove this. 

August 1, 1957 


Paul of the Cross, Alphonsus, Leon- 
ard of Port Maurice did not preach 
a philosophical God, did not preach 
lessons in dogma, but preached what 
(hey themselves had first experienced. 

Meditation on the Passion is there- 
fore something essential to our voca- 
tion. "It is the soul and marrow of 
the mission," said St. Paul of the 
Cross. On the occasion of the Holy 
Year of 1750, our Founder wrote to 
the Cardinal- Vicar of Rome: "The 
motive on the Passion given for fif- 
teen minutes or a half hour after the 
sermon is something we may never 
omit, for we are bound by vow to 
spread this devotion. It is the most 
important fruit of our missions." 

It is, therefore, the grace of our 
particular vocation. 

Paul wished that the spreading of 
devotion be carried out in accord 
with his own method. In one of his 
letters he writes: "The most effica- 
cious means for the conversion of 
the most hardened sinners is the Pas- 
sion of Our Lord Jesus Christ when 
it is preached according to the meth- 
od that the Divine, Ineffable and 
Eternal Goodness has approved 
through His representative on earth." 

"The vow," he also wrote, "to 
spread devotion to the Sacred Passion 
is well explained in the Holy Rule. 
It consists, among other things, in 
preaching it and in giving a medita- 
tion on the Passioh for about half 
an hour immediately after the ser- 
mon, without leaving the pulpit." 

In these meditations on the Pas- 
sion doctrine must be interwoven 
with dogma as its basis. But Paul 
expects more than that. He demands 
the making out loud a meditation on 
one or the other point of the Passion 
and Death of Our Lord Jesus Christ. 
And hence the preaching of the great- 
est proof of God's love for mankind. 
It is in this that our fourth vow 

UNDER the heading "The Passion 
Sermons" come the sermons on 
the Passion during Lent, sermons on 
the cross, etc. (The actual word used 
here is "Cross-sermons" — Just what 
the author means by these words is 
not clear to the translator.) 

Although these sermons are in line 
with our ideals, they are, neverthe- 
less, not the kind that St. Paul of the 

Cross intended. It is a peculiar fact 
that these Passion sermons are every- 
where complained about. 

A great number of articles have 
been published in Holland written 
by Antoon van Duikerken in "Dy 
Tyd" (The Times) between 1940 
and 1942. The work of Klaas Steur: 
"Not We, but He" (Sheed and 
Ward, 1953) is known to all of us. 
In a twenty-four page introduction 
the writer treats of the entire prob- 
lem of Passion meditations. Klass 
Steur analyzes the various kinds of 
Passion sermons and what the writers 
on eloquence expect of them. He 
classified them and found the follow- 
ing methods: 

The purely homiletic— a strict ex- 
position of the words of Sacred 

The thematic— the documentary re- 
lation of a particular theme treated 
as a definite exposition of dogmatic 
or moral theology. 

The moral— a pausing at a point 
in the Passion and then moralizing.— 
The most common. 

The dogmatic— the reasons for Our 
Lord's sufferings and the presentation 
of a well considered plan of the re- 

The ascetic— a moral presentation 
on a higher plane, directed to virtue. 
Thus Fr. Janvier. 

The exegetic— a study of a partic- 
ular occurrence with regard to its his- 
toric setting. 

The liturgic— a text from the mis- 
sal or breviary applied to the Pas- 
sion and in keeping with the spirit 
of Lent. 

The psychologic— the character of 
some figure in the Passion. (Exam- 
ple, Fr. Palmer, O.F.M.) 

The panegyric— as a "magnalium 
Dei." (Example, Kerssemakers.) 

The Marian — the sentiments of 
Mary during the Passion. 

The thematic Lenten sermon- 
Confer "Caremes." 

The Eucharistic — application of 
scenes of the Passion to the Presence 
of Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament. 

We may add to these— the treat- 
ment of the Seven Last Words, 
Peter's viewpoint (Val Green), etc. 

John Niewenhuis writes: "I am of 
the opinion that the Passion medita- 
tions ordinarily show little change in 
viewpoint or character. I see scant 

difference between the present ser- 
mon and that of thirty years ago." 
And he adds to this: "Would not a 
return to (the former) simple medita- 
tion signify a welcome revival?" 

HAVING considered all this, Klaas 
Steur concluded: That it is not 
necessary to sacrifice the Lenten ser- 
mon to the meditation method, pro- 
vided the sermon be filled again with 
spirit and bespeaks one's personal re- 
ligious convictions. The problem of 
the Passion meditation is not homiletic 
but theological. Attempts enough have 
been made at revival. The faith of 
the people and the knowledge of the 
educated are not opposed to each 
other. But it has become too much 
of a game of opinions. Theology 
must remain the essential manner of 
procedure. It must not be a study in 
revelation, a study in dogma, a study 
in faith, but must simply remain a 
study of God. And the theology must 
be built on the foundation or kernel 
of faith. 

Now the same idea that led to a 
revival in theology must also influ- 
ence the sermon. Formerly we set 
faith somewhat in opposition to the- 
ology. As theologians and preachers 
we must build on faith. We must 
preach in faith and in God. 

Theology and the sermon must not 
be witness to the faith, but of and in 
the faith. We must not speak about 
our faith as something extraneous 
but as the something "from whence." 
To preach about dogma is just as un- 
fruitful as to preach without faith. 
And hence dogmatic sermons are not 
the solution. We must return to the 
all-personal faith as that which at- 
taches the person to God Himself. 
In this manner the sermon is a real 
testimony. The preacher personally 
grasps the fundamental theology. He 
must not play the theologian in the 
pulpit. The preacher must himself 
be a believer speaking from convic- 

So FAR K. Steur. I am of the opin- 
ion that this is to the point, and 
that here is the solution not only for 
Passion sermons but for all fruitful 
and efficient preaching. 

In an article in N.K.S.T. 1956, 
VII, pp. 21-29, Fr. Heilsbosch added 
the following to K. Steur's introduc- 
tion. "We must reckon," he writes. 


The Passionist 

"with the new insight into dogma. 
We must jireach, with heart and 
soul, from out the faith. But we must 
also make that theological sphere our 
own from which faith can be 

"The mystery of the Cross," he 
continues, "is the essence of the gos- 
pel, death, resurrection, forgiveness 
of sin and deliverance from death. 
Now how far are the facts of the 
Passion, Death and Resurrection pre- 
sented to the faithful as expressions 
of the mystery of Redemption? In 
practice," says he, "this is beyond 
possibility because the theological in- 
ventory of the preacher is too poor." 
This is justly taken. The older the- 
ology gave the Passion meditations a 
form. We must not cast this form 
away, we may not lessen the 
Church's doctrine. We lesson the 
Church's doctrine when we consider 
Christ's Passion as sufficient and as 
condignant. We must also see the 
Passion as the solidarity of Christ 
with fallen man and as the organic 
bond between the Crucifixion and 
the Resurrection. "We say constant- 
ly," he continues, "that Christ could 
have redeemed us by one drop of 
His Precious Blood. But is not the 
manner of the Redemption as we 
know it truly united to the sinful- 
ness of man? Is there not a connec- 
tion between man's condition and the 
Crucifixion? Hence as the theological 
background for our Passion sermons 
we must study St. Paul rather than 
the Synoptics. We must follow this 
order: Paul, Hebrews, Cospel of 
John, Apocalvpse, the Svnoptic Cos- 

Through Christ's death we are no 
longer separated from God. The ex- 
istence of death becomes more nat- 
ural. Jesus' Passion becomes the apex 
of all human suffering. "He became 
sin for us." Christ is therefore He 
ui:)on Whom the disastrous conse- 
quences of sin converge, and Who 
as representative of all sinners takes 
their place before the Holy God. 
This the preacher must keep in view 
in all his Passion sermons. We con- 
front man with what he is,— a sinner. 

When the sufferings of Christ are 
looked upon in the light of a "tying 
in" of our lots then we come to un- 
derstand that the cycle cannot end 
with Good IViday, because the Pas- 

AuGusT 1, 1957 

sion alone is not sufficient. "Qui mor- 
tem nostrum destrnxit, et vitam re- 
surgendo rcparavit." The Resurrec- 
tion is thus the fruit of the Passion. 
It is not one effect among many. The 
Resurrection is the concrete person- 
ification pf our salvation. "If thou 
are risen with Christ seek that which 
is from above." The perspective of 
Easter makes the Passion of Christ 
a "Beata Passio"; that of Good Fri- 
day a "Bitter Passion," but that is 
not complete. 

yv / E MUST preach the Passion as 
VV if it were a narrative. Hence 
not the "fersonae dramatis" around 
it. No moralizing, not psychological- 
ly, not Marian, not Eucharistic. 

Our sermons must always be jus- 
tified. As the above references have 
shown in a masterly way, all that we 
say about the Passion must be ex- 
egetically, theologically and historic- 
ally justified. So also in the light of 
the newer theology. So also we must 
see the Passion in the role of the 
Resurrection. Now, I maintain that 
the Passion can be preached in this 
manner without rousing amazement. 
This then is the foremost meaning 
of the Passion meditation. 

If we wish our preaching to be 
effective then we must ourselves be 
first convinced. We must ourselves 
be conscientious believers. Sermons 
in faith and from faith, not about the 
faith. Here lies, in my opinion, in 
truth the key to the considerations 
of the Passion and the meaning of 
the Founder. Indeed we must study 
the newer thelogy, keep up with the 
measure of what is possible to the 
preacher of our times. But again, 
the preaching on the sufferings and 
death of Our Lord Jesus Christ is 
not a cerebral exposition, not an ad- 
vancing of intellectual discovery, not 
a theological proclamation from the 
pulpit, but the fruit of conviction, of 
self -experience, of self-consideration 
and of self-affectedncss. 

It is an effective, heartfelt and thor- 
oughly sympathetic reproduction of 
the scenes of the Passion, the fruit 
of a deep interior life such as Paul 
of the Cross asks for, the fruit of 
solitude, regular meditation, constant 
fulfillment of duty— even the small- 
est—the fruit of our Holy Masses, 

stations, penance, fasting, the fruit 
of our lives. We shall not share with 
others that which we ourselves do 
not possess, the "Nemo dat quod non 
habit" which comes here fully to 
pass. It is a personal affair. And 
when our Holy Founder desires such 
a deep inner spirit in his religious, 
it is because we cannot announce the 
mysteries of the Passion fruitfully 
without it. And so it was with our 
older confreres, the Fathers and 
Brothers. They were not so thorough- 
ly educated as we are; they did not 
have our opportunities. But they 
were Passionists, men of prayer and 
penance. God does not depend upon 
the wisdom of men in order to con- 
vert the world; but He does want 
man's attachment, man's complete 
readiness to receive grace,— every 

Let us not forget that the preach- 
ing of the Cross is foolishness and 
this Supreme foolishness can be un- 
derstood and felt, and convincingly 
and persuasively shared only by those 
who have become fools in the eyes 
of the wise. Again, this docs not ex- 
clude study,— this it must not—, but 
wisdom without this complete at- 
tachment will be fruitless and sterile. 

FINALLY, our preaching must fit 
the demands of our times. They 
are addressed to the people of today, 
of this place, under present circum- 
stance. It is not my purpose to give a 
complete picture of the modern man. 
His Holiness Pope Pius XII summed 
up what should be the characteristics 
of the modern man: "Broadness in 
judgment and mentality, unity of 
governments and organizations, pre- 
paredness for action. " 

In his book: "Reflectio}is sur la 
Condiiite de la Vie" Carrel gives as 
certain characteristics of the modern 
man: the law of profit, materialism, 
the break with customs and tradi- 
tion, his own laws of morality, aban- 
donment of self-control and dis- 
cipline. We might add to this the 
loss of the sense of sin, fear of effort, 
haste and nervousness. On the posi- 
tive side we ha\e: greater develojv 
ment, somewhat less afloctatiousness, 
more open minded, more seeking 
after the "wherefore" of faith and 
morals and, especially among wom- 
en, more indepedence. 


Our preaching must be: positive, 
solid, psychological, interesting. 

But we must by no means omit 
the affections (sentiment, feeling). 
We must give an explanation of the 
matter, bring forth convincing an- 
swers to objections, give proofs and 
comments; but that is neither all nor 
the most important part of a ser- 
mon. As long as we do not win our 
audience over to action and experi- 
ence we have accomplished litde or 
nothing. Hence we must not neglect 
the elements of pathos, feeling, af- 
fection. In the time of Paul of the 
Cross, and perhaps even now in 
Southern Italy, this played an im- 
portant role. There was much weep- 
ing. We Northerners do not take 
easily to this weeping. It annoys us, 
to say the least. We are soberer, cold- 
er, less sentimental than Southern 
folks. We are a little like the cour- 
tier who had "a heart of stone." Yet 
we here in the North must also ap- 
peal to the affections; we must let 
our hearts speak here as well as in 
the South. Note that I say "also and 
as well," not necessarily "as much." 
Cold, unaffected preaching is always 
an absurdity. We must therefore fit 
our preaching to the people of our 

YES, but are men different now 
than they were formerly? What 
do we know of the psychology of the 
people of the eighteenth century, 
whether in Italy or here? It is well 
to make a comparison and judge the 
measure of affection we must use in 
our sermons. Are the Italians of the 
eighteenth century so much differ- 
ent from those of the twentieth cen- 
tury? Were the Hollanders of the 
eighteenth century so very different 
from the modern man? 

Fitting sermons! Did the sermon of 
the eighteenth century fit the times? 
Did those of the nineteenth century"^ 
I think that the admonishments and 
denunciations of the present day are 
as old as the Church itself. Our ser- 
mons are as fit today, in every sense, 
as they formerly were. And I mean 
by this that the preachers who in 
former times had such a grip on souls 
were the kind who did so not so 
much by the contents of their ser- 
mons as by their sincerity, convic- 
tion and certainty. This, no doubt, 


was the case with St. Paul of the 
Cross' written sermons. 

Men are now more educated! Is 
that really true They know more, 
they read more; but have they a bet- 
ter knowledge of affairs? Are the 
learned of today, the philosophers 
and theologians, so much wiser and 
understanding than those of the days 
of Thomas Aquinas, Descartes, Leib- 
nitz? And do ordinary men of today 
have a better understanding of reli- 
gion and theology than formerly be- 
cause of their rationalistic exposi- 
tions? I dare to doubt this very much. 
That there are some people who can 
understand it, yes. But the great 
masses, the average adult, has an in- 
llectual development not exceeding 
that of a thirteen or fourteen year 
old child. And the average of our 
men in the services is even somewhat 
less. It is surprising how attentively 
adults listen to a sermon for children 
provided it is not applied to adults. 
And Dr. Alexis Carrel tells us that 
it is by no means an established fact 
that modern man has made any 

Men are now more matter-of-fact 
that formerly! In a certain sense, 
yes. Theye are more independent, 
more self-sufficient. They have seen 
more brutality. They can remain 
calmer in the face of misfortunes be- 
falling other persons. But have their 
emotional lives been so much les- 
sened? I think not. Listen to their 
conversations at home, at work, on 
the sport's grounds. See the movies 
they see, read the books they read. 
Watch their reactions under personal 
difficulties. Note their sentiments and 
viewpoints when directing them in 
the confessional, etc. I feel certain 
that the lessening of their emotional 
lives is but minute. And when their 
emotional lives are out of tune then 
there is not progress but rather a 
deadening. We must not encourage 
the loss of emotional life by spread- 
ing the doctrine of cerebralism. 

Nor must we judge the modern 
man by the literature of the day. 
Ordinary men have not experienced 
the evolution of the priests and edu- 
cated persons of 1956. Neurosis and 
phychosis are diseases of the intel- 
lectuals and ordinary people seldom 
suffer them. And the mystics of to- 
day are just as emotional as those of 

a hundred or two hundred or eight 
hundred years ago. And they are just 
as simple in their spirituality as those 
of former years. 

And why should this tone of sen- 
timentality be changed since human 
nature has mostly remained the 
same? I do not here light a torch for 
sentimentality, exaltation, affected- 
ness or anything of that sort. But 
why should we not preach, even to 
men of today, in an unctious, feel- 
ing and sel&^outpouring manner? 

Why should the preaching of the 
sufferings and death of Our Dearest 
Lord be a cold, sober, unfeeling and 
unexperienced presentation? Rather, 
why should it not be an outpouring 
of our personal expriences in a feel- 
ing manner? The modern man is just 
as sensitive to sorrow and pain as 
former men. Their feelings have but 
been covered with a veneer of ego- 
tism, and materialism. These have 
but buried their feelings just a little 
deeper and made it more difficult to 
reach them through the emotions. But 
when what is preached comes from 
a life and conscience that has itself 
been touched by them, then the "or- 
dinary" person will be just as much 
affected by them now as in former 
times. Do the people at home or in 
the family weep less now than for- 
merly when death or suffering strike? 
Did they weep more in years gone by 
than they do now? It is not a ques- 
tion of merely shedding tears but of 
that of which tears are an expression 
and a proof. The romantic and the 
pathetic have their places as much 
now as ever. But the romantic must 
be the fruit of inner conviction and 
of a healthy spirit. As an example 
of this I suggest, J. H. Newman's 
"Meditations and Pious Exercises." 

THE following are some of the 
objections that we often hear. 
People do not care for this constant 
preaching of the Passion. "When 
you hear these Passionists, it is al- 
ways about the Passion." We have 
perhaps heard such remarks. Possi- 
bly we have never counted the other 
times when persons have said: 
"Those Passionists can preach the 
Passion so beautifully." But why do 
earnest people sometimes make the 
first remark? It may be because of 
(Continued on ■page 307) 

The Passionist 

Use Of Money jor a 


Once it is clearly established that the money was acquired for a 

specific purpose, then it must be used for that purpose, 
otherwise we violate justice or at least fidelity. 


JjECAusE two doubts in particular 
have arisen on the use of money re- 
ceived by us for a specific purpose, 
in this article I would like to answer 
and discuss the two following ques- 

(1) Must money received for a 
specific purpose, either by donation 
or by bequest, be used for that pur- 
pose only? 

(2) Does the Superior need any 
permission or approxal to use such 
money for the specified purpose? 

In answer to the first question, 
money acquired by donation or be- 
quest must be used for the purpose 
specifit'd and for that purpose only. 

It is an obligation ex histitia. There 
is an implicit (sometimes it is ex- 
plicit) contract between the recipi- 
ent and the donor: a "do lit facias" 
contract. The condition (the purpose 
specified) is part of the contract and 
once we enter into the contract, we 
are obliged ex histitia to fulfill it. 
(Noldin, vo. II, p. 483. Ed. XXVll.) 

Money so received, b^jlongs to us 
indeed, but it belongs to us with a 
condition attached. Not to fulfill that 
condition is to violate our contract 
with the donor. Even the Passionist 
Rule is not abcne justice. Cod's laws 
take precedence oxer man made laws, 
even the highest. 

To ask for or to accejit money for 
a specified purpose and then use it 
for other purposes, is to lay ourselves 
open to the accusation that has been 
leveled against religious in the past: 
they can't deal honestly even with 

August 1, 1957 

their benefactors. Ask ariyone, from 
the man in the street to a Court of 
Justice, and they would agree that 
to accept money for one purpose and 
then use it for another, is to obtain 
money under false pretenses. 

If there is serious doubt whether 
the money was given for a specific 
purpose or just for the general pur- 
poses of the Congregation, possibly 
the doubt could be resolved in favor 
of the Congregation. But once it is 
clearly established that the money 
was acquired for a specific purpose, 
then it must be used for that pur- 
pose, otherwise we violate justice or 
at least fidelity. 

(2) Moreover, the Provincial, as 
Ordinary, has the obligation to see 
to it that the donation is used for 
the jiurposc for which it was given 
(Cns. 1514 and 1515,2). 

(3) Fr. Titus, in his Expos. Juris 
Part., no. 344, says expressly that Su- 
periors and Economes are bound to 
carry out the conditions laid down by 
the donor: "Debent servare praes 
cripta iuris etiam civilis et condi- 
tiones, quae a donatore vcl a legitima 
auctoritate praescriptae sunt." 

As TO the second question: 
(1) Per se, the consent of the 
local Chapter, the Provincial or Gen- 

Fr. Herman Stier. C.P.. former Provincial 
of Holy Cross Province, is now preaching 
the retreats for priests at Our Lady's Re- 
treat House. Warrenton. Missouri." After 
obtaining his Doctorate in Canon Law in 
Rome. Fr. Herman taught for several 

eral Curia is not necessary in order 
to use the money for the purpose for 
which it was given. 

Per accidens some approval may be 
necessary, e.g., because it involves 
new construction or a change in the 
building (Rule, no. 101). 

Whenever no other factor is in- 
volved than the simple acceptance 
and use of a donation or bequest for 
a specific purpose, then the Superior 
concerned may freely accept and 
freely use the money for the purpose 

The reason is clear; the Superior, 
the local Chapter and Higher Supe- 
riors are obliged by charity to accept 
such a donation or quest. To refuse 
it would indeed not be a violation 
of poverty but it would be a violation 
of charitv. (Schaefer, De Religiosis, 
no. 1116! Ed. Ouarta, 1947.) 

(2) The same thing is evident by 
analogy to can. 1536, 2, which for- 
hids the Rector or Superior to refuse 
a donation made to a Church with- 
out the permission of the Ordinary. 

Since then neither the Chapter nor 
the Superior ma\' refuse the donation 
or the bequest, there is no jxjint in 
holding a Chapter or asking permis- 
sion from a lligher Superior merely 
to confirm what they are already ob- 
liged to do, what, per se, they cannot 

(3) Such also has been our con- 
stant practice. The Custom Book (no. 
40, p. 43) states that our Superiors 
may accept and use such donations 

(Ct))ilitnied ou page i08) 


A Passion Library should contain any and every available book or article on the Passion 

that has been written and published at any time in any modern language. The 

reason is evident — a Passionist should be interested in acquainting himself with what 

the world thinks and has thought, writes and has written on the Passion. 


by David Haberbush, C.P. 

IN A past issue of The Passionist 
mention was made of Father 
Paulino Calle, C.P., of Precious 
Blood Province, Spain. One of Fa- 
ther Paulino's appointments is the 
assembling of a Provincial Library 
of literature on the Passion of Our 
Lord. While engaged in a similar 
project in my own Province, I have 
been in contact with Father Paulino 
and our interchange of ideas and ex- 
periences brings to my mind certain 
reflections and conclusions relative to 
the work of Passion Libraries. As 
they may be of interest to others 
who have given the matter serious 
consideration, I do not believe that 
it will be out of place to discuss the 
subject and perhaps lead others to 
express their ideas on this same 

In the first part of this article I 
will consider the question of a Pro- 
vincial versus a Studio Addictus Li- 
brary of the Passion. Then in the 
second part I will discuss the forma- 
tion of a Passion Library. In a fu- 
ture article I would like to present 
for consideration my ideas on what 
should be the natural overflow of a 
more intense study of Passion Litera- 
ture that wall result from adequate 
Passion Libraries. I would like then 
to treat in particular, spreading de- 


votion to the Passion of Our Lord by 
means of the written word. 

THE Province of the Precious 
Blood in Spain and St. Gabriel's 
Province, Belgium, are both forming 
Provincial Libraries of publications 
on the Passion of Our Lord. Every- 
thing published on the Passion of 
Our Lord is being collected in one 
library and this collection will be 
placed at the service of the whole 
Province. The Province of St. Pat- 
rick in Ireland, like our own Prov- 
ince, has dedicated its efforts to build- 
ing up a Passion Library for the use 
of the Lectors and Students. Both of 
these projects have certain points that 
are recommendable but they also 
place certain unfavorable limitations 
on the disposition and use of the 
_ material collected. 

At first sight, the idea of a Provin- 
cial Library seems more commend- 
able than the formation of a Studio 
Addictus Library. But when we re- 
flect on the matter, it becomes evi- 
dent that neither proposition is the 
suitable solution to the problem of 
keeping the brethren furnished with 
a first class Bibliotheca Passionis. 
For, considering the unreliability of 

the mails in some countries, the pro- 
tracted absence from the monastery 
of not a few missionaries who would 
request certain publications, the book 
collecting and comparatively infre- 
quent use of these books by some 
members of the communities, the 
needs of Lectors in regard to individ- 
ual studies and the all too human 
failing of forgetfulness, the idea of 
a Provincial Library presents certain 
inconveniences and shortcomings. 
The books will remain in the Prov- 
ince. That is certain. But, where? 
At whose particular disposition? For 
how long? Moreover, it is by no 
means unlikely that a fairly large 
proportion of the Provincial Library 
publications . will finally end up be- 
ing assimilated by the libraries of 
the various monasteries. Things like 
this have a certain way of working 
themselves out and a relatively in- 
tact Provincial Library after some 
years remains problematical. 

The idea of a Studio Addictus" 
Passion Library restricts the use of 
the material collected to the Lectors 
and Students. It enables them to 
carry out the integral study of the 
Passion which is prescribed for their 
course of study. Such a library offers 

The Passionist 

definite hopes of remaining intact 
and offers a guarantee of fulfilling 
the purpose of its formation. But, the 
Province as a whole will not directly 
benefit from this collection since it 
will not have access to it. To begin 
placing the collection at the disposal 
of the Province or even of the house 
in which it is located is an invitation 
to grumblings and to the vanishing 
of needed books and growing spaces 
on the book shelves. The interpreta- 
tion of the personal pronoun "our" 
is, at times, inconveniently elastic. 

Therefore, the adequate solution 
of a Passion Library does not rest in 
either of these two answers. It must 
be sought elsewhere. And, the most 
suitable place to establish it is in the 
library of each monastery where the 
Passion publications will be at the 
disposal and use of the entire com- 
munity. This unity of the library as 
opposed to the duality of our set-up 
(House and Studio Addictus each 
having its own library) is found in 
monastic establishments on the con- 
tinent and elsewhere. And if there is 
any conflict over who is to have the 
use of certain publications, what is 
prescribed for the student course at 
the time should naturally have prece- 

IF OUR monastic libraries should pos- 
sess one characteristic, that char- 
acteristic should be the prominence 
of literature on the Passion. A Pas- 
sionist Library should be a library of 
literature on the Passion. Conse- 
quently, the formation of such a 
library should be an ideal in each 
community. This would require that 
each monastery make as complete a 
collection as possible of everything 
that has been written on the subject. 
The integral plan for carrying out 
this ideal has been laid down by 
Very Rev. Fr. Leone, C.P., in his 
letter on Passion Studies. If my mem- 
ory is not at fault, the only aspect 
of the Passion that was not given 
full consideration was that of medical 
studies. At the time of the publica- 
tion of this Directive, these studies 
were but slightly developed. Since 
then, however, a number of excellent 
medical treatises on the Passion of 
Our Lord ha\c inade their apjicar- 
ance and throw additional lights on 
the physical and mental sufferings of 

August 1, 1957 

that phase of Our Lord's Life. 

But, when we consider our mon- 
astic libraries, how many of them are 
up to the standard that Father Leone 
set in his letter on Passion Studies? 
How many of our libraries contain 
at least sufficient Passion Literature 
to help one of our religious compose 
a series of discourses on, for instance, 
the Passion and Art, or the Medieval 
Passion Plays and their development 
from the Holy Week Liturgy of the 
Church? The study of the Passion 
should be a life-long study and each 
and every monastic library should be 
suitably equipped to assist the breth- 
ren in pursing this distinctive line of 
Passionist study. The individual reli- 
gious should not and must not be 
expected to shift for himself in this 

It may be argued, and no doubt 
will be by a few, that the above men- 
tioned aspects of the Passion are of 
little importance; that it is the the- 
ological and exegetical studies that 
count; that the rest is simply a side 
study that one may take up or pass 
over as one sees fit. This argument 
is very narrow and at its best misses 
the point. Looking to immediate re- 
sults only, it fails to grasp the heighth 
and the depth and the breadth of the 
Passion of Our Lord in its unfold- 
ing, its working out not only in the 
indi\'idual Christian soul but also in 
the collectivity of souls which forms 
the Christian culture. Father Leone 
cleary grasped this particular and 
universal cultural point of view and 
expressed it clearly in his letter on 
Passion studies. The Passion of Our 
Lord in the whole range of its effects 
and applications is the proper and 
special study for a Passionist. Con- 
sequently, our Passionist Libraries 
should reflect that universal point of 
view and should be equipped to as- 
sist the brethren in applying them- 
selves to that study. 

SINCE the nature and extent of the 
the Bihliotlicca Passio)iis has 
been laid down for us by Father 
Leone, there is no further need to 
dwell on this point except to stress 

Fr. David Haberbush, C.P.. left from St. 
Paul of the Cross Province in 1932. to help 
with the English work in Immaculate Con- 
ception Province. Argentina. For a time 
Father was Moderator of Studies for the 

the fact that the Library of Passion 
literature should not be restricted to 
publications that have been written 
only in English. The collection 
should contain any and every avail- 
able book or article on the Passion 
that has been written and published 
at any time in any modern language. 
The reason is evident— a Passionist 
should be interested in acquainting 
himself with what the world thinks 
and has thought, writes and has writ- 
ten on the Passion of Our Lord. 

It is a very chauvinistic argument 
to consider the purchase of good pub- 
lications on the Passion as a waste of 
money that could be put to better 
use; or to estimate these books as so 
much cluttering up of the library 
shelves with publications that are 
practically useless simply because 
they are not written in English; or 
because there is no one at present in 
the monastery who can appreciate 
them. To say the least, it indicates 
the pronounced cultural limitations 
of the religious objecter. In the first 
place, no university or center of cul- 
ture would admit such an argument. 
Take, for example, the Biblical Insti- 
tute in Rome. Besides the knowledge 
of Greek, Latin and an Oriental lan- 
guage, there is also required a knowl- 
edge of three modern languages and 
these three modern languages are not 
taken for granted. They are materia 
for exams. Secondly, the reference 
notes in Father Leone's letter gives 
us titles of books in several languages. 

Thirdly, the present moment may 
reveal that there are no brethren in 
the monastery who, for example, can 
read German. Does that imply that 
the deficiency will have to be per- 
manent. Sooner or later, there will be 
some who will appreciate these pub- 
lications in other languages and will 
find them helpful in advancing their 
knowledge of the Passion. We have 
met the same problem. Our ideal 
was and is to collect everything that 
has been written on the Passion at 
any time and in any of our modern 
languages. Inevitably some foreign 
language books turned up and with 
them the corresponding objection 
that no one could read them and 
why could not the monc\' be used 
for more needed and readable works 
on other subjects. A few years have 
passed and there arc now lectors who 


know the languages in which these 
books are written. They will no 
doubt find them useful in composing 
some of their lectures on the Passion. 

MOREOVER, it is interesting to 
note that not a few books on 
the Passion contain fairly lengthy 
bibliographies of works that have 
been studied and quoted in the book. 
The Bibliographies do not restrict 
themselves to the language in which 
the book was written but cover pub- 
lications in several languages. Also, 
the dates of publication of these vari- 
ous works indicate that they came to 
the editorial light before the authors 
who studied and quoted them came 
to the light of day. Who can deny 
that some future day may find some 
monk following in the footsteps of 
the same experience? 

We should also bear in mind that 
there are works published today writ- 
ten in other languages which would 
be an acquisition for any Passion Li- 
brary. To wait for their appearance 
in English is usually to wait in vain. 
In a few years they will be out of 
print and should some future Pas- 
sionist seek to acquire them, he will 
be fortunate if he can manage to get 
one out of ten such books. Are pres- 
ent and future generations to be de- 
prived of these publications simply 
because there is no one at present 
who can read them A Passion Li- 
brary is a treasury of works on the 
Passion; not something of utility for 
the present only but also for future 
generations. Each year should bring 
its quota of increase in size and im- 
portance. The ideal of the Passion is 
perennial and the Passion Library 
should express that perennial aspect 
and also perennial universal growth. 

When one has finally built up a 
fairly good collection of good books, 
there is sure to crop up the not un- 
founded query— "How long, O Lord, 
before these books will be found scat- 
tered throughout the monastic libra- 
ries of the Province?" There is un- 
doubted merit, founded on cen- 
turies of experience, in the principle 
that prevails in not a few European 
monastic libraries— i|»so facto suspen- 
sion for any religious who takes a 
library book out of the house. The 
library of Sts. John and Paul has 
found it advisable to adopt this 


principle and a notice to the effect 
is prominently displayed in the 
library of the Mother House of the 

LOOKING back over the years to the 
time when, as a student, the 
care of the library was a manual of- 
fice, there comes to my mind certain 
reflections. It was on one of these 
occasions when a comparison pre- 
sented itself. One part of the library 
had an extensive section of profane 
literature and close by there were a 
few shelves containing some books 
on the Passion. For the most part, 
these books were sermons or medita- 
tions. Comparing the two sections, 
the thought came to my mind— how 
little has been published on the Pas- 
sion of Our Lord! But, after having 
some experience in building up a 
Bihliotheca Passionis, the thought 
has undergone a change and takes 
the form of— how few books on the 
Passion of Our Lord have been ac- 
quired! English is the vehicle for 
conveying our thought, but the dom- 
inating thought to be conveyed is the 
Passion of Our Lord. For that end we 
take a fourth vow. Why, then, 
should not our libraries be as dis- 
tinctly Passionistic as they are lit- 

On beginning the formation of a 
Passion Library, one naturally ex- 
pects to meet with certain obstacles 
and difficulties. But, what was unex- 
pected was the nature and extent of 
cooperation within our own ranks. 
Letters to publishers and book agen- 
cies in various parts of the world 
brought limited responses; there was 
always some reply, even though it 
was in the negative, from the secular 
agencies. But, the replies from our 
own brethren were certainly less en- 
couraging. And we should know 
more on this subject than anyone 
else! Even allowing for loss of let- 
ters in transit and similar inconveni- 
ences, there is still to be explained 
the lack of response where it should 
not be expected. This lack of re- 
sponse leads one to reflect on the de- 
gree of interest in Passion literature 
and the extent to which the forma- 
tion of the Bihliotheca Passionis has 
progressed in our midst. 

A DECIDED change in this point 
came about when we contacted 
Father Raphael, C.P., the editor of 
the Revue de la Passion in France. 
He went to no end of trouble in 
looking up books that were in print 
and books that were out of print. His 
timely assistance was an example of 
true fraternal interest in our project. 
The predominance of French works 
in our collection is an indication of 
his unfailing efforts on our behalf. 
Later, there were very helpful direc- 
tives from Father Sebastian, C.P., the 
Prefect of Studies in Rome, and from 
the Passiologica and a few other 
brethren in other countries. But, in 
spite of this cooperation one cannot 
help forming the impression that the 
number of those really interested in 
spreading a knowledge of the Pas- 
sion in our own midst through a 
Bihliotheca Passionis is still very lim- 
ited. This limited interest is out of 
all proportion to our obligation of 
spreading devotion to the Passion of 
Our Lord. We cannot give what we 
do not have. The lack of the broader, 
cultural knowledge of the Passion 
must necessarily place uncalled for 
limits on our efforts to carry out our 
fourth vow. Although there is an 
increasing interest in this matter in 
several countries, it still has a long 
way to go before the ideal is attained. 

From the States, it is difficult to 
grasp the difficulties that are created 
by rigid exchange controls. For us, 
it presented an acute problem until 
Fr. Donald Nealis, C.P. of The Sign 
helped us over the hurdle. Owing 
to his unfailing kindness, our col- 
lecting work went forward without 
undue interruption. Our estimate of 
a needed 250 books for a basic Pas- 
sion Library was reached and passed. 
We will always feel indebted to Fa- 
ther Donald for his ready charity 
and unfailing patience in dealing 
with our numerous requests. There 
are more ways of furthering our 
fourth vow than by the spoken and 
the written word. 

In concluding this point we can 
only repeat that very much has been 
written on the Passion of Our Lord. 
Magazine articles are the more nu- 
merous among these publications. 
This treasury of the Passion should 
find its true and full expression in 
(Continued on page 309) 

The Passionist 



Devotion to 



IT IS our vocation to stand 
in spirit with her, to con- 
template the Passion as she 
did, to respond as she did 
to the love which poured 
down from the Cross, and to 
lead others to do the same. 

^^ccoRDiNG to Father Costante of 
St. Gabriel in an article entitled 
"Mary and the Congergation," re- 
printed in The Passionist for Novem- 
ber, 1954, devotion to Mary does not 
pertain to the essence of Passionist 
spirituality. He says, "Devotion to 
Mary is an integral, rather than a 
constitutive clement in the spiritual- 
ity of the Congregation." 

Must we say that devotion to Mary 
is only an integral part of our spirit- 
uality? y\n essence can exist without 
all of its integral parts, but not with- 
out all of its constitutive parts. Can 
Passionist spirituality even exist es- 
sentially without devotion to Mary? 

Let us examine devotion to Mary 
more closely. According to St. Thom- 
as, devotion js "an act of the will by 
which one gives himself readily to 
tlic divine service" (II-II, 82, 3). All 
dc\()tion, therefore has Cod as its 
object. Even devotion to the saints, 
St. Thomas points out, docs not ter- 

AuGusT 1, 1957 

minate in them, but in Cod, "inas- 
much as we \'enerate God in the 
servants of Cod" (II-II, 82, 2, ad 3). 

However, the cause of devotion 
is in the intellect, since every act of 
the will must proceed from some con- 
sideration of the mind. Since the ob- 
ject of the will is the good as it is 
known (honum uitellectum), medita- 
tion on this good is the cause of de- 
votion (Art 3). And here too, St. 
Thomas brings out the value of med- 
itation on the Passion to arouse de\'0- 
tion (Art. 3 ad 2, and Art. 4 ad 1). 
The Sacred I lumanity of Christ is 
a sensible sign leading us to the 
knowledge of divine things, and by 
doing this it arouses our devotion. 

1 i)ll{)wing these principles, we may 
say that dexotion to a saint is the 
will to give onself readily to the 
semce of Cod prompted by a con- 
sideration of the \ irtues of that saint 
and a desire to imitate him. 

We can distinguish, too, the dif- 


ferent objects of devotion, the ma- 
terial and the formal. The material 
object would be the life and exam- 
ple of a saint. The formal object of 
devotion, which is an act of the will, 
would be the life and example of a 
saint understood by the intellect as 
a motive for the service of God. 

Again we can distinguish between 
the formal object quod and the for- 
mal object quo, the formale quod 
being the precise ratio under which 
the material object is understood, and 
the formale quo being the means or 
medium' through which it is under- 

Now what is the object of our de- 
votion to the Passion as Passionist? 
I would suggest that the material 
object of devotion to the Passion is 
the Passion itself. 

The formal ohject quod would be 
the Passion as it is understood as a 
motive and incentive to the service 
of God. 

The formal ohject quo would be 
the Passion as seen through the eyes 
and heart of Mary. 

THE question is, then, does the 
Compassion of Mary pertain to 
the formale quo of our devotion to 
the Passion? Is it an essential means 
or medium through which we are to 
consider the Passion with our intel- 
lect and consequently through which 
we are to be devoted to the Passion 
with our will? 

It seems to me that it is. 

St. Paul's vision of Our Lady, 
clothed in the Passionist habit in 
mourning for her Son, telling him 
he was to found a congregation 
whose members, clothed in the same 
way, would mourn with her for the 
Passion and death of her Son, cer- 
tainly indicates that the essence of 
Passionist spirituality is to unite our- 
selves in spirit with Mary at the foot 
of the Cross and through her and 
with her to contemplate the suffer- 
ings of Christ. 

It seems to me that it is our voca- 
tion to stand in spirit with her, to 
contemplate the Passion as she did, 
to respond as she did to the love 
which poured down from the Cross, 
and to lead others to do the same. 

Even the method of meditation on 
the Passion taught by St. Paul of 
the Cross indicates this. He tells us 

that we are to meditate on the Pas- 
sion by looking on the sufferings of 
Christ with compassionate love and 
by that love to make those sufferings 
ours. "In meditating on the most 
holy Passion of Jesus, in seeing Him 
drowning in a sea of sorrow, we 
ought to show him our compassion, 
maintain ourselves in affections of 
love, and appropriate to ourselves his 
sufferings" (P. Gaetan, Doctrine de 
S. Paul de la Croix sur I'Oraison et 
la Mystique, p. 37). 

Does not this suggest Mary at the 
foot of the Cross, her Immaculate 
Heart pierced with the sword of sor- 
row, reflecting in her Heart every 
wound in the body of her Son? The 
similarity is striking. And this is the 
way St. Paul of the Cross used to 
teach the first Passionists to medi- 
tate on the Passion. 

He even mentions union with 
Mary as a means to this. "Above all, 
do not cease to compassionate the 
sweet Heart of Jesus by the afflicted 
Heart of the most holy Virgin, and 
to compassionate the Mother of God 
by the suffering Heart of Jesus and 
thus to mingle love and sorrow" (S. 
Paolo della Croce, Lettere, I, 228). 

It does not mean that we must al- 
ways think explicitly of the sorrows 
of Mary. We do not explicitly think 
of the formale quo, but this is the 
medium through which we reach the 
formale quod. The light of the rea- 
son is the formale quo of philosophy, 
but we do not always explicitly re- 
flect on this light in studying phi- 
losophy. Rather it is through this 
light that we consider the formale 
quod, which is being in its ultimate 

IN LIKE manner it is with Mary and 
through Mary, united in spirit 
with her and in imitation of her 
that we contemplate the Passion and 
are devoted to the Passion, even 
though it is not at all times that we 
explicitly think of her sorrows. De- 
votion to Mary should always be 
implicitly there, though, inasmuch as 
our lives should be a constant sur- 
render to Christ crucified moved by 
the consideration of Mary's sorrow- 

Fr. Bennet Kelley, C.P., is a member of 
St. Paul of the Cross Province, and is ac- 
tive in retreat work. 

ful surrender to Him and in imita- 
tion of her surrender, even though 
this consideration of Mary's sorrows 
is not actual at all times. However, 
it is always actually through her, 
that we give ourselves to Him. 

St. Grignon de Montfort has de- 
veloped beautifully the theology of 
devotion to Jesus through Mary. 
Certainly for him, devotion to Mary 
is the formale quo of all devotion to 
Jesus, the necessary means of giving 
ourselves to Him. "Devotion to our 
Lady is . . . necessary for us ... as 
a means of finding Jesus Christ per- 
fectly, of loving Him tenderly, of 
serving Him faithfully" (True Devo- 
tion to Mary, revised edition. Bay 
Shore, New York, 1950, p. 44). And 
as a reason for this he goes on to 
stress the necessary union there is 
between Jesus and Mary. 

This seems to be the reason why 
St. Paul of the Cross joins devotion 
to Mary with devotion to the Pas- 
sion of her Son. As Pere Gaetan 
writes, "According to him (St. Paul 
of the Cross), devotion to the Pas- 
sion of the Son and devotion to the 
sorrows of the Mother ought to go 
together (de pair)" (Esprit et Vertus 
de S. Paul de la Croix, p. 183). And 
also "The Saint does not separate 
the Heart of Jesus from the Heart of 
Mary and from her sorrow" (p. 174). 
In the words of St. Paul of the Cross 
himself, "He who goes to the crucifix 
meets the Mother there. Where the 
Mother is found, is found also the 
Son" (P. Gaetan, Op. cit., p. 183). 

It would seem, then, that for St. 
Paul of the Cross, devotion to Mary 
is a necessary means through which 
we are to contemplate the Passion 
of Christ, or in other words, the 
formale quo of our devotion to the 

WE CAN find this same attitude 
reflected in the life of the first 
Passionist to be canonized after our 
Holy Founder, St. Gabriel of the 
Sorrowful Virgin. In his own per- 
sonal piety it was devotion to the 
Sorrows of Mary which led him to 
the Passion. Certainly he never sepa- 
rated the Sorrows of Mary from the 
Passion. And he regarded the Sor- 
rows of Mary not only as the means 
of fulfilling his own Passionist voca- 
(Continued on page 310) 


The Passionist 

ALL OVER the world Passionists 
are awaiting word of the pro- 
posed revision of the Holy Rule. 
What will be changed? What will 
be kept? Will there be any drastic 
changes, even though not essential 
ones? Speculation runs high. The 
Holy Father has in a sense set a 
rather daring pace in accommodating 
to modern needs some time-honored 
laws of the Church. 

This matter is so vital to us all 
that we have need of viewing it in 
a deep spirit of faith. It offers us a 
good opportunity of recalling to 
mind what our Holy Rule should 
mean us to us, and why. 

Our Holy Rule is dear to us for 
any number of reasons. But, two of 
those reasons are so basic that we 
ought never to lose sight of them. 
The first of these, though not the 
most important, is that the text is 
the work of our Holy Founder him- 
self. A foremost authority, the form- 
er General, Father Titus of St. Paul 
of the Cross, assures us in his 
Expositio Juris Particularis that our 
present version of the Rule is actual- 
ly from the pen of St. Paul, not just 
substantially, but for the most part, 
literally. That means a great deal to 
us, his sons. And we earnestly hope 
and pray that conditions will never 
necessitate so great a change as 
would deprive us of that heritage. 

Of course, the greatest reason and 
most fundamental for our veneration 
and love of our Rule is that of the 
solemn and specific approval of the 
Popes. It is this specific form of 
approbation by the Holy Father him- 
self that carries with it, the note of 
infallibility (cf. Herve, Maniiale 
Theologiae, Vol. I, n. 520). And it 
is all the more to be valued by us 
since as Fr. Titus states, today it is 
not the practice for the Pope to 
exercise this infallible authority, by 
approving in this si:)ecial form. Ap- 
proval is left up to the Sacred Con- 
gregation of Religious. This special, 
papal approval given to our Rule 
does not merely add dignity to the 
work of our Holy Founder, but clc 
vates it to another order entirely. It 
becomes so closely tied in with an 
object of divine faith that the divine 
Truth shines through it guiding us 
to Himself. In the Rule of the Pas- 
sion, Christ Crucified, the Way and 

August 1, 1957 

the Truth, enlightens every son of 
the Cross and Passion how infallibly 
to become conformed to His own 

WE ARE all familiar with the cir- 
cumstances in which St. Paul 
of the Cross composed the basic for- 
mat of our Holy Rule. From De- 
cember 2nd to the 7th during his 
forty-day retreat in Castellazzo he 
jotted down, as he himself put it, 
the dictation of the Holy Spirit. It 
was to be a way of life for men 
whom Paul envisioned would be real 
apostles, dedicated to making the Suf- 
ferings of Christ bear lasting fruit 
in souls. 

There is so much that we can 
learn about the spirit of our Holy 
Rule and the end of the Institute 
by studying it along with the Diary 
of our Holy Founder, which was 
written during those days of retreat. 
For instance, the entry for Decem- 
ber 4th has this exclamation: "Alas! 
I seemed to faint away at seeing the 

Or take another excerpt from the 
Diary, in the entry for December 
6th, a Friday: "I possessed a keen 
infused knowledge of the torments 
of my Jesus, and I had so ardent a 
desire to be united perfectly with 
Him, that I kept desiring actually 
to feel His anguish and to be on the 
Cross with Him." Surely that was 
the ideal in young Paul Daneo's 
mind as he penned the directives for 
his followers regarding their mental 
prayer and the practices of penance. 
In the measure that they shared the 
Passion would they be privileged to 
reap its fruit in the apostolate. 

Yes, St. Paul's Rule for the Con- 
gregation of the Passion is the chart 
they are to use to guide their efforts 
in acquiring an intimate union with 
the Redeemer and in becoming zeal- 
ous, effective apostles of His Pas- 
sion. God's inspiration does not dis- 
pense with the human laws of trial 
and testing. And so the Founder 
changed and modified his first text 
as the enlightened judgment of ex- 

we Profess 


Oh, if you knew how much Founders hove wept 

at the feet of the Crucified, you would neglect 

nothing, be it even one iota, of the Rules. 

ruin ol so many souls who do wot 
experience the fruit of the Passion 
of my Jesus." That passage reveals 
the background to chapters in the 
Rule which treat of our fourth \'ow 
and the manner of conducting mis- 

Fr. Ward Biddle, C.P., former director of 
students of Holy Cross Province. Chicago, 
Illinois, has been appointed to the Japa- 
nese Mission. After Ordination, Father 
continued his studies in Theology in Rome. 
Articles by Father Ward have appeared 
before in The Paitionlil. 

pcrience counseled him. Even after 
the third solemn approxal by the 
Pope our Holy Founder still saw 
room for improvement, and called for 
a re-examination of the entire text. 
I le realized that e\ en pajxil appnn al 
does not disjuMise with himian in- 

One day in a conlerenie he cried 
out, "Oh, if you knew how much 
Foiniders ha\e wept at the feet of 
(Continued on page 3iO) 


WRITING — The Sign Magazine 

RADIO — Recording "Hour of the Crucified' 



That which was good or even necessary in one nation, for one generation 
and in well-determined circumstances is perhaps no longer such in another 
nation, another generation and in other circumstances. The important thing 
is not what the founders did but rather to know what they would do if they 
were here today. We must live in our times and according to our times. 

PARAGRAPH 132 of the Holy Rule, 
dealing with the fourth vow, lays 
down the foundation for this article: 
"Circumstances will open numerous 
other ways of promoting so great a 
work and of accomplishing their de- 
sires and purpose to the great ad- 
vantage of their own souls and those 
of others." Any form of the aposto- 
late which would not give the op- 
portunity to fulfil our vow of pro- 
moting devotion to the Sacred Pas- 
sion is thereby immediately ruled 
out as unlawful for us. But one of 
the objects of this Congress is to 
'widen the view of the Passionist 
Apostolate' and this object applies 
perhaps more particularly to this 
paper than to any other. 


How frequently we have heard it 
said that our work is to give missions 
and retreats and that that is our 
principal work cannot be denied. But 
in present day circumstances it has 
to be realized that there are other 
works of the ministry which are 
scarcely less important and this for 
several reasons. In the first place 
there are so many other modern con- 
gregations which are undertaking the 
work of missions that much less of 
this work is coming our way than it 
did in the days when, with very few 
other Orders, we had a quasi-monop- 
oly of this type of apostolate. Also 
the understanding that present day 
problems need a very different tech- 
nique than that used a generation 

ago; the fact that in this country we 
have a population that is 7.5 per cent 
Protestant and 85 per cent pagan 
and most of all, our special inheri- 
tance to convert England and not 
merely conserve what Faith there is, 
demands a re-assessment of our 
methods if we are to take any use- 
ful step towards this end. 

I think that it is of the greatest 
importance to appreciate how the 
widening of our ideas of our par- 
ticular apostolate and the adoption 
of new methods squares with the 
present directives of Rome. Father 
Larrona, the Secretary of the S. 
Congregation of Religious has said 
(1950): "That which was good or 
even necessary in one nation, for 

The Passionist 

SLIDES Fr. Forrest Macken, C.P. shows 
slides of Sacred Passion to workers in 
factory on Good Friday. 

t * 

' i 
^ it 

^. "" ■ 


TELEVISION — Fr. Fidelis Rice, C.P., telecasting the "Tre Ore." 

one generation and in well-deter- 
mined circumstances is perhaps no 
longer such in another nation, an- 
other generation and in other cir- 
cumstances. In our vocation we pos- 
sess a treasure that is to be made 
productive. Our duty is to make sure 
that it is returning the greatest and 
richest return possible in all the cir- 
cumstances oF our apostolate. Prog- 
ress always remains possible and 
even more means of sanctification 
and oF the apostolate are always to 
be Found. Rome has always the 
greatest respect For the magnificent 
work accomplished by all saintly 
Founders in the history oF the 
Church. However, the important 
thing is not what the Founders did 
but rather to know what they would 
do iF they were here today, con- 
Fronted by all the problems that 
threaten the apostolate oF the 
Church. In striving to conForm the 
spirit and ideal of the Founder to 
the new needs oF the present hour, 
there is no intention to betray this 
spirit and itieal but rather to adapt 
and complete his spirit and ideal and 
even to perlect them. . . We must li\'e 
\n our times and accordiiiij, to oiu" 

1~iiAr the times oF our Holy 
Founder are vastly different From 
the present times in England needs 
no demonstration. The e\i! propa 
ganda that can come through lilms, 

August 1, 1957 

radio, television, the Press, the can- 
cer-like growth oF secularism and 
complete religious indifference were 
not problems that he had to face. Our 
task, surely, is to see that the germ- 
inal ideas that he laid down must be 
brought to fruition according to our 
present times and needs. Each coun- 
try presents vitally different prob- 
lems and our apostolic approach in 
this country will differ vastly from 
that used in a Catholic country such 
as Ireland or that used in an even 
more pagan land, such as Sweden. 

But the overall criterion must 
surely be: what means can we use, 
hitherto perhaps little or completely 
unused, to carry out our Passionist 
Apostolate more efficiently— what 
means can we expect that legitimate 
authority will authorize to bring 
about the end of the Congregation, 
namely, "to devote ourselves with 
diligence to office of charity towards 
our neighbor, doing with prudence 
and assiduity whatever, according to 
time and place, may be available for 
the promotion of Cod's glory and 
our own spiritual ad\ancement." 
'! his it seems is the framework with 
in which the scope of this p;yier falls, 
with emjihasis ujion one phrase— "ac 
cording to circumstances ol time luid 
place. " 

When we examine our apostolate 
in this light there are lew forms 
which cannot be adopted as jxnt ol 
our regular work— the exceptions 

STREET PREACHING — Fr. Leon Grantz, 
C.P. preaching in the Public Squore. 

DkAMA — Veronico's Veil 


would be any work which takes the 
religious away from the Community 
life to which they are bound. It is a 
sweeping statement to say that every 
other form of activity can be geared 
to our special ministry, but in a 
country such as England, it is true, 
to a large extent, though obviously 
some forms of the ministry are more 
conformable to our apostolate than 

LET us consider some forms of 
the apostolate which can be 
considered our work. I am not con- 
cerned with any activity which by 
its nature is parochial and so falls 
under the care of the parochial clergy, 
but of non-parochial associations or 
associations, which having some con- 
nection with our parishes, yet de- 
mand special knowledge if they are 
to bear their greatest fruit. In the 
first category fall such associations 
as the Doctor's, Nurses' and Chem- 
ists' Guilds— these are non-parochial 
and do, most certainly demand spe- 
cial knowledge, with the consequent 
obligation on the part of the priest 
appointed to them to study the sub- 
ject as far as is necessary e.g. medico- 
moral problems. With these and any 
other professional guilds which may 
come under our care as also other 
non-parochial societies we are deal- 
ing with Catholics who are capable 
of a spiritual life somewhat more 
exalted than the majority. With all 
such societies it is the work of the 
chaplain to lead them to God by 
every possible means, arranging spe- 
cial services, retreats, etc. but above 
all by speaking constantly about the 
Sacred Passion and as our Holy 
Founder lays down for every class 
of society, teaching them to meditate 
on it. 

How insistent he is in this matter 
as he repeats that we must teach 
the people how to meditate devoutly 
on the mysteries, sufferings, and 
death of our Lord Jesus Christ! He 
foresees the possibility of some not 
being able to meditate and decrees 
that they should be instructed in 
the habit of making ejaculations in 
honor of the Sacred Passion. This 
obligation of teaching the people- 
no matter who they are— to meditate 
on the Passion, is something, one 
suspects, that is kept in the breach 


rather than in the observance, apart 
from formal missions. Yet it is the 
paramount duty of the Passionist and 
if in his work as Chaplain he does 
not endeavour to do this, then he is 
not fulfilling the Passionist apostolate 
and a form of the Passionist aposto- 
late is going to waste in his hands. 

THE MOST prominent example of 
an association that is connected 
with a parish (though not necessari- 
ly so) and which demands special 
knowledge is the Movement of the 
Young Christian Workers. Very 
much harm has been caused by the 
wrong idea that many have regard- 
ing the aim of the movement— as if 
it were founded merely to better 
working conditions or remove social 
injustice. I do not think it an exag- 
geration to say that where the Move- 
ment has failed it has been due more 
to the lack on the part of the Chap- 
lain than to any other single cause. 
The work is to train young men and 
women to be apostles and then to 
send them where priests cannot go 
—to factories, workshops, offices and 
other places of employment. It is 
their place by word and example to 
radiate Christ, to bring back to their 
pagan workmates the understanding 
of their dignity as children of God 
and of their supernatural life. To in- 
filtrate, as Communists do, our lay 
leaders to leaven the masses of work- 
ing people is a direct instrument in 
the conversion of England. 

I have often thought what great 
use Venerable Dominic would have 
made of the Y.C.W. if it had been 
founded in his day. When the Holy 
Father received the leaders of the 
Movement in audience in 1948, he 
had this to say about the Chaplains: 
"You must have more and more 
priests— priests who are intelligent, 
holy and zealous. You must have 
more priests so that you can have 
more leaders with a deep interior 
life." On another occasion the Sec- 
retary of State wrote of the pleasure 
of the Holy Father at the splendid 
efforts made by the Y.C.W. in Eng- 

Fr. Eugene Kennan, C.P. is Lector of Dog- 
matic Theology at St. Paul's Retreat, Ilk- 
ley, England. He is a frequent speaker for 
the Catholic Evidence Guild and interested 
in work for non-Catholics. This article 
was delivered by Fr. Eugene at the Mis- 
sionary Congress. 

land to win their brethren for Christ 
and His Church. "In England to win 
their brethren for Christ and His 
Church." Is not that our inheritance 
from our Holy Founder and Vener- 
able Dominic and is not the Y.C.W. 
an instrument ready to our hands— 
to teach those young people that deep 
interior life of which the Holy 
Father speaks— an interior life found- 
ed upon a genuine appreciation of 
the love of our Saviour, especially 
in His Passion, and of the love of 
our Blessed Mother. 

I don't think that it is merely a 
coincidence that there are more 
Passionists interested in this work 
than priests of any other Order. But 
not every one is prepared to give to 
this admittedly difficult and often 
disappointing work the many hours 
each week that it demands. But, let 
us use those best fitted for this apos- 
tolate and let it take a more signifi- 
cant part in the Province than it has 
done hitherto— with the sole aim of 
using it towards the conversion of 

INDEPENDENT of non-Catholic mis- 
sions, one of the duties incumbent 
upon us is the work of lecturing to 
non-Catholics. I am not now refer- 
ring to the C.E.G., a work with 
which we have been connected sine? 
its foundation, but to that other form 
of indoor lecturing. A series of lec- 
tures took place one year in Sutton 
and three converts resulted— a suf- 
ficient harvest surely. Perhaps they 
would have become Catholics at 
some other time or place, but in 
fact the occasion of their reception 
was these lectures. 

Similar lectures have been given 
from time to time in some of our 
other parishes. But surely with our 
special vocation in mind, we should 
be well known as priests who spe- 
cialize in this work. There are at 
least three parishes in this Archdio- 
cese where such lectures take place 
each week and notices appear week- 
ly in the Press. It should be a con- 
stant feature of our parishes too. We 
have priests who are well qualified 
for this work and great emphasis 
should be laid upon it. Advertising 
the work of the Church is a com- 
paratively new form of the aposto- 
late but that it is justified is proved 

The Passionist 

by the work of the C.MS, in its cor- 
respondence courses. Financial con- 
siderations apart, I am not suggest- 
ing that we should ad\'ertise in the 
national press but we should in the 
local press oF the towns where we 
have houses and with the co-opera- 
tion of the local clergy to have no- 
tices in Church porches. 

Allied to this form of the apos- 
tolatc is the work of Study Circles. 
That this was a form of the work 
envisaged by our Holy Founder we 
know from the reference he makes 
in one of the early editions of the 
Holy Rule (1746) where he speaks 
of 'litteriis piisqiie coetihus.' To have 
Study Circles for Theology and So- 
cial Teaching will cater for only a 
limited number but we shall be giv- 
ing to those people at least an un- 
derstanding that they would not 
otherwise have had sa\'e by our zeal. 
It has been done in the past, at least 
in 1 lighgate— why cannot it be done 
as a permanent thing? 

MARRIAGE training courses— some- 
times called Cana weeks- 
provide a further field for the apos- 
tolate. It is a work that cries out to 
be done, and through our parishes 
or the organizations of which we are 
Chaplains, we have the opportunity 
of organizing these courses. Merely 
to deplore the immorality that is 
rampant is not enough— we must 
stem it as far as we can and teach 
our people the glory of Christian 

To do something to save the 
broken home— to attack the pernici- 
ous e\il of mixed marriages with its 
consequent weakening of Faith, can- 
not be said to be outside the scope 
of our apostolate, in the circum- 
stances of this present age. The 
Y.C.W., amongst other organizations, 
has the machinery for setting up 
these training courses. Let us use it. 
It is not an infrequent thing today 
that when the notice of a wedding 
appears in the Press, the young 
people are bombarded with literature 
through the post, on contraception. If 
the agents of evil are so industrious, 
are we not at fault if we do not use 
something of the same energy? Again 
it is a speciali/ed field of work but 
again we ha\e priests capable of do- 
ing it. They have done it wnth great 

August 1, 1957 

success in the past— let them be en- 
couraged to do it again. 

Another matter that has come up 
for much discussion recently is lec- 
turing to nuns. Canon Law states 
that Superiors of convents are to see 
that their religious receive such lec- 
tures each month, and this lecturing 
is done to some extent from some 
of our houses. Very often the nuns 
have great difficulty in finding priests 
to give such talks. How often when 
giving nuns' retreats have we not 
heard that the retreat is the only 
time in the year when they have 
any conferences from a priest? 

There is a vast field here for help- 
ing religious, by offering our services. 
For example, from Ilkley (where this 
work is already done to some extent) 
a new start could be made with the 
convents of the Sisters of the Cross 
and Passion and that such an offer 
would be welcome can scarcely be 
doubted. There are priests in the 
Province who are well fitted for such 
work but who because of their com- 
mitments are not usually at liberty 
to undertake more lengthy engage- 
ments. They would surely welcome 
such an opportunity of exercising 
their priesthood and fulfilling their 
fourth vow in this additional way. 
In addition to spiritual conferences, 
suitably selected lectures in Theology 
could be given and these two would 
fulfill an often felt want. 

THE SUBJECT of radio and tele- 
vision presents problems of its 
own but there is one thing reason- 
ably certain and that is, that if we 
are going to wait to be asked to take 
part in this, it will never go beyond 
a theoretical apostolate. There is no 
need for me to remind you of the 
phenomenal success of the 'Hour of 
the Crucified' on" the American net- 
work and how much our religious 
are before the public eye as a result 
of it. 

One can imagine the impact for 
good the appearance of a Passionist 
would have giving, e.g. a series of 
talks on the Characters of the Pas- 
sion or following the excellent ex- 
ample of one of our Irish brethren 
of giving a retreat for the sick over 
the radio. (It is not without interest 
to remember that our I loly Founder 
was ordained under the title of serv- 

ice to the sick). 

I know it may be difficult to 
break into this field of the apostolate 
but I am convinced that it can be 
done and equally convinced that we 
have no right not to allow the at- 
tempt to be made. It requires per- 
haps the overcoming of prejudice- 
as it is a form of self-advertisement 
but the prominence of our religious 
cannot but be of benefit to us, and, 
what is far more important, be of 
benefit to souls. One can recall years 
ago how well known the Congrega- 
tion was because of the way it was 
before our people in the days of the 
Motor Mission and it was a great 
power for good. That was a new 
work then— this is now, and it can- 
not be said that it is not our work. 

After the radio perhaps the most 
neglected field of the apostolate is 
that of the written word. How few 
books come from the Province— even 
in the form of pamphlets or articles 
in the Catholic Press. I am aware 
that it is easy to bemoan this lack 
—equally aware that it is not easy 
to find an answer to it. The writing 
of books requires very special apti- 
tude, a gift given to comparati\'ely 
few but there is need for us to ex- 
amine to what extent we can enter 
into this work. 

THAT many forms of work, not 
hitherto considered, are open to 
us is manifest from what our re- 
ligious do in other Provinces. In the 
Belgian Province, for example, two 
priests have the constant mission of 
fostering vocations amongst girls, by 
means of lectures, retreats and cor- 
respondence. The great success of 
the Sign in America is due to the 
priests whose sole mission is to pub- 
lish that magazine. Recently a film 
has been made there of Passionist 
life— at great cost, it is true, but what 
a harvest it may bring in the shape 
of vocations in the days to come. Is 
such work completely beyond us in 
this Province? New approaches, new 
methods, new techniques— all are 
necessary here as in other lands. And 
here in England we have the priests 
who are as capable as any other. 

It may be argued that it is so 
often the same men for so many dif- 
ferent works— that they will be ovcr- 
(Contimted on page 310) 




St. Paul 

or tne Cross 

by Costa nte Brovetto, C.P. 

Chapter three continues to 

show the formation of St. Paul's 

spirit to the ideal of the 

Passion. The second part treats 

of Meditation on the Passion. 


JL IE first step toward stabilizing a true interior life in 
the soul was naturally that of encouraging it to an hab- 
itual practice of meditation. St. Paul of the Cross made 
its necessity and effectiveness, its liberty and simplicity 
of exercise, its intimacy and affectivity amply known. 

His own missionary activity was evidently directed 
toward stirring up interior conversation with God. The 
Rules also impose on his sons an explicit obligation not 
only of preaching, but of teaching to all, without excep- 
tion, meditation on the Passion. 

"Those members who may be considered fit for so 
great a work, should, as well during apostolic missions 
as other pious exercises, teach the people by word of 
mouth how to meditate devoutly on the Mysteries, Suf- 
ferings and Death of Our Lord Jesus Christ, from Whom, 
as from a fountain, proceedeth all our good."^^ 

"Let them briefly and clearly give rules for meditat- 
ing upon these great Mysteries with piety and fruit, and 
spare no pains to render this meditation very frequent 
and continual."^* 

"Let them teach them to accustom themselves to prayer, 
and, at the same time, lay open and refute the pernicious 
error of some who imagine that meditation on Divine 
things is an employment proper only for Religious and 
for the Clergy."^^ 

Such explicit counsels correspond to the very great 
esteem the Saint had for meditation and to the idea that 
it is also accessible to less endowed souls— especially if 
the Passion of Our Lord is its object. The practice of 
meditation ought to be the normal effect of Paul's visit.^^ 
In fact we find traces of the instruction for a public 
meditation, held regularly for the people by the clergy 
and by appointed delegates— and faithfully followed out.'*^^ 

His letters are full of pressing invitations^® to persons 
of every kind— from Cardinals down to the most obscure 
people— that they should be faithful to daily spiritual 
contact with the Crucified. It is particularly nice to see 
his eagerness for families to organize themselves for 
meditation in common around the fireplace.^'' 

His plan was to base the Christian life on an enlight- 
ened and intimate conviction which would crown and 
stabilize the fruits of the missions obtained in the atmo- 
sphere of emotion and compunction. 

"Let them arm them with fitting admonitions and un- 
failing confidence in God, and show that supernatural 
lights will not be wanting to them in prayer, by means 
of which they will understand more and more the de- 
ceitful arts of the devil and of the world, see the de- 
formity of vice, and the excellence of virtue."*" 

More than by reproaches and penance, he used this 
weapon of meditation to encourage also persons of high 
society to give up the eighteenth century frivolities by 
which they were infatuated.*^ He would smilingly say 
that he always succeeded, without ever mentioning the 
purpose he intended: the Crucified had been delegated 
to make it understood.*- The Saint's conclusion was 
categorical: "Through your Rule take care to instill in 
souls a little seed of prayer, and then do what you will."*''* 
In fact one can easily imagine what the effect of a per- 
mission of this kind would have had on loving souls of 

The Passionist 

the Crucified: "Wear a string of 
pearls when you go out with the 
blessing of the Lord, but while you 
put it on, remember that Jesus bore 
ropes and chains on his neck. Wear 
such a necklace solely to please God 
and be ashamed of yourself and say: 
Jesus was bound with ropes and 
chains, Jesus had ropes and chains 
around His neck during His Passion, 
and do 1 wear pearls? You will see 
what sentiments such a thought will 
produce."^ ^ 

%Y / ITH a clear-sightedness that had 
W lost none of its actuality, the 
Saint— asked by Clement XIV for his 
advice on an eventual action of re- 
form among the Regular Clergy— ex- 
plained how all that was essential 
was to make the practice of mental 
prayer effective. He also proposed to 
draw up a detailed plan for this pur- 
pose.*'' Perhaps it was in response 
to a proposal of such a kind that we 
owe that "little method" sent to a 
Bishop, about which we spoke in the 
beginning of our work.'**' 

St. Paul considered it impossible to 
maintain a firm interior life without 
this exercise: "As for prayer, it is cer- 
tain that if it be lacking, the whole 
spiritual edifice falls to the ground. "■*' 
The Di\'ine Judge would demand an 
accounting of so powerful a means 
of sah'ation.'^ On the other hand, he 
pointed out horizons of extraordinary 
spiritual prosperity for those who per- 
severed laithfully in prayer— even for 
only a quarter of an hour— the least 
amount of time which he asked for. 

"Do not let a day go by without 
making a half-hour or at least a quar- 
ter ol an hour of mental prayer on 
the sorrowful Passion of the Re- 
deemer: and if you can, make more; 
but at least never let a day go by 
without making that much." 

"Have a continual remembrance of 
the sufferings of our Crucified Lo\'e 
and realize that those great Saints 
who now triumph in the Most I loly 
Love there in Heaven, arrived at 
great perfection through this ave- 
nue. *" 

". . . true wisdom is learned in this 
most holy school: here is where the 
Saints ha\'e learned it. . . ."''" 

I le assured the parents who taught 
their children: "Your blessed family 
will be enriched with inestimable 

graces by Cod from generation unto 
generation"'''; "they will see miracles 
of the mercy of God""'-; "they will 
all be true servants of the Lord. "•''•' 

THE circumstances which we have 
explained already presage the 
method which the Saints sought to re- 
tain in teaching meditation: in sub- 
stance it is reduced to that same 
method which he used in preaching 
it in public. 

The method, if he had one, was 
rather akin to that of St. Francis de 
Sales and of St. Alphonsus for the 
preparatory acts: Faith, Humility, 
Repentance, Prayer.^* 

At the end he invites the soul to 
offer to God the lights received, the 
resolutions ma"de, one's own heart, 
the Heart of Jesus, the Heart of 
Mary; he calls upon all creatures to 
give thanks together with his own 
soul, and finally concludes with a 
prayer for himself and for the 

This schema was still flexible 
enough, since nothing was dearer to 
his heart than to leave the soul in 
full interior liberty.''" 

The relative indifference to meth- 
od, noted by us, could be due to our 
lack of documents, as Father Cajetan 
thinks,'"'^ inasmuch as the letters of 
true spiritual direction are for souls 
already intensely exercised in the art 
of prayer. But the truer reason is 
that he always presumed to be deal- 
ing with souls desirous of meditating 
on the Passion, and this seemed to 
him eloquent enough by itself. 

As for the part properly intellec- 
tual, he did not hesitate to advise 
the very slow reading of some suit- 
able book: 

"While reading the book word for 
word, meditate slowly. God will give 
you the lights without any doubt; be 
assured of it. Stop there where you 
experience more devotion. "^^ 

He himself suggested and dis- 
tributed books which were suitable 
for meditation.'''" 

To Religious souls who were a lit- 
tle more proficient, he suggested sim- 
]ile reflexions which would engender 
a number of aflections on the Pas- 

Father Costantc Brovetto, C.P. is a mem- 
ber of Immaculate Heart Province, Italy, 
and Editor of Fontl Vive. 

sion: Who suffers, what does He 
suffer, how does Fie suffer, for whom 
does Fie suffer?"** Today meditation 
is still taught to the Passionist No- 
vices in this simple form."* 

In our opinion there was a still 
deeper reason for the Saint's modus 
a»endi in this regard. For him, meth- 
odical prayer, to which a given time 
was assigned, was, above all, an ex- 
ercise of fidelity. But the essence of 
meditation for him consisted in the 
habitual perception of the living 
Presence of God in one's own life. 
This ought to be extended through- 
out the whole day and not risk leav- 
ing it bound to impressions of a well- 
arranged meditation — a thing dan- 
gerous in itself, because of the com- 
placency to which it could give rise 
and because in time of aridity it 
threatens to put the whole spiritual 
life in serious trouble, when the soul 
ought to understand that precisely 
in that time, things are beginning to 
go as they ought to. 

FOR this reason, his more personal 
thought on the question was that 
one ought to make the prayer of the 
poor man: to go before the Crucified 
more to listen than to speak."- 

"Jesus Christ v\'ill teach you how to 
pray. Put yourself at His feet like a 
poor, wounded beggar . . . and say 
to Him with reverence and humility: 
Dear Jesus, teach me how to pray. 
Then approach Flis Most Holy 
Wounds with faith and holy lox'c, 
and with simplicity think about His 
most Holy Passion, gently, without 
forcing your mind: Jesus will teach 
it to you.""'' 

The true effect of meditation is not 
so much knowing a truth or making 
a resolution,"* but speaking with a 
living Person, and setting out for a 
union of love with Him. It matters 
little what is said. But it matters very 
much to know that the Crucified 
God is jiresent in the soul as a per- 
emptory request of total lo\c. More 
than reasoning or discourse, it is an 
immediate inference, but it allows 
the conscience to perceive vividly the 
littleness of its own response. 

The following citation is a little 
long, but it expresses well the in- 
timacy which St. Paul wishes to be 
had right away with the Crucified 
(Couthtued on page 311) 

August 1, 1957 





Walter Schmitz, S.S. in the AER (134, 1956, 207) says: 
"The New Holy Week Ordo eliminates the Tenebrae 
Services. It is permitted only once and that at the Cathe- 
dral Church on Wednesday Evening." However, during 
the fast two Holy Weeks we have had Solemn Matins 
and Lauds at the hour appointed hy the General Curia 
and have included all the ceremonies of the ancient 
Tenebrae. If Schmitz is right, then we are wrong. And 
in that case, our Matins and Lauds on these days should 
he done as we do for First Class Feasts. Quid in casu? 

For long centuries the night office of Matins and Lauds 
of the last three days of Holy Week was celebrated with 
special ceremonies; such as, the gradual extinguishing of 
the candles of the large candelabra, the peculiar chant of 
the Lamentations, the concluding "strepitus" and a silent 
departure in the dark. This entire service received the 
name of "Tenebrae" from the 12th century onward (cf 
H. Thurston, S.J. "Tenebrae" Cath. Encycl. xiv, 506; 
Eph Lit 70, 1956, 122-126). 

The solemn character of these days of Holy Week, 
together with the added ceremonies of Matins and Lauds, 
tended to make this "Tenebrae" service a popular one 
with the people. Most likely because of this popular par- 
ticipation this office was anticipated from midnight to 
early evening, and even to the later afternoon hours of 
the preceding day. The Ceremonial for Bishops states the 
hour to be four or five o'clock in the afternoon (cf. Eph. 
Lit. p. 144). 

With the changes introduced by Pope Pius XII for 
Holy Week it was no longer possible to have the Office 
of Matins and Lauds recited in the evening— the time of 
the principle liturgical function of the day. Accordingly, 
the new Holy Week Ordo now states that Matins and 
Lauds are no longer to be anticipated during the evening 
before, but are to be said in the morning, at the proper 
hour. An exception is made for Thursday Matins in 
cathedral churches, where because of the morning 
Chrism Mass, Matins and Lauds may be recited the eve- 
ning before QDecretum Generale, No. 5). 

The New Holy Week Ordo states, moreover, that 
Matins and Lauds on these days are to be said "ut in 

Breviario romano" (Rubric for Feria Quinta in Cena 
Domini) with the following exception: At the end of 
Lauds the Miserere is to be omitted and the oration is 
to be said at once. 

Now in the Roman Breviary for Holy Thursday we 
find a rubric ordering the gradual extinguishing of the 
candles of the candelabra with its fifteen candles, the re- 
moval of the top candle during the Benedictus antiphon, 
and the "fragor et strepitus" at the very end. 

Since the new Holy Week Ordo says explicitly that 
Matins and Lauds are to be said "ut in Breviario romano" 
it would seem very probable that these added ceremonies 
of the Roman Breviary are still to be followed. Such is 
the opinion of the compiler of the 1957 American Pas- 
sionist Ordo (127-128). 

Nevertheless two features in these ceremonies appear 
to be in doubt. The writer in the Ephemerides Liturgicae 
(70, 1956, 125) believes that the rubric of the new 
Holy Week Ordo excludes the final "fragor et strepitus," 
and on this point he may be more accurate than our 
1957 Ordo. Secondly, since the new Holy Week Ordo 
calls for "altare omnino nudum: sine cruce, sine can- 
delahris" on Good Friday, one may question the former 
practice of having six candles on the altar to be extin- 
guished during the Benedictus. Our 1957 Ordo implies 
this feature is to be omitted on Good Friday (p. 138). 

From what has been said it appears that during the 
last three days of Holy Week, Matins and Lauds are to 
be said in the morning hours according to the present 
rubrics of the Roman Breviary, and therefore, with the 
candelabra of fifteen candles, omitting only the Miserere 
at the end of Lauds, the "fragor et strepitus" at the very 
end, and the extinguishing of the altar candles on Good 
Friday and Holy Saturday. Moreover, there seems no 
reason why such a service cannot be still called "Tene- 

Certainly Father Schmitz is not accurate in saying that 
"the new Holy Week Ordo eliminates the Tenebrae 
Service." It certainly does not eliminate Matins and 
Lauds for the last three days of Holy Week. True, they 
are no longer to be anticipated on the evening before, 
but does Fr. Schmitz believe that their anticipation in 
the evening constitutes them "Tenebrae"? Or does he 
hold that the added ceremonies of which the Roman 
Breviary speaks are what constitutes these offices as 
"Tenebrae"? Even if they do, we have seen that not all 
these ceremonies are to be now omitted, but only those 
which conflict with the new rubrics of the new Holy 
Week Ordo. 

Accordingly, we believe that our 1957 Ordo should be 
followed with its instructions for Matins and Lauds of 
Holy Thursday (p. 127-128). We would question only 
the remark about the final "strepitus" which it seems 
should be omitted now, according to the writer in the 
Ephemerides Liturgicae (cited above). We do not be- 
lieve that Fr. Schmitz is correct in his remark in the 
AER. Nor, we may add, will this be the first time the 
rubricist of the American Ecclesiastical Review is mislead- 
ing in his over-simplified answers! 


The Passionist 


PSALM 130 

What is the force of the phrase "the mother of my 
lord" in St. Elizabeth's greeting to our Lady at the Visita- 
tion (Luke l,4i)<' Does "my Lord" contain a direct refer- 
ence to God in the original meaning of the word? I he- 
live the Protestant Bible uses the phrase "mother of 
my God." 

To take up the last point first. I have checked the 
King James Version, the American Revised Version, the 
more recent Revised Standard Version, and the Chicago 
Bible, and all translate our verse (Lu 1,43) as "mother 
of my Lord." The same is true of the various recent Cath- 
olic translations. Merk in his critical Greek text notes no 
variant readings for this verse, nor do the larger com- 
mentaries. Critically the text stands as in our common 
Confraternity version— "mother of my Lord." 

Recent commentators on this verse speak of St. Eliza- 
beth's being inspired by the Holy Spirit in her acknowl- 
edging of Mary as the mother of the Messiah. Thus, 
Knabenbaiier, Lagrange, Marchal, Osty, Valensin-Huby, 
Ginns. They see in the title "my Lord" a reference to 
the usage of Ps. 109, where the Psalmist speaks of the 

Answers to Questions 

The purpose of the Answers to Questions section is 
to provide our Readers with ready answers to questions 
that touch closely upon our Passionist way of life. Ques- 
tions on Law, Custom, Theology, Liturgy and Sacred 
Scripture that have a special interest to Possionists will 
be answered. Priests who have specialixed in these sub- 
jects hove graciously consented to answer these ques- 
tions. Our Readers are invited to send their questions to 
the Editor who will forward them to those handling this 
special subject. 

Messiah as "my Lord." Zerwick in his notes from the 
Biblical Institute in Rome (1954-1955) remarks that this 
psalm was well known in the early church where it 
played an important part in the development of the 
Christological Doctrine of the apostolic community. He 
refers especially to Acts 2, 34-36 and I Cor. 15,25 sq. 
Canon Cerfanx had earlier pointed out that St. Luke in 
the Infancy Narrative has stressed the royal dignity of 
Jesus as the Messiah-King (Lu. 1, 32-33; 2, 11, 26). 

Accordingly, the title "my Lord" refers to the Messianic 
dignity of the child, not directly to his Divine Nature. 
This appears to be the common opinion of cxegctes. The 
theologians are in agreement, for they do not argue 
directly from this text to the Divine Maternity. Herve, 
for example, proves from this text that Mary is the 
Mother of Jesus. Now Jesus is true God. Therefore, Mary 
is the Mother of God (II, p. 602). In so stating his 
argument, Herve shows that he is not equating "lord" 
with "God" in our text. 

Summing up, I would answer our question by saying 
that "my Lord" in Luke 1,43 does not contain a direct 
reference to God in the original meaning of the word. 

A certain amount of confusion arises at Wednesday 
Vespers in chanting Psalm 120. The Mame edition of 
the Breviary reads: "Sicut parvulus in gremio matris 
suae; ita in me est anima mea." But in the Marietta edi- 
tion we find: "Sicut parvulus in gremio matris suae: sicut 
parvulus, ita in me est anima mea." Which is the cor- 
rect wording? 

In answering this question we must first of all con- 
sider the correct translation of the Hebrew text of Psalm 
130. The traditional Hebrew text is translated in the 
current English Version in use by American Jews: "Like 
a weaned child with his mother, my soul is with me like 
a weaned child." 

However, not all textual critics of the psalm have been 
satisfied with the traditional text. Some have wondered 
whether an emendation of the text is not necessary. We 
find the suggestion in Kittel's Hebrew Bible that the two 
phrases "like a weaned child" are due to a scribal error 
of dittography (repetition of letters or words in copy- 
ing). Our new Confraternity version of the Psalms ex- 
presses doubt about the authenticity of the words "my 
soul is with me." 

Nevertheless, recent translations of the Psalms have 
left the text as it stands in the Hebrew (Jerusalem Bible, 
Standard Revised Version, Chicago Bible). And this is 
the rendering given in the new Latin translation of Pius 
XII as printed by Benziger in the first edition of the 
Pxoman Psalter. The text of our psalm there appears as 
in the Marietta edition of the Breviary. 

But in Benziger's "Altera Editio" of the Roman Psalter 
we find the verse shortened to the form we find today 
in the Mame edition. And it is this shortened form that 
is given in the latest typical edition of the Breviary, 
published by the Vatican Press in 1949. All breviaries 
must conform to this typical edition. This is the author- 
itative text of the Psalter for recitation in the Divine 

Our Conclusion: Psalm 130 in the breviary should 
read: "Sicut parvulus in gremio matris suae; ita in me 
est anima mea." The Mame edition is correct liturgically. 
Critics may still discuss which is the better text critcially. 

Roger Merciirio, C.P. 


Can the Papal Blessing be given more than once if, 
otherwise, some of the people would he deprived of it? 

"The Papal Blessing may be given once only, during 
any Mission or course of Exercises. Therefore, it may 
not be given to any individual, or group, who arc un- 
able to finish a Mission or Retreat." This appears in the 
Directory for Missions and Retreates (p. 103) of Holy 
Cross Province (1954 edition), as oflicially ajiprovcd by 
the General Curia. 

/\11 that remains, then, is to indicate three kinds of 
procedures that might meet the situations implied in the 

August 1, 1957 


When two or more missions, at Army Camps, for ex- 
ample, or novena exercises are preached to completely 
distinct groups through the same series of days, the Papal 
Blessing may be imparted on the last day of each dis- 
tinct mission or novena. 

On the final day of the children's mission, this Bless- 
ing is given to all present. So, informing interested par- 
ties of the fact, the preacher could set a time for the 
Papal Blessing which would allow them to be present. 
Some missionaries have found this arrangement helpful 
for people employed on railroad trains and in similar ways. 

In most other circumstances, a procedure will perhaps 
suggest itself if we detail the various things included in 
the Papal Blessing. These are: 1) a blessing is imparted 
by delegation of the Holy Father; 2) those indulgences 
designated at the beginning of Pope Pius XII's pon- 
tificate are attached to religious articles; 3) a plenary 
indulgence is given; 4) articles of devotion are enriched 
with indulgences proper to each; (5) all scapulars are 
blessed and the people are invested in the scapulars with- 
out individual imposition of the same. 

Most of these same benefits can be received by the 
people referred to in the question. In regard to religious 
articles, 1) and 2) are included in our privileges enjoyed 
even outside times of missions QCollectio Facultatum et 
Indulgentiarum, n. 35). As for 3), a plenary indulgence 
can be gained, for example, by making the Way of the 
Cross, or by praying five decades of the rosary in the 
presence of the Blessed Sacrament. While 4) seems quite 
extensive, most of the indulgences in which the faithful 
are interested can be conferred by Passionist privileges 
operative even outside times of missions. For example, 
one sign of the cross (nihil dicens) can attach simultane- 
ously to rosaries and/or crucifixes these four indulgences: 
Brigettine, Crozier, (to crucifix) plenary indulgence in 
articulo mortis, and (to crucifix) all indulgences of the 
Way of the Cross. As for 5), in the case of people al- 
ready enrolled in a scapular, no special blessing of either 
scapular or scapular medal is required (cf. S.C. Ind., 
Aug. 18, 1868, D. 421). In the case of people not al- 
ready enrolled, the proper formula must be used; but it 
may be shortened QColl. Fac. et Indul., n. 31, Footnote 
1). For investiture and enrollment Passionists may em- 
ploy a simplified procedure during any preached exercises 
of at least three continuous days (CoZL Fac. et Indul., 
nn. 124 and 81-82). It is not necessary to place the 
scapular on each individual, but the candidates place 
them on themselves while the priest pronounces the pre- 
scribed words once. Neither is it necessary to take the 
names to be enrolled in any register. 

It is clear then, that Passionist preachers have at their 
disposal various ways in which they might be able to 
care for the faithful who would otherwise be deprived 
of all the benefits of the Papal Blessing imparted at the 
conclusion of missions and other exercises. 


May one choose which offices in the hreviary he will 
say on certain days? 

The principle officium pro officio valet may perhaps 
leap to mind. However, it does not enjoy wide applica- 
tion. It applies chiefly to circumstances in which some- 
one has recited the wrong office or hour inadvertently. 
He is not under obligation to begin again in order to 
say the psalms prescribed. So, when the Moral branch 
of Theology employs the principle officium pro officio 
valet, it does not imply that one may freely choose the 
office he will recite. 

"The divine office is the prayer of the Mystical Body 
of Jesus Christ, when recited by . . . ministers of the 
Church . . . ," Pope Pius XII assures us in Mediator Dei. 
Therefore, no matter how alone a priest may seem while 
praying his breviary privately, in point of fact he is pray- 
ing publicly. His prayer is "the voice of the Church." 
This prayer on her behalf the Church regulates. She does 
this in more than what regards its daily quantity. While 
its form has less importance for her than the quantity, 
still the form too receives her attention. This appears in 
the yearly calendar or "ordo." The form of her public 
prayer is, generally, to be uniform. 

However, the Church does not demand mechanical 
uniformity. She explicitly leaves to free choice the di- 
vine office during Lent (when it is not recited with 
others). "In feriis Quardragesimae et Passionis, a feria 
IV Cinerum, usque ad sahhatum ante dominicam Palma- 
ruin, quando aliquod festum occurrerit, quod nan sit 
I vel II classis, tam officiutn {in recitatione privata) quam 
Missa did possunt de feria vel de festa" (AAS, 47 (1955), 
221). When Passionists recite the divine office together 
in choir during Lent, they are not allowed to choose 
the ferial office, according to an express declaration of 
Most Reverend Father General (U.S. Ordo, 1957, p. 8). 

Praying his office outside of choir, however, a Passion- 
ist remains free to choose from the alternatives listed in 
the ordo. In keeping with this choice given by the 
Church, a missionary, lector or anyone else dispensed, 
for example, from Matins and Lauds in choir may recite 
them in the ferial form, even though he will chant other 
parts of that day's office in choir according to the feast. 

There is one other way in which a person enjoys a 
limited choice. Personal devotion or some other reason- 
able cause allows him to choose the office he wishes on 
about three days during the course of a year. This does 
not contradict the decree issued February 13, 1666, by 
the Sacred Congregation of Rites. It is true that despite 
being almost three centuries old, that decree remains 
valid. But its general tenor rules out choosing habitually. 
It allows a choice of office only about three times in the 
yearly cycle, according to the interpretation of many rank- 
ing authors, e.g., St. Alphonsus, Genico-Salsman, Fer- 
reres, Cappello, Jorio, Regatillo-Zalba, Mahoney. They 
are careful to point out that the office chosen may not be 
notably less in quantity than the one prescribed for that 
day. Such a condition is understandable since the Church 
imposes the quantity under grave obligation. This choice 
to change the form assigned for the office, allowed a few 
times in a year, can afford deep significance on anniver- 
saries, jubilees and similar days. 

Aside from these limited exceptions, one does not re- 
main free to choose which office in the breviary he will 


The Passionist 

recite on certain days. This over-all unity assures a gen- 
eral harmony of prayer rising to the Throne of God from 
the numerous ministers deputed to pray in the name of 
the Mystical Body. "It is the voice of the Church, the 
harmonious confession of the faith" (St. Ambrose, Enar. 
in Ps. 1, n. 9). 

Forrest Macken, C.P. 


The Epistle for the Solemn Convjiemoration of the 
Passion, as well as for the votive mass of the Passion, is 
taken from the prophecy of Zacharias (12, 10-11; 13, 6-7). 
Do the last verses of the epistle apply to Our Lord in the 
literal sense? The full context of ch. i3 seems to sitoaest 

The Prophecy of Zacharias is one of the most difllcult 
of the Old Testament. This is evident in the fact that 
there are very few Catholic commentaries and only a few 
more non-Catholic studies about this book. The best 
modern opinion, as expressed in the now-famous Jerri- 
salem Bible, edited by the Dominican Scriptural School 
of Jerusalem, di\'ides the book of Zacharias into two dis- 
tinct sections. Chapters 1-8 report eight visions, followed 
by a symbolic crowning of Zorobabel and ending in a 
description of the Messianic future. This section is at- 
tributed to the prophet Zacharias and is dated between 
Oct/Nov 520 and Feb. 519. The second section (ch 9- 
14) was composed by an anonymous author living around 
300 B.C. It is distinguished from the preceding section 
in style, political horizon, and religious thought. This 
second section, which contains the verses used in the 
Passion-masses, speaks constantly of the Messianic day 
of \ictory that will be ushered in through struggle and 
world-wide (apocalyptic) war. It envisions a revival of 
the royal house of David. Throughout ch 12-13 occurs 
the phrase the day of the Lord, which is like the gong 
of a bell ringing over and over again. At times the Day 
rings with victory and exaltation (12, 1-8; ch 14); at 
other times the element of struggle and sacrifice is 

Tht first part of the epistle for the Passion-masses is 
from 12, 10-11, wherein the bell sounds the solemn, 
sorrowful toll of a funeral march. "It shall come to pass 
in that day that ... I will pour out ... a spirit of fa\'our 
and of prayer; and they shall look at him whom they 
have pierced; and they shall mourn for him like the 
mourning for an only child, and they shall weep for him 
bitterly, like the bitter weejiing oxer the first-born" (crit- 
ical translation from I lebrew). 1 he inspired writer of 
these lines was influenced by the author of Is 53 (which 
comes from the period of the Babylonian exile, 587-537). 
He teaches that saKation comes through expiatory suf- 
fering of the innocent one. Words or thoughts from this 
Passion prophecy tKcur Irequentlv in the New 1 esta- 
ment writers: look at him (Jn 3,14-15; 12,20-22 12,31-34; 
19,37); firstborn (Jn 1,18; Col 1,15); pierced (Jn 19,37; 
Apoc 1,7). St. John quotes the text after recounting the 
piercing of Our Lord's side, subsecjuent to his death. St. 

John did not mean to say that Zacharias predicted this 
event of the Passion. Rather, the beloved disciple used 
the occasion of the soldier's action (which does bare a 
word-likeness to the prophecy), in order to link up this 
Passion-prophecy with Our Lord's death. This text of 
Zacharias formally predicts (if read in its context and in 
the tradition of Is 53) the expiatory death of Our Lord, 
not an incident which followed the death. Our Lord 
could not merit and did not redeem us after his death. 

The next section of the epistle for the Passion-masses 
(Zach 13,6) is one of the worst examples of the Biblical 
accommodation in the liturgy. It is hoped that the re- 
vised liturgical texts will strike it out. First of all, the 
liturgical text does not strictly conform with the Latin 
Vulgate, and this latter is not too careful a translation 
of the Hebrew. Instead of the Vulgate translation, "What 
are these wounds in the midst of your hands? " the He- 
brew reads: "What are these scars between your hands?" 
i.e., between your arms or upon your breast. The Jeru- 
salem Bible translates it: scars upon your body. Besides 
textual inaccuracies, the context and thought argue 
strongly against any relation with Our Lord. The con- 
text of ch 13, 1-6 is a condemnation of idol-worship and 
false prophets. These false prophets (cf 3 Kgs 18,28) 
branded themselves with scars as a sign of their office. 
Other incisions were made during the frenzy that often 
accompanied their dancing and hilarious singing. In 13,3 
even their own parents are to hand them o\'er to death. 
When the false prophet is quoted as saying: "I was 
wounded in the house of my lovers," he is seeking to 
defend himself. He would be saying that these scars are 
the result of punishments inflicted by his parents or 
friends. In any case, the words are a clexer attempt to 
throw his inquisitors off the scent. 

The last verse of the epistle (Zach 13,7) probably 
belongs at the end of ch 11 of the prophecy of Zacharias, 
where there is also mention of false shepherds. The shep- 
herd who will be smited so that his sheep are scattered 
is the unworthy, foolish shepherd. It is true that this 
\'erse is quoted in Mt. 26,31, when Our Lord predicts 
his desertion by the apostles after the capture in Geth- 
semani. Probably, Our Lord is referring to the close 
bond that exists between shepherd and flock in oriental, 
pastoral life. Whenever the shepherd is striken (whether 
he be good or bad), the flock scatters helplessly QCath- 
olic Commentary on Holy Scripture, n 720c). 

Therefore, even though the first part of the epistle 
(Zach 12,10-11) contains a Passion-prophecy in the tradi- 
tion of the suftering servant of Isaias (ch 53), the second 
part of the epistle (Zach 13,6-7) contains words that can 
be accommodated to the Passion of Our Lord only bv a 
\iolent wrench to their original thought. 

Carroll Stuhlmueller, C.P. 


August 1, 1957 


Methods of Mental Prayer, by 

Giacomo Cardinal Lercaro, 

translated by T. F. Lindsay, 

Newman, xii and 308 pp. 

FOR men like ourselves who are 
called by Rule to be experts in 
making and teaching mental prayer, 
this book is of great value. The aim 
of the Cardinal in writing it is stated 
in the openhig sentence of his pre- 
face: "Merely to set forth a few of 
the more widely approved methods 
of mental prayer ... in a handy col- 
lected form . . . which it would other- 
wise be necessary to seek piecemeal 
in a number of diflFerent works." He 
achieved that aim well, with an ob- 
jectivity and critical judgment that 
reveals an intense, personal interest 
of many years in his subject. His 
treatment throughout manifests, we 
believe, a profound acquaintance 
with the whole field of Christian 
spirituality, and a keen sense of dis- 
cernment of what is practical for 
prayer. This is noticeable at once in 
the ten brief conclusions that he has 
placed on a page before the first 

The book is directed in a special 
way to priests and clerics. It is in- 
tended to acquaint them with the 
methods of prayer of the various 
schools of spirituality, that they 
might be able to help souls to learn 
to meditate in a way that suits their 
own bent of mind and particular 
capacity. We Passionists have a com- 
mission to teach others to pray: "Not 
only to exhort but also to instruct 
the people how to meditate on the 

Passion." We are to "briefly and 
clearly give rules for meditating." 
But each missionary and retreat mas- 
ter is free to choose the method he 
judges best fitted to his audience or 
penitents. Any of the methods set 
forth in this book could be used in 
meditating on the Passion. Surely we 
should at least be familiar with these 
well-tried and sanctioned ones. 

The book is directed too toward 
religious sisters. The Cardinal notes 
how the majority of modern insti- 
tutes lack the means of schooling 
their members in prayer, "to make 
them appreciate its importance, to 

Reviewers Wonted 

Reviewers ore wanted to review books 
to oppeor in future issues of The Pos- 
sionist. If any of our Readers ore inter- 
ested, please send in your name to the 
Editor, indicating what type of book you 
would like to review. 

map out its ways, to open up its pos- 
sibilities and its boundless horizons." 
He hopes that directly or indirectly 
the book might put these religious 
in touch with the great traditional 
schools of prayer. We are seeing more 
and more communities discarding the 
common meditation book. However, 
the author pleads for the constant 
tradition of the Church, that souls 
receive direction in their choice of a 
method and be guided regularly in 
the way of prayer. 

A few of the chapters may become 
a bit tedious reading, necessarily so 
because of the Cardinal's respect for 
the precise method of each Saint: 
Francis de Sales, Ignatius Loyola, 

John Baptist de la Salle and Alphon- 
sus Liguori. But they supply valuable 
references. And we feel sure that 
complicated methods of prayer never 
received so attractive and winning a 

Ward Biddle, C.P. 

Chicago, Illinois 

The Mass and Liturgical Reform, 

by John L. Murphy, 340 pp. 
Bruce, $5.95. 

THE varying reactions to the recent 
reform of Holy Week indicate 
the differences of opinion that exist 
today in regard to the entire litur- 
gical movement. Some view this 
movement with a feeling of disap- 
proval and even alarm. Many accept 
it passively, or simply ignore it. 
Others become enthusiasts, but fail 
at times to appreciate its real depths. 

The observance of two Holy 
Weeks according to the new "Ordo" 
has made it clear that liturgical re- 
form is an important part of the pro- 
gram of Pope Pius XII. At the same 
time it has become evident that the 
mere introduction of new rites and 
changes in the hour of services are 
not sufficient to produce the effects 
intended by the Holy See. The suc- 
cess of the liturgical reforms depends 
to a great extent upon an apprecia- 
tion of the theological and historical 
aspects of the liturgy itself. 

In a clear, well thought-out book— 
The Mass and Liturgical Reform— 
recently published by Bruce Publish- 
ing Company, Father John L. Mur- 
phy has discussed these theological 
and historical prerequisites. He insists 
that "there must be first of all a 
vivid realization of the Church as 
the living Body of Christ and the 
corporate life of those who form that 
Body. . . . Second, there must be in 
addition to a theological basis a keen 
sense of history" (p. 12, italics the 
author's). To these two requirements 
he adds a third: "a well-developed 
sensitivity to the pastoral needs of 
the present hour" (p. 13). The main 
part of his book consists in a force- 
ful, calm and moderate presentation 
of the three factors. 

Liturgy is defined, not as mere ru- 
brics, nor simply external ceremonial, 
but the public worship of the Whole 
Christ, Head and Members— the wor- 


The Passionist 

ship which Christ with His Mem- 
bers renders to the Eternal Father. 
Its very nature indicates that the 
faithful are to participate in it ac- 
tively, intelligently, spiritually. Such 
participation should produce an ever 
deepening of the Christian experi- 
ence. The author has little time for 
those who endeavor to construct an 
opposition between the interior life 
of faith and active participation. 

Liturgical worship is that of the 
entire Mystical Body. There can be 
no understanding of liturgy without 
a profound grasp of the doctrine of 
the Mystical Body. The entire litur- 
gical movement depends upon a 
deeper understanding of dogma. The 
author states quite categorically— 
against ill-informed "liturgists": "We 
will accomplish far more for the 
cause of liturgical worship by teach- 
ing doctrine directly rather than the 
liturgy. If we turn our attention at 
once to the liturgy, and treat of it 
directly, there will not be that nec- 
essary foundation on which to build" 
(p. 56). And he adds: "Once a man 
understands what the Church is— the 
living Body of Christ— he will almost 
automatically pass over to the notion 
of social worship" (ib). 

A study of the history of liturgy 
will show that in past ages changes 
were made in the liturgy— in cere- 
monies and even in language— pre- 
cisely by reason of the awareness that 
liturgy is the worship of the entire 
Mystical Body, in order that all the 
faithful might participate in this so- 
cial worship of the Whole Christ. 

Any suggested reform of the lit- 
urgy must rest upon this same princi- 
ple. To insist on a return to anti- 
quated rites, to over-stress external 
forms of participation, to see liturgi- 
cal worship merely as an aesthetic 
experience— all this is not only to 
miss the point of the liturgical re- 
form but to misconstrue its theo- 
logical nature. 

In the concluding chapters the 
author discusses the important ques- 
tion of the use of the vernacular. The 
present reviewer has found here one 
of the most solid presentations of this 
problem in recent writings. 

Reading The Mass and Litnr^,ical 
Reform a Passionist may indeed ask 
where does all this fit into the Pas 
sionist life and apostolate. Our Holy 

Founder has bequeathed to us a rich 
liturgical spirit— with our daily recita- 
tion of the Divine Office in choir, 
daily assistance at Holy Mass, the 
celebration of the various seasons and 
feasts of the Church. What would 
be his attitude to the liturgical move- 
ment if he were living today? Would 
he want his clerics to participate 
more actively in the daily renewal of 
the Sacrifice of the Cross? Would he 
want his preachers in their instruc- 
tions on the commandments and the 
reception of the Sacraments to ex- 
pound the need for greater participa- 
tion by the faithful in the social wor- 
ship of the Mystical Body? These are 
questions that we must discuss to- 
day—in the light of the clear teaching 
of the Mystici Corporis and in view 
of the reforms of Pope Pius XII. In 
all such discussions the study of such 
a work as Father Murphy's is impera- 
tive in order that adaptations might 
rest upon solid historical and theo- 
logical foundations. Herein lies the 
import of this book for the Passion- 
ist reader. 

Roger Mercurio, C.P. 

Louisville, Kentucky 

The Cafholic Priest in the Mod- 
ern World, by Rev. James A. 
Magner, Bruce, x and 286 pp. 

THE classic works and statements 
on the priest, from the Saviour's 
words at the Last Supper, have 
stressed the urgent care the priest 
ever have for his ministry in its time 
and place. This is also the merit of 
Father Magner's work. Precisely yet 
fully, it depicts the full apostolate of 
the priest in this our day— twentieth- 
century United States. Considering 
first the personality of the priest, a 
representative of Christ in a given 
locality, to definite persons, the 
author gradually "launches out into 
the deep" of the priest's cultural life, 
his social life, his house, and his 
handling of finances. One can hard- 
ly think of any phase of personal de- 
velopment or external activity the 
American jiriest is called upon to 
handle which this book does not dis- 
cuss. The priest as preacher, as litur- 
gist, as adx'iser, as pastor, as educa- 
tor, as missionary, as keeper of rec- 
ords—each perspective confirms the 

truth of the title, that this book is a 
coverage of the whole priest in the 
modern world. 

The book is thus an eminently sat- 
isfactory presentation of the labor of 
the priest today. The ideas are re- 
corded, as Cardinal Stritch states in 
his foreword, "in simple language, 
without pretensions of profound eru- 
dition" (p. ix). Each chapter has 
one clear-cut topic. For example, 
Chapter XII is entitled "The Priest 
and Education." Then, each chapter, 
through five or six numbered divi- 
sions, explains, proves, urges the prac- 
tice of the topic. Thus, in the same 
chapter, we find these points made: 
1) the prtest has a place in educa- 
tion; 2) his primary concern is reli- 
gious instruction; 3) he promotes 
the apostolate of education by his 
work in his parochial school; 4) he 
is interested in higher education for 
Catholics; 5) he provides adult edu- 
cation. That care went into the con- 
struction of each chapter is evident 
from the fact that the author has 
reverted to the meaningful rhetorical 
device of giving to almost every para- 
graph an expressed topic sentence, 
which the remaining sentences ade- 
quately develop. Conversational lan- 
guage of very orderly-arranged ideas 
makes for a ready carrying away of 
a significant point from each chapter. 

While Father Magner has "repeat- 
ed very much which has been said 
by saints and scholars," he has also 
added some advice from his own ex- 
perience and learning. For instance, 
he urges the setting-up of parish 
libraries. And to make the libraries 
effective, he adds: "The simplest and 
most effective advertising is from the 
pulpit. If the priest takes into the 
pulpit one or tv\o books each Sun- 
day, or even occasionally holds one 
up with the title and recommends it, 
there will be no difficulty in putting 
it into circulation or creating interest 
in Catholic reading. If this were 
done throughout the nation, there 
would be a veritable renaissance of 
Catholic literature and the creation 
of a tremendous Catholic inlluence 
ujion society" (p. 225). Not all such 
suggestions for making our ministry 
fruitful will be acceplable to all 
priests, yet the impact to the many 
suggestions oilered should be the 
stimulation of each priest to be con- 

AuGusT 1, 1957 


sistently alert to ways and means of 
achieving success in his particular 

Probably some will say that this 
book lacks the quality of unction, of 
excitement to emotional fervor to- 
ward our oflEice. There are numerous 
other books on the priesthood which 
perform that function. The modern 
world is concerned largely with get- 
ting results. And we may say that 
such is the purpose of this book, 
without the materialistic connotation 
that the term "getting results" may 
involve. In a well-wrought exposi- 
tory manner Father Magner shows 
us how to handle all our tools that 
we be successful in our profession 
as priests. 

The direct appeal of this work is 
to the diocesan priest; indeed, one 
might say more specifically that it is 
addressed to the pastor of souls. He 
indeed needs all the aids that can be 
granted him to preserve and to en- 
large the deposit of his vocation as it 
ramifies more and more in our cen- 
tury. Yet, the religious priest comes 
away from this book really impressed 
at the depth and breadth and height 
of his colleague's work, almost awed 
at the achievement of the secular 
clergy. Moreover, the religious priest 
may find numerous suggestions for a 
yet more measurable apostolate by 
studying the chapters on the spiritual 
life, the cultural life, counseling, and 
missionary concept. The religious 
priest experiences such problems as 
ambition for higher place, loneliness, 
and the spirit of the world. Here he 
finds a really curative medicine. 

The Catholic Priest in the Mod- 
ern World is a friendly, fresh out- 
look on our calling, our duties, and 
our dignity. 

Germain Legere, C.P. 
Warrenton, Missouri 

The Angels and Their Mission, 

by Jean Danielou, S.J., trans, 
by David Heimann, Newman, 
1957, pp. X, 118, $2.75. 

" I ''his beautiful book will lead the 
* reader into the midst of a super- 
natural world where everything "is 
filled with the angels of God and 
there is no place that is not inhab- 
ited by them as they go about their 
ministry" (St. Hilary, quoted on pg. 

81). This should have a special ap- 
peal to a Passionist. In a recent let- 
ter to The Passionist, Brother Lambert 
(of the Dutch Province) has shown 
how devotion to the angels was close- 
ly interwoven into the spiritual life 
of St. Paul of the Cross, and by con- 
sequence should be present in every 
son of St. Paul. 

Father Danielou, S.J., limits him- 
self to the patristic teaching on the 
angels, spanning the period between 
the death of the apostles and the 
writings of Pseudo-Dionysius. The 
fathers emphasized the role of the 
angels in preparing for the coming of 
Christ. During the Old Testament 
days they directed the prophets and 
Jewish nation; they accompany Our 
Lord, especially at his birth and as- 
cension, and they are now cooperat- 
ing in the continuance of Christ's 
work in the church and in the indi- 
vidual souls of Christians and non- 

The first chapter is given to "The 
angels and the (Old Testament) 
Law." At times, the author should 
have distinguished more precisely 
between the literal sense of biblical 
texts and the later patristic elabora- 
tion upon the text. The angels re- 
ceived a prominent place in the reli- 
gious writings of the post-exilic peri- 
od (after 537 B.C.). At this time 
when the Jews tended to think of 
God as infinitely transcendent and 
far above all human beings (cf Is 
40-55), the angels were man's bond 
of close union with God and God's 
providential way of helping and sav- 
ing his creatures (cf book of Tobias 
or Daniel). Since angelologv occu- 
pied such an important place in Jew- 
ish theology, St. Paul and the early 
fathers warned Christians against an 
excessive devotion that would crowd 
out the person of Our Lord or deify 
the angels. The fathers insisted that 
the angelic "role remains above all 
one of preparation. They lead the 
soul to Christ, and leave it there 
alone with him. . . . Beyond the 
images that they leave upon her (the 
soul), she reaches Him as He reallv 
is, in the darkness of faith, through 
the grasp of love" (pg. 91, 83). 

In reading this book, you will have 
the unforgettable thrill of watching 
the angels, commissioned to this 
earth, rise up to welcome the Infant 

Saviour at His birth. They had 
failed as guardian angels of the Jew- 
ish and pagan nations, but now God 
realizes their wishes far beyond what 
they had anticipated. Other angels, 
stationed in heaven, descend with 
Christ. When our Lord returns to 
Heaven after the Ascension, the an- 
gels of heaven ask in amazement: 
"Who is this that conieth from 
Edom, with dyed garments from 
Bosra?" and the angels of this earth 
shout in reply with words that sweep 
like clouds of glory around the 
scarred body of Christ: "The Lord 
of Powers, He is the King of glory" 
(ch. 4). 

The fathers repeat the praise and 
happiness that the angels experience 
as not only Christ but His entire 
mystical body enter heaven. The an- 
gels are the friends of the woman 
(i.e., of Our Lord) who has found 
the drachma; they are the ninety- 
nine sheep left by God who rejoice 
at the discovery of the lost sheep; 
they are the choir who rejoice at 
the return of the Prodigal Son. They 
are the friends of the bridegroom 
who lead mankind (the spouse of 
Christ) to the bridegroom (ch. 5). 

Chapter six surrounds the entire 
Christian liturgy with the angels' 
praise and adoration, so that our 
prayers become lost in the glory of 
the heavenly liturgy. Chapters seven 
and eight have 27 magnificent pages 
dedicated to the Guardian Angel and 
angelic influence in our daily spirit- 
ual life. There is much encourage- 
ment in ch. 9: "The angels and 
death." "The hymns of the angels fill 
the soul with so divine a joy that it 
does not notice the sufferings of 
death." The book ends with the an- 
gels participating in the final coming 
of Christ (ch. 10). 

Throughout the book the author 
has the humble grace of keeping him- 
self from view, so that the reader is 
conscious of seeing and hearing only 
the early fathers. With masterful ac- 
quaintance, the author begs the fa- 
thers, one after another, to speak to 
the reader. To listen to their words 
as recorded in this book will do 
much to deepen the faith and sharp- 
en the supernatural vision of the 
reader. For a Passionist there will be 
a deepening of his personal devotion 
to the Passion, for the author empha- 


The Passionist 

sizes the role of the angels in the sal- 
vifie plans of Christ; it will also be a 
sound, \'aliiable soiiree-book for con- 
fcrcnecs and sermons. 

CAnROLL Stuhlmueller, C.P. 

Chieago, Illinois 

The Bible and the Liturgy, by 

Jean Danielou, S.J., Vol. Ill of 
the Series of Liturgical Studies, 
Notre Dame, 1956, pp. x, 372, 

HERE as in his previous books, 
Father Danielou shows a life- 
long, intimate friendship with the 
early fathers of the ehurch. With an 
amazing ease and dexterity he will 
eall upon these holy writers to ex- 
plain the early origin as well as the 
deeper and more primitive meaning 
of the sacramental rites, particularly 
Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Eu- 
charist, the Christian week and the 
liturgical year. The value of this is 
pointed out by Pope Pius XII: "They 
(the fathers) are distinguished by a 
certain subtle insight into heavenly 
things and by a marvelous keeness 
of intellect, which enables them to 
penetrate to the \cry innermost 
meaning of the divine word and 
bring to light all that can help to 
elucidate the teaching of Christ and 
promote holiness of life" (Divino 
Afflantc Spiriiii, n 28). 

Before indicating the usefulness of 
this book for a Passionist, we want 
to mention a difficulty from a scrip- 
tural point of view. Despite his at- 
tempt to do so, Father Danielou fails 
to distinguish clearly between a true 
scriptural sense as intended by Cod 
and a later elaboration of the fathers 
upon the text. It is unquestionable 
that the fathers at times use Holy 
Scripture as a means to present Cath- 
olic doctrine. Their ideas will be ex- 
pressed in the words and thought- 
patterns of the Bible which had. be- 
come like the blood which flowed 
through their heart and nourished 
their entire spiritual organism. These 
elaborations u|ion the text express 
true Catholic doctrine, but it is hard- 
ly correct to consider them ipso facto 
an expression of literal or typical 
sense, lather Danielou is certainly 
conscious of this danger and does 
intend to eliminate merely allegorical 
interpretations from his study (see 

August 1, 1957 

pg. 193). But does her I lis delinition 
of a typical sense on pages 103 and 
113 as "an action that really hap- 
pened, signifying a future action," or 
as "the realities of the past of Israel 
. . . (which are) the expression of 
eschatological events accomplished in 
Christ" omit an essential element de- 
manded by Pius XII for a true typ- 
ical sense: "provided it is clearly in- 
tended by Cod" O^id, 26). 

It is certainly questionable wheth- 
er the following are true Scriptural 
sense intended hy God: that the spirit 
hovering over the waters in Cen. 1, 2 
is a type of the dove who appeared 
at Christ's baptism and of the Spirit 
who cleanses our soul in Baptism (p. 
73); that "the baptismal water begets 
the fisciciiU as the primitive waters 
begot the fish" (pp. 74-75); that 
"(in) the covenant of Noe . . . Mel- 
chisedech was the high priest. Thus 
Christ is the fulfillment ... of all 
the sacrifices which in all religion 
and all times men have offered to 
God" (p. 147). Many more instances 
could be listed where the author's 
scriptural exegesis is at least doubt- 
ful. The author would have clarified 
his position greatly if he had been 
more exact in his definitions and 
more judicious in distinguishing al- 
legorical from true scriptural senses. 

Yet, despite this warning, the book 
does have tremendous value for a 
Passionist. It will provide a much 
deeper understanding of our princi- 
pal, liturgical rites in themselves and 
in their relation to the Passion. Fa- 
ther Danielou not only points out ex- 
ternal or illustrative similarities be- 
tween biblical incidents and cere- 
monial rites, but he will consistently 
state the dogmatic or spiritual doc- 
trine underlying this. Thus he pro- 
vides numerous examples for sermons 
and conferences which will be inter- 
esting, original, to the point, and 
instructive. These examples, taken 
Irom Scripture, have an interior jiow- 
er to re-enact in the present what 
they produced in the past. /\ valu- 
able index will make it easy to locate 
these, lor instance, he shows how 
the ancient baptismal ceremony was 
a symbol of a return to Paradise: the 
candidate was stri|i]ied and so re- 
turned to the original innocence; he 
was then anointed all over with oil 
as an athlete, for his struggle with 

the devil; he was clothed in white, 
again to symbolize innocence. At the 
same time, he relixed the mystery of 
Christ's Passion and resurrection: 
Christ naked on the cross, stripped 
of the old man of sin and completelv 
dedicated to God's holy will; Christ 
lying in the tomb from which comes 
life is re-enacted in the candidate 
who descends into the baptismal font 
and rises with a new life pulsing in 
his soul; finally, Christ and the new- 
ly-baptized are transfigured with 
shining garments. 

For a Passionist the book pro\'ides 
deeper theological reasons why all 
the sacraments flow from the open 
wounds of Christ and lead the soul 
back to His pierced I leart. Father 
Danielou wrote: From the stud\' of 
the fathers "we should notice the 
great unity which the whole process 
of initiation is now seen to possess: 
from Baptism (and Confirmation) to 
Communion, this is all a participa- 
tion in Christ dead and risen again" 
(p. 140). Therefore, the reader 
should overlook the rather free use 
which the author makes of the lit- 
eral and typical sense of scripture. 
There is much profit and inspiration 
in this book, so wonderfully rich in 
patristic lore. We suggest that it 
should have been entitled: "The Fa- 
thers and the Liturgy." 

C/VRROLL Stuhlmueller, C.P. 

Chicago, Illinois 

Priestly Existence, by Rev. Mich- 
ael Pfliegler, trans, by Francis 
F. Dinneen, S.J., 425 pp., New- 
man, 1957, $6.00. 

ASTiun- of the priestK life must 
take into consideration such \a- 
rious elements as the supernatural 
\()cation, the human characteristics 
of the man so called by God, the 
actual living conditions of this man's 
existence and the work of his min- 
istry as influenced by jiarticular con- 
ditions of time and ]ilace. I he char- 
acter of the study will be determined 
in part by the emphasis jilaced by 
selected matter and in part In the 
\ie\\|ioint adopted by the author. In 
this present book. Priestly Existence, 
Father Pfliegler places the emphasis 
on the man and his enximnment 
and fakes as his \ iewpoint the life of 
the priest as it is manifested in his 


attitudes and in his reactions. 

The primary purpose of the author 
is "to explain the modes of priestly 
existence from the data of the priest- 
ly experience itself" and to analyze 
the processes according to which 
priestly types are formed. A Second- 
ary purpose is evidenced throughout 
these chapters, which though con- 
trary to the author's intention is none 
the less of great practical value. This 
purpose is a proposal of attitudes and 
reactions as matter for examination 
of conscience. Priestly Existence is a 
study of the conditions in which the 
priest lives and his attempts to mas- 
ter it. 

The question asked in this study 
is: what kind of a man must a priest 
be to prove worthy of his vocation 
and faithful to his duties The an- 
swer proposed is that he must be a 
man of personal responsibility and 
practical prudence. The process ac- 
cording to which this answer is given 
and established is a most interesting 
one, the study of the effects of ten- 

Of great importance in the read- 
ing of this book is that definition the 
author gives of priestly existence. 
This existence, as the author under- 
stands it, is existential in character 
and is defined as that "mode of being 
proper to the priest as a human be- 
ing." This mode is "essentially a 
hazard" and is conditioned by a con- 
stant risk that is found in the neces- 
sity of formulating decisions in mat- 
ters creative of tension. These ten- 
sions arise out of the conflict born 
of the recognition of what should 
be done and what can be done and 
out of the lack of conformity be- 
tween the tendencies of nature and 
of grace and are confirmed in that 
sense of responsibility to the ideal of 
ones vocation. Good or evil, right or 
wrong are not discussed as moral en- 
tities but as influences that effect 
personality development and charac- 
ter formation. Priestly Existence is, 
therefore, a study of the conditions 
in which the priest lives and his at- 
tempts to master it and of the man 
formed under these conditions. 

The chapters developing this 
theme are divided according to the 
normal divisions of the priestly life. 
First, the acceptance of the vocation; 

second, the seminary life; third, the 
young priest and lastly the adult 
priest. Each chapter stresses the dif- 
ficulty found in obtaining true 
knowledge and in genuine accept- 
ance of the responsibilities proper to 
each stage. The treatment of the sub- 
ject of vocation emphasizes the ob- 
scurity attendant to a vocation. The 
chapter on the Seminary stresses the 
need of sound thinking, good will 
and practical judgment as the basis 
of adjustment. The state of mind of 
the newly ordained priest is por- 
trayed in the confusion resulting 
from the shock to ideals as they come 
into contact with realities in world 
life. The treatment of the adult 
priest-life is developed under three 
headings, the extreme cases, the good 
and devout priest and the malad- 
justed. A prior chapter on the ten- 
sion of priestly existence is devoted 
to the common problems of the ordi- 
nary priestly life. A final chapter is 
added by way of summary. This 
chapter is a precis of the preceed- 
ing chapters with a warning of great- 
er difficulties for the future and with 
the admonition that the priest must 
be strong in faith. 

Though Father Pfliegler originally 
planned this book as a guide for an 
examination of conscience, h i s 
change of purpose and viewpoint ex- 
cludes ascetical theology from its con- 
tent. A careful reading of this study 
should prepare a priest to avoid the 
natural impediments to grace and 
should make one the more sympa- 
thetic to the difficulties of others. 
Case illustrations have purposely 
been drawn from literary works. 
Small provision is made for correc- 
tion of faults by way of recommenda- 
tions. The whole effort of this book 
is devoted to a statement of case as 
a provisor for the understanding of 
the need for sound knowledge, good 
will and daily adjustment to the de- 
mands of a vocation in this world's 

The translator deserves a word of 
praise. The text reads very readily 
and is not overly technical. A table 
of content and index of things facili- 
tates the reading of this interesting 


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Dear Editor: 

I wish to congratulate you on the April 
1st issue of The Passionist. It is superb! 
God bless you for it, Father. Fr. Barry 
Rankin has said, (on pg. 178 seq.) bet- 
ter than I ever could do, what I feel. 

Allow me to observe that I would have 
preferred Fr. Carroll Stuhlmueller, (in his 
review of the Book: "The Patronage of 
Saint Michael the Archangel" on page 
173) as a proof of "the role of St. Mich- 
ael in the early history of our Congrega- 
tion" to quote our Holy Founder himself 
as more pertinent to the case. For instance 
where St. Paul asks Pope Clement XIV to 
grant us the office (duplex cum oct.) of 
that Holy Archangel "because we have 
always held, and know by experience, him 
to be the principal Patron of the Con- 

Again, where, writing to Thomas Fossi, 
he says that St. Michael is "notro princi- 
palissinio (note the superlative) Protettore 
e Padre." (See my "Parole di Padre sulV 
osservanza regolare" quotes nr. 3004 e 

How I would like to go deeper into this 
matter! There must be quite some evi- 
dence on the subject stowed away in the 
archives of our older retreats in Italy. But 
I am too old. Wish to God some one of 
our young scientists would take up tiie 

Lambert Budde, C.P. 
Mook, Holland 


Dear Editor: 

Some time ago I arrived in a small 
town in California where I had to con 
duct two missions, the first week in the 
mission church some seventeen miles 
away and the second week in the mother 
parish. After the usual greetings and wel- 
comes, the pastor and I sat in the living 
room and began cme of those general con- 
xersations. Hut suiUlenly he turned to me 
rather seriously and said: "Father, I have 
a suggestion to make about the llrst week 
of our mission. As you know, the mis 
sion parish is quite small and maile up 
mostly of farmers who live (juite a dis 
tancc from the church. I know that vc^^• 

few of the parishioners would be able to 
come to the morning Mass. So, this is my 
suggestion. Instead of having Mass in the 
morning let us have it in the evening in 
place of Benediction of the Blessed Sac- 

My first reaction was anything but fa- 
vorable. I told the pastor that it would be 
quite an innovation but that in justice I 
would think it over. I seriously weighed 
the pros and cons and the more I thought 
about it the more I felt that it would be 
a good idea. Finally I gave my consent. 
The pastor got in touch with the local 
Ordinary and procured the permission nec- 
essar)' for the evening Mass. He also 
wanted to dispense with the nightly rosary 
but I balked at that. I had no desire to 
change our usual system any more than 
necessary. This is the schedule we fol- 
lowed : 

Rosary at 8 o'clock. (I announced to 
the people that I would be hearing con- 
fessions a half hour before the rosarv' and 
continue hearing until the beginning of 
the fourth decade.) 

The sermon immediately after the ro- 
sary. (After .the sermon I again heard 
confessions and continued hearing through- 
out the Mass which started at 9 o'clock. 
I had already informed the people that 
to receive Holy Communion they would 
be obliged to obstain from solid food up 
to 6:15 and Irom liquid nourishment up 
to 8:15. 

C)l course, I do not know how the mis- 
sion would ha\c progressed had I followed 
our ordinary schedule. I feel confident, 
however, that while it might have been as 
successful, it certainly could not have been 
more so. The respcmse in the confessional 
was most consoling. And it was a surprise 
and a pleasure to see almost as many men 
as women receiving 1 loly Communion 
every night of the mission. 1 was so en- 
linisiastic about the first week that I 
decided to iollow the same schetlule the 
second week in the mother parish with 
the exception that we also had Mass in 
the morning. The second week was as 
successlul as the first. 

1 realize that this would Ix." imprac- 
tical and almost impossible in some of 
the l.irger parishes. But I ani thoroughly 
tonxinceil that it would be most practical 
in the smaller parishes and particularly in 

August 1, 1957 


the mission churches for some very good 

(1)— It ehminates a second daily trip 
to the mission church and sometimes this 
is no small item because some of them 
are twenty and even thirty miles away 
from the rectory. And actually it is an 
unnecessary trip because the few pious 
women and older men that come to the 
morning Mass would certainly be present 
in the evening. 

(2)— It gives the vast majority of the 
men and working women of the parish 
an equal opportunity to receive Holy 
Communion every day. When the mission 
church is any distance from the rectory it 
is almost impossible to have an early Mass 
and all the missionaries realize that it is 
extremely difficult and at times actually 
impossible for the working people to come 
to a later Mass. 

(3)— It is true that it would be impos- 
sible to give the morning instructions on 
the commandments and the meditations as 
we are accustomed to do. This difficulty 
also can be eliminated by making the an- 
nouncements few and brief and preach 
the instructions (briefer, it is true) before 
the main sermon. And even this I con- 
sider most practical because it gives all 
the people a chance to hear these neces- 
sary instructions instead of the compara- 
tively few that can come to the morning 

Personally I am in favor of it. And it 
seems to me most apt and fitting to con- 
clude every night of a Passionist mission 
with the Mass, the Unbloody Sacrifice of 
Calvary. I know that the secular priests 
are favorably impressed because I have 
already received two requests for the same 
kind of mission. (The word got around 
pretty fast because my first venture took 
place from April 28 to May 12 and I am 
writing this short piece on May 16 just 
four days after the closing of the second 

However, I am sending this little note 
to The Passionist with the hope that it is 
worthy of publication not merely to air 
my own views or to give the opinions of 
the diocesan clergy. I write because I 
would like to hear the opinions of some 
of our other missionaries throughout the 

Edward Viti, C.P. 
Sacramento, Calif. 


Dear Editor: 

The last number (new style) of The 
Passionist contains an account with photo- 
graphs of the dedication of our new Prep- 
aratory Seminary and Retreat House at 
Warrenton, Missouri. This was indeed an 
important event in the history of our 
Province, one that will have lasting effects 
upon our Province for many a year to 
come. For April 28, 1957 marked the ded- 
ication of a foundation that happily com- 
bines the diverse elements of our Pas- 
sionist life. One will find at Warrenton 

our traditional spirit of prayer and soli- 
tude, zeal and study expressed in the con- 
temporary architecture of mortar, concrete, 
and glass. 

The high school and college depart- 
ments, architecturally separated, are united 
in the common bond of the bright, mod- 
ernistic chapel. The classrooms and well- 
equipped library and laboratories give 
proper balance to the large gymnasium 
and ample outside recreational facilities. 
The monastery proper, close at hand and 
yet distinct from the seminary, assures the 
religious of the seclusion necessary for the 
living out of the monastic life in a mon- 
astic atmospher. The nearby retreat-house 

Deadline for October 1st Issue 
All news items, notices and letters to 
the Editor to be printed in the October 
1st issue of The Passionist should be 
in the hands of the Editor by September 
1st. Articles, Book Reviews and Questions 
to be Answered should be sent in by 
August 15th. 

affords solitude for the clergy and lay- 
men who seek peace and grace during the 
days of the spiritual exercises, while not 
infringing upon the scholastic atmosphere 
of the seminary nor the quiet of the 
monastery. The crowded parking-lot each 
week-end will remind the seminarians of 
one of the varied activities of our Passion- 
ist Apostolate to which God is calling 
them. The impact of all this upon our 
young aspirants cannot but be intense 
and enduring. 

Publicly, as one "from the ranks," I 
wish to express in the pages of The Pas- 
sionist a word of thanks to the Superiors 
of our Province and to the Warrenton 
Community for the sacrifices and labors 
which they have made in the construction 
of the Mother of Good Counsel Seminary 

Letters to the Editor 
Our readers are invited to send letters 
to the Editor, giving their comments and 
opinions on articles and letters appearing 
in The Passionist. Letters on other sub- 
jects that will be of interest to our Read- 
ers will also be printed. If requested, the 
name of the sender will not be printed. 

and Retreat and of Our Lady's Retreat 

May St. Paul of the Cross bestow his 
fatherly blessing upon all who pass his 
statue at the gate to enter the grounds of 
this latest foundation to study and to 
pray, to teach and to preach, to find God's 
grace in the quiet and silence of War- 

Roger Mercurio, C.P. 

Louisville, Ky. 


Dear Editor: 

I would like to express my gratitude 

to Father Ignatius McElligott, C.P. for 
his article, "Foundation of Passionist Life" 
which appeared in the June 1st issue of 
The Passionist. It was the finest presenta- 
Ition of Passionist life I have yet read, 
and I am sure I will return to the article 
many times in future years. It is the hope 
of many that Father Ignatius will con- 
tinue to write such articles, thereby al- 
lowing others to share the rich fruit of 
his Passionistic mind and heart. 

A word of thanks is due to The Pas- 
sionist, too, for the presentation of such 
fine articles. 

Joseph M. Connolly. C.P. 

Chicago, Illinois 

Dear Editor: 

I want to congratulate Father Ignatius 
McElligott, C.P. for his excellent article 
in the June 1st issue of The Passionist 
entitled "Foundation of the Passionist 
Life." He certainly made very clear the 
unity of our whole Passionist Life and 
how our active life is and must he the 
overflow of our contemplative life. 

Wliat particularly struck me is how im- 
portant it is for the formation of our stu- 
dents that they see our missionaries and 
retreat masters constantly renewing their 
spiritual life in the solitude of our re- 
treats. "If the professed communities in 
the houses of formation are so small that 
the onus of the Regular Observance must 
be left largely on the novices and stu- 
dents while the priests are engaged on the 
active ministry," a situation is created in 
which it is all too easy to lose sight of the 
causal connection between contemplation 
and activity which is of the essence of 
our life. . . . the novitiate and houses of 
study . . . must be staffed by professed 
communities sufficiently large to guarantee 
that at all times our full monastic and 
liturgical Observance will be adequately 
kept while at the same time a full and 
vigorous missionary apostolate is exercised 
by the community. It is in living in such 
a community that our young religious are 
given the sense and appreciation of the 
unity of our life and wholeness of our 
vocation" (Page 233). I do not think that 
we can emphasize too often these words 
of Father Ignatius. 

I would like to see many more articles 
in The Passionist by Father Ignatius. In 
particular I would like to see a whole 
article devoted to our home life of prayer, 
study and penance. 



Dear Editor: 

Congratulations on the Passionist's 
"New Look." The improved size and for- 
mat, so much like The Sign, is indeed 
most attractive and appealing. And the 
articles themselves are very well balanced. 
Written with a punch and containing 
shorter articles, both doctrinal and prac- 
tical in content. The Passionist is most 
readable and definitely geared to the spir- 


The Passionist 

yji^/Le./- HANSEN 

1907 Fiitieth 1957 

Products of Hansen 






































I istcil above arc a lew ol the se\' 
eral hundred Religious products 
maiuilacturcd and supplieil by llie 
1 louse of I lansen. 



7/te ^mae c4 HANSEN 


itiuil needs ot tlie brethren. I myself espe- 
cially like the "Question and Answer" sec- 
tion. Keep up the good work! 

I found Father Edwin Ronan's well- 
v\'ritten article "How to Fill the Pews" 
most provocative. (June 1st issue.) What 
he said about our modern-day mission is 
very true: We definitely need to impress 
pastors with the importance of talking up 
a mission ahead of time. And we also 
need ways and means of personally con- 
tacting the people. But how can that 
important two-fold objective be reached if 
we do not offer a type of mission which 
can and will appeal to both pastor and 

Father Edwin insists that the day will 
come when our people will put aside their 
frivolities and return to the old-style type 
of mission instead of a "watered-down sub- 
stitute." Perhaps Father is correct, vet- 
eran missionary as he is. But I wonder: 
Due to time, circumstance and distraction 
it seems that evening services no longer 
attract our people . . . even the better 
Catholic. And with the hurry-up schedule 
of the ordinary workingman there seems 
to be little room for an effective sermon 
along with morning Mass. As it is, we 
have had to streamline our mission so 
much that oftimes insufficient time and 
thought is given to the Passion of Christ. 
We have the old-style type of mission, 
true enuf. But do we not then have also 
a "watered-down substitute " I do not 
know the answer to the problem. Nor do 
1 know who does. 

But, I still raise the question; Is there 
not yet room for reasonable adaptation 
(presuming proper authorization) in our 
mission set-up? Perhaps the "Sunday Mis- 
sion" idea is not workable in every parish. 
But maybe it is a step in the right direc- 
tion. To my way of thinking we must 
have a mission set-up that will get the 
majority of people in on it. True, they 
might be "forced" to listen to a sermon 
at times. But it seems to me that is bet- 
ter than their not hearing a .sermon at all. 
How else can the grace of God work in 
their soul? "Faith comes by hearing." If 
a change in schedule and in preaching- 
lime be necessary for our modern-day peo- 
ple, then I think it should be made. As 
long as the mission presents the eternal 
truths and the missionary lives and 
breathes Christ crucified I cannot see 
where or how we can ha\'c "a watered- 
dov\n substitute." 



On June 29, our former General, Most 
Reverend Albert Deone, C.P. was con- 
secrated bishop of Villa Maria. The new 
bishop was consecrated in Holy Cross 
Church which is attached to the retreat 
and is the provincial house of Immacu- 
late Conception Province, Argentina. 


(Contiiiiicd from pci'^e 282) 

the things they have witnessed in 
these latter years, the things they 
have experienced. It may be that 
they do not see a way out of or an 
end to their problems. It may be 
that the sermons do not seem to re- 
flect their own personal lives. It may 
be that the sermon, together with the 
dark and coarse habit, are depressing 
to a people seeking happiness. But 
these remarks are more commonly 
made by young people who ha\'e let 
themselves go, who are dissipated, 
who have poisoned themselves with 
all sorts of unnerving practices, as 
Dr. Ausems mentions somewhere. 
Do these remarks indicate a reaction 
of cowardice, of self-reproach? Do we 
ever hear these remarks from dutiful 
people? They come from the young 
who struggle and labor and who 
know that life, for a great part, is 
but suffering and sighs and a vale 
of tears. And is it not just this,— the 
problem of suffering and sacrifice, 
mortification and self-denial, that 
must again be preached to a people 
who all too easily gives in to itself? 
Should we not again proclaim the 
hard saying of Christ Himself; the 
saying that those who wish to be His 
followers must deny themseh'cs, that 
the servant is no better than the 
Master, that unless they do penance 
they will all perish? Let us read the 
letter of the German Bishops to their 
priests, describing the necessity of 
penance in our times. 

Do we not ha\'e too much of the 
"heathen humanism? Do we not 
hear too much at gatherings, lectures, 
life preparation weeks, etc., of the 
same themes — loxe, marriage, the 
girl, the boy,— without a reminder 
that the essence of it all is sacrifice? 

Now wherever there is a healthy 
spirituality we must preach the Pas- 
sion and view suffering in the light 
ol the Resurrection. When we 
preach about the problem of suffer- 
ing we must, as a rule, remind our 
hearers that "all this is neeessarv so 
as to enter into glory. Thus we see 
another side of the (juestion. a side 
that will bring light and consolation, 
strength anil peace. .And in this sense 
it is necessar\ to make use of and 

August 1, 1957 


proclaim a newer theology of death 
and the Cross. 

The sermon or religious exercise 
takes so long! 

It is not the evening sermon but 
the meditations on the suffering and 
death of Christ which bring the 
grace of our particular vocation. If 
we shove this meditation aside then 
we do not fulfill our fourth vow and 
our missions will not bear their own 
particular fruit. Paul of the Cross 
asked One of our Fathers how suc- 
cessful his mission had been. "Very 
good," answered the priest, "thanks 
to your prayers." "No," replied Paul, 
"but thanks to the sufferings of Our 
Lord Jesus Christ." 

%Y / HEN I was composing this ar- 
VV tide and paging through books 
and articles on the Passion, the 
thought came to me whether we 
Passionists— in line with our calling- 
could not conduct really Passionistic 
missions. Perhaps I should rather say 
a through and through "Christian" 
mission; a mission in which the suf- 
ferings, death. Cross and Resurrec- 
tion of Christ would be the basis of 
all our sermons. 

When we read St. Paul and the 
commentaries of Cerfeaux, Bandas, 
Seidensticker, Schneider and others, 
we find in them a superabundance of 
material for the building up of most 
of our themes or at least material 
with which to permeate our sermons. 

It is high time,— and we owe it to 
our people who are asking for a 
deeper insight into our religion and 
who seek the reasons therefore— that 
we give them solid dogmatic the- 
ology, and that we build our sermons 
on the solid and Christian founda- 
tions of the Gospels and the New 
Testament. This does not mean that 
our mission sermons must become 
mere instructions, that we must treat 
only of dogma from the pulpit. But 
it means that we have the oppor- 
tunity during ten days to give the 
people richness of thought, lessons in 
the fundamentals and values of life; 
an opportunity that perhaps, only 
the mission can give us in so short 
a time. 

Could we not, then, set up a mis- 
sion program somewhat similar to 
the following? 

Christ-Who is He? Why did He 

come? What did He do? 

The Christian— What is a Chris- 
tian? Life? Baptism? Likeness to 
Christ. What is Christendom? What 
is the Christian life? 

Baptism— Our mystical death in 
Christ. Our baptism in Him. Our 
baptism in His Cross. 

Sin— Death to the Christian life. 
Reasons for Crucifixion. Destroying 
Christ's Reparation. Contrast of 
death to life. 

Death and Judgment — Pauline 
Theology. Particular Judgment. The 
last day. 

Hell— Repudiation of God's plan. 
Reparation. Fruitlessness of the Pas- 

Confession — Reparation for Sin. 
Strength from the Cross. Reconcilia- 
tion. New life. God's mercy. 

Eucharist— In connection with the 
sufferings of Christ. Pauline Theol- 
Sermon on the Cross— St. Paul. 

God's mercy— Love of Neighbor. 

Marriage— Image of Christ and His 

Perseverance — Resurrection and 
the Ideal of the Christian Life. 

We may divide the preaching of 
the Passion into three parts: 

The meditation as a meditation- 
expression of personal conviction and 
way of living. Special appeal to the 

The Lenten sermons— (Also called 
Passion meditations) — A lengthy, 
deep and broad presentation, ending 
with the Resurrection. 

The mission sermon — built upon 
and permeated with the teachings of 
St. Paul, particularly in what regards 
the death, crucifixion and Resurrec- 
tion of Christ. 


(Continued from page 283) 

without the consent of the Chapter. 
To quote: "Nbn tamen consensus 
Capituli requiritur pro rebus extraor- 
dinariis non necessariis domi, sacris- 
tiae, vel ecclesiae, si quis pius bene- 
factor suis sumptibus ad hos praecise 
praestitis ea comparare velit." 

(4) The same thing holds in case 
of donations given to make a repair 
on the house (within or without) or 

for the replacement of an article al- 
ready in use. 

Whenever donations are acquired 
for a specific repair or for the re- 
placement of a worn out article, the 
Superior may accept and freely use 
the money for the purpose specified. 

The Custom Book (p. 42) says: 
"The consent of the Chapter would 
not be needed in a case of simple 
repairing, as might happen in the 
kitchen, on the stairs, in the cell, on 
the floor; and in general, repairing 
things that are already in the Re- 

Although the Custom Book men- 
tions only repairs, the same principle 
may be applied in a case of a replace- 
ment. There is not much use in re- 
pairing what is worn out. Granting 
that the replacement is substantially 
the same as the article replaced, no 
approval would be necessary. 

The case is different when the pur- 
pose specified by the donor involves 
new construction or a change in the 
building. Then a local Chapter is 
necessary (Rule no. 101). But the 
Chapter votes only on whether the 
changes are to be made because that 
is the only thing that comes under 
their jurisdiction. They do not vote 
on the cost, for that is already taken 
care of, or the particular type of in- 
stallation or improvement down to 
the last detail. At times it may be 
necessary to give the Chapter the ap- 
proximate cost of the changes or 
improvements, the type of installa- 
tion, etc., in order that they can vote 
intelligently on the changes proposed. 

For instance, when, in Cincinnati, 
it was proposed to make use of a 
small room and part of a porch to 
install wash-room facilities for re- 
treatants, the local Chapter had the 
right to vote because that involved a 
change in the building; but they did 
not thereby acquire a right to vote 
on what particular make of wash ba- 
sin was to be installed, or how many, 
or that only Kohler or Crane fix- 
tures were to be used. 

It could happen that it is proposed 
to install, e.g., power flush toilets. A 
Chapter could very reasonably object 
that such a type of toilet is very 
noisy and would disturb the quiet of 
the Retreat. But barring such a cir- 
cumstance, it must be left to the dis- 
cretion of the Superior to determine 


The Passionist 

what make, type, etc., of fixture is 
to be installed. For the local Chapter 
to try to determine these things down 
to the last detail would result only 
in confussion and disagreement. The 
Superior, of course, is bound in con- 
science not to violate the poverty or 
the quiet prescribed by the Rule. 

Further, if the cost of the new 
construction or the change in the 
building exceeds the amount the lo- 
cal Chapter can approve, then the 
approval of the Provincial or Gen- 
eral, as the case may be, must also 
be obtained. 

When there is no question of new 
construction or a change in the build- 
ing, the consent of the local Chap- 
ter or the Provincial, etc., is not re- 
quired. However, even if the im- 
provements, repairs and replace- 
ments, etc., do not involve changes 
in the building (e.g., new furnish- 
ings for the rooms) the Provincial 
ought to be informed as to the man- 
ner in which the improvement is to 
be carried out and the approximate 
cost. For he has the general supervi- 
sion of all of the Retreats of the Prov- 
ince and, moreover, the duty to see 
that the poverty prescribed by the 
Rule (e.g., in nos. 5, 9, 97 and 114) 
and the Regulations (e.g., no. 247) 
is not violated. Moreover, in accord- 
ance with cans. 1514 and 1515, 2, he 
has the obligation to see to it that the 
wishes of the donor are being car- 
ried out. This he cannot do unless 
he is informed beforehand of what 
is to be done. 

But when only a small amount of 
money is involved or it is a ques- 
tion only of a routine repair or re- 
placement, 1 do not believe the Pro- 
vincial would have to be consulted, 
unless he expressly requires it. 

Therefore we conclude: 

1. That money acquired by us for 
a specific purpose, either by dona- 
tion or bequest, must be used for 
that purpose and that purpose only. 

2. Cranting that there arc no mod- 
ilying factors but it is simply a ques- 
tion of accepting and using a dona- 
tion for a specified purpose, the con- 
sent of the local Chapter, Provincial, 
etc., is not required. 

As explained above, unless only a 
minor sum is involved or it is a mere 
routine replacement, the Provincial 
should be informed in order that he 

August 1, 1957 

may not be prevented from exercis- 
ing his right and duty of general su- 


(Continued from page 286) 

the monastic libraries of every one 
of our houses. Certain objections will 
naturally arise relative to the nature 
and extent of this library and we 
would like to see them brought out 
into the light by means of discus- 
sion which will clarify ideas as well 
as furnish further food for thought 
on a matter that should be of deep 
interest to all of us. 

IN ORDER to properly build up a 
Passion Library it is necessary to 
have a central bureau of information 
on Passion literature. We must first 
know something about what has been 
written on the Passion before we can 
expect to acquire material on the 
Passion. Some definite steps have 
been taken in the matter, but so far 
they must be considered unsatisfac- 
tory and incomplete. 

The Bolletino of the Congregation 
since it restricts itself to notices of 
the Passion which have been pub- 
lished only by the brethren, very in- 
adequately meets the needs of a cen- 
tralized bureau of information on the 

The efforts of the brethren in the 
Belgium Province, in cooperation 
with those of Spain and perhaps 
other countries, have taken a deci- 
sive step forward in this matter. They 
have given us the Passiologica, an 
excellent catalogue of perhaps almost 
everything that has been published 
on the Passion and allied subjects in 
recent years. Moreover, it is kept up- 
to-date— each succeeding year having 
its additional information. It comes 
closest to the ideal of a central bu- 
reau of information that has yet come 
out. Its defect, which may be rem- 
edied later, lies in its time limitation. 
It begins with notices of publications 
of some seven or eight years ago. 
Consequently, many excellent pub- 
lications on the Passion published 
previous to the date of the catalogue's 
beginning arc not listed. But, within 
the limits it has set, the work done is 
excellent. And what makes it more 

to the point is that it follows Father 
Leone's directives on Passion studies. 
A centralized bureau of informa- 
tion, to adequately fulfill its purpose, 
should be in a position to advise the 
brethren on everything that has been 
written on the Passion of Our Lord, 
not only in recent times but from the 
very beginning when books and ar- 
ticles on the Passion were first writ- 
ten. This would require the mutual 
cooperation of the various provinces 
of the Congregation. And it would 
also require a few religious in each 
province to dedicate part of their 
time to so important a work. The net 
result of such work, published in 
catalogue form, would certainly be 
beneficial not only to the individual 
religious but the Congregation as a 
whole. With such a catalogue on 
hand, a librarian would have clearly 
mapped out for himself all the as- 
pects of the Passion of Our Lord 
and the publications which treat of 
them. The work would be tiresome 
and, perhaps, thankless, but it would 
be an undoubted means of spreading 
devotion to the Passion at the very 
fountainhead of the spoken word. 

WITH the necessary information 
on hand, a librarian would be 
in a position to commence his col- 
lecting. Naturally, his first efforts will 
be directed toward the acquisition of 
those works which are most useful 
and readable by the majority of the 
community, that is, works published 
in the language of his own country. 
Then he could gather those that are 
published in other modern lan- 
guages. These latter will necessarily 
be restricted in their use, but, as we 
will explain in a future article, they 
will open up new and interesting pos- 
sibilities for further Passionist effort 
and another way of fulfilling our 
fourth \'o\v. 

Moreo\er, the librarian should not 
be content with the acquisition of 
modern publications only. But, he 
should seek out and try to acquire 
the works of the past. This is a dis- 
appointing labor because the returns 
are relatively small in comparison 
with the time and effort expended. 
But, a good book on the Passion is 
not to be estimated at a price. We 
ha\e had to pay as much as S25 for 
a book that originally cost about 



$5.00, but it was worth it. A lector 
would have no trouble in getting suf- 
ficient material from it for the prep- 
aration of a dozen lectures on the 
Cross in history and tradition. 

To SUM up we may say, that a 
Bihliotheca Passionis is not the 
work of a day nor is it the work of 
a single religious amongst us, because 
it should be universal in its content 
as well as in its growth. The ideal 
is— everything that is, has been and 
will be written on the Passion of 
Our Lord. It is not likely that the 
ideal will be fully realized by any 
one particular library but that is no 
reason why we should not strive for 
the ideal. The ideal of religious per- 
fection is set before us in the novi- 
tiate, but how many of us expect to 
get to heaven except via purgatory? 
An ideal that is no higher than what 
is before our eyes will not get us 
very far spiritually and the ideal for 
the Bihliotheca Passionis that is lim- 
ited to available and immediately use- 
ful publications of the moment will 
never serve to form a true Passion 
Library. An ideal should be a stand- 
ard that should urge us on to the 
fullness of our efforts the attainment 
of a definite end. And this implies 
that a true Bihliotheca Passionis will 
have a very indefinite time limit be- 
cause that Bihliotheca must be per- 
petual in its growth both in quality 
and in quantity. 

"The Sacred Passion Library," the 
catalogue of publications on the Pas- 
sion, has a brief preface, tiie con- 
cluding words of which may aptly 
be inscribed here as a suitable end- 
ing to our reflections. "It is hoped 
that this library will inspire greater 
enthusiasm in the study and the 
preaching of the Sacred Passion and 
that many will try to have the same 
library and become as interested in 
this greatest of all studies, that with 
St. Paul, the Apostle, they will be 
able to say: 'I judge not myself to 
know anything among you but Jesus 
Christ and Him Crucified.'" (I Cor. 


(Continued from page 288) 

tion, but the necessary means for all 
Passionists to be devoted to the Pas- 
sion. One of his companions says of 
him, "He always used to speak of 
the duty we have to unite ourselves 
to Mary most holy, in mourning the 
Passion of Jesus Christ" (P. Ger- 
mano. Vita di San Gahriele, p. 213). 

In the light of all this evidence, it 
is hard to see how we can character- 
ize devotion to Mary as merely an 
integral part of our devotion to the 
Passion. An integral part can be 
separated from the essence without 
destroying it, while a constitutive ele- 
ment cannot. It seems to me that 
devotion to the Sorrows of Mary is a 
constitutive element of Passionist 

Certainly our devotion is essen- 
tially to the Passion of Christ. This 
means that, as devotion, it is an act 
of will by which we give ourselves 
readily to the divine service. And as 
devotion to the Passion, it is an act 
of will by which we give ourselves 
readily to God because of a consid- 
eration of the Passion of Christ and 
in imitation of the Passion of Christ. 

But among the possible means of 
devotion to the Passion, ours is devo- 
tion to the Sorrows of Mary. We are 
to unite ourselves in love and sorrow 
with Mary at the foot of the Cross 
and to consider the Passion through 
her eyes and with her heart. This is 
what is meant by "mourning with 
her for the death of her Son." 

I would suggest the following 
theological precisions for the con- 
sideration of our theologians: 

The material ohject of devotion to 
the Passion is the Passion itself as it 
existed historically. 

The for-inale quod is the Passion 
considered precisely as the motive 
inspiring us to give ourselves to God. 

The formale quo or means through 
which we know and appreciate the 
Passion as a motive for giving our- 
selves to God is devotion to and 
union with our sorrowing Mother at 
the foot of the Cross. 

It seems to me, then, that devo- 
tion to the Sorrows of Mary, con- 
sidered in this way, is one of the 
constitutive or essential elements in 
Passionist spirituality. 



[Continued from page 289) 

the Crucified, you would neglect 
nothing, be it even one iota, of the 
Rules. Institutes and Constitutions 
have been inspired by the. Holy 
Ghost. The holy Founders have been 
simply God's ambassadors to promul- 
gate His holy Will." Let us in these 
days especially try to appreciate more 
fully the wonderful Rule of life that 
God has given us for achieving a 
close union with Christ Crucified 
and for carrying on His redemptive 
work. Whenever we hear or speak 
of the revision of our Holy Rule, let 
us make it our first endeavor to imi- 
tate the example of St. Paul of the 
Cross who prayed so earnestly and 
had his religious pray that in the 
changes made God's will and pur- 
pose might be accomplished for the 
Congregation of the Passion. 


[Continued from page 293) 

worked. Surely the answer to that is 
simple. Venerable Dominic on at 
least one occasion spent ten and a 
half months giving missions here. He 
was overworked because there was 
no one else to do the work and 
circumstances demanded it. As a 
general rule, no one of us could be 
accused of having fallen into the 
heresy of over-activity. It was our 
Holy Fourider's intention in the first 
place that his priests should spend 
half the year giving missions, and 
Fr. Titus of St. Paul of the Cross 
wrote, when General, "Although 
times of undertaking the apostolate 
may differ because of different cir- 
cumstance, we ought to keep be- 
fore us the mind of our Holy Found- 
er, that the missionaries should spend 
almost half the year in solitude." 
How few, if any of our priests spend 
anywhere near 26 weeks a year on 
missions and retreats. The great ma- 
jority spend very much less. 

PERHAPS we can approach nearer 
to the ideal of St. Paul of the 
Cross if the term 'mission' is given 
a new assessment in these present 
times, and if it is made to include 

The Passionist 

much more than a formal week or 
two of i^rcaching in a parish. 11 a 
priest spends a couple of evenings of 
each week over a period of months 
giving lectures or being Chaplain to 
some Catholic Action Group, he is 
on a mission with the salvation of 
souls as his object. Of necessity he 
will be absent from some parts ol 
the obscr\ance on these nights, but 
is that any different from his being 
absent from the Monastery for a 
v\hole fortnight in some Parish? Cir- 
cumstances demand that priests en- 
gaged in these habitual works should 
be allowed to proceed with the same 
freedom that is given to other mis- 

Much good work is stultified be- 
cause of the restrictions sometimes 
placed on these religious— permis- 
sions hax'ing to be obtained from 
local Superiors which should be able 
to be taken for granted once the 
religious is appointed to a particu- 
lar duty. An example may be of a 
priest who is Chaplain to an organ- 
ization which will necessitate him 
attending meetings in xarious places, 
if the work is to be done cfHciently, 
or of a priest who is instructing se\'- 
cral converts and as a result he will 
be absent from Compline, Recrea- 
tion or Night Prayers. So often dif- 
ficulties are made about this— dif- 
Kculties which would not be made 
if the priest v\ere understood to be 
taking part in the Passionist mission 
to convert England. One presumes 
that the religious is a responsible per- 
son with a realization of his obliga- 
tions and he will not dishonor them 
any more than he will do so when he 
is giving a mission away from the 

THE VERY fact that we arc in a 
country that is so predominantly 
non-Catholic should be the spur to 
action for all our religious to seek 
lor opportunities of work, without, of 
course, compromising the Superior's 
authority and the necessary iiermis 
sion to undertake it. The Liturgy 
calls our I loly i'ounder a Hunter of 
Souls. I le went out after them and 
that must be our aim. Widening the 
scope ol tlie aposlolate, of necessitv 
means widening the ojiportunities 
for that apostolate and it is certain 
that the only way we shall gc-t that 

August 1, 1957 

work is by looking for it and offering 
our serx'ices. 1 he number ol missions 
and retreats will not keep the priests 
engaged for a reasonable length of 
time each year and unless we have 
more work, it inevitably means that 
we have jiotential power in the 
province unharnessed which could 
he used for the good of souls in many 
v\'a\'s. 1 he lorm that work will take 
will be diHerent from that in Italy, 
America or Ireland. We are con- 
cerned with England and its conver- 
sion, and whatever contributes to 
that end is, subject to the final rul- 
ing of authority, part of our mis- 
sionary work and part of the Pas- 
sionist apostolate. 

It is a truism to say that all our 
activity must be based on the spiritual 
life. Conteniplari et contenipJata aliis 
'tradere always remains true and no 
matter how much actixe work is 
done, no matter how great the ex- 
ternal success may appear to be, it 
will be fruitless unless it comes from 
the highest ideals and with the idea, 
not merely of saving souls, but of 
saving them through the special 
means given to us to use, by way of 
de\'otion to the Sacred Passion. 

That our apostolate needs to be 
widened in its scope, that new forms 
of work must be undertaken, that old 
forms may need to be done in new 
ways, needs little further enlarging. 
It is granted that the giving of mis- 
sions and retreats always remains our 
principal work and no other work 
must be undertaken which will 
compromise that, but equally sure- 
ly it must be granted that in Eng- 
land in 1957 it cannot be considered 
our sole work and to quote again, in 
conclusion, the words of the Secre- 
tary of the S. Congregation of Re- 
ligious, it must surely be at least 
our duty "to know not what 
Founders did, but rather what they 
would do if they were here today 
coni routed by all the jMoblems that 
threaten the apostolate of the 
Church. " 


iCoiiliinicii jroiii page 29S) 

Word, as a prelude to the transfor- 
mation w hicb will take place later on. 
"I hat great Cod Who for loxe of 

us became man and has willed to suf- 
fer so much for us,— you possess I lim 
nearer to you than the skin is to your 
flesh, nearer than you are to yourself. 
Speak to I lim then, blessed daugh- 
ter, heart to heart. 1 am going to give 
you an example. Think about the 

Ah, my sweet Jesus, You were con- 
demned to be scourged. Wherefore 
those perhdious ones led you to the 
place of the scourging, where, before 
all the peoi:)le, they tear your poor 
garments from you, and for that rea- 
son your most beautiful and most 
precious flesh trembled and was cold. 
(Here stop to make some affections.) 
O my Jesus, my love, my life, I see 
You so vilely despoiled before all the 

Is He then Who clothes the naked 
so vilely despoiled of His own 
clothes? Does He Who warms those 
who love Him with His own sweet 
fire, freeze and tremble with cold? 
Is the glory of heaven then thus 
despised? Ah my love! You would 
wish that I would despoil myself en- 
tirely of love for the world and for 
all creatures, if You, Who are the 
King of Kings, the Glory of heaven, 
were despoiled by me. 

Ah! Life of my life, when will 1 
love You alone? When will 1 give 
\ou m\ whole heart? When will I 
be united to You without anv 

The Saint re\eals his inner self, 
while be teaches us how to make a 
sorrowful and loving meditation on 
the torments of Jesus.^^ Whatever 
suffering there is had in the matter 
of lo\e, there is an immediate transi- 
tion to exclusi\e charity, to total 
donation of self, to emptying oneself 
in order to "love in a grand man- 
ner""" this C.od Who abides in the 
dcjith of one's heart revealing Him- 
self to the gaze of faith with His 
Dixine Crucified Face. 

Thus most of the time meditation 
ends with that expressixe "Ah, when" 
xvhich paxes the xxay for contempla 
tion, lor ineniorx . lor inquiry. And 
this is the next step xvhich takes ]ilace 
while the soul entleaxors to eliminate 
Irom its own life exery im|ierfection 
.\ud atlacbment to the world."'* 




^^ Rules . . . c. I, n. 3. 

34 Ihid., c. XVI, n. 128. 

35 Ifcid., c. XXIII, n. 191. 

36 This was something he worked to 
achieve; cfr. POC 463; POR 2182v; Gae- 
tan, Apotre et Missionnaire,p p. 89. 

37 POC 441; POR 556; 839v; PO 580v; 
cfr. Letters I, 539: the instructions given 
to a lay person who is to lead the medita- 
tion made in the Church. At Monte Or- 
giale the Saint "chose and deputed . . . 
Maria Prudenza Angelini as the leader for 
mental prayer . . . and gave to her in 
writing . . . the manner and method which 
she ought to follow; she fulfilled this 
charge for many years." Processiculus dili- 
gentiarum in Curia Sovanen., a. 1790. A 
similar testimony is given by D. Pietro 
Moroni, who declares that the people often 
assembled for such meditations. (Testim. 
extrajud. Arch. Gen. C.P.). 

38 Cfr. Gaetan, Doctrine, pp. 17-25; 
Letters IV, 440, under the word, "Med- 

39 Cfr. Letters I.e., and POC 372. "See 
to it that the fear of God reigns in the 
home and that you continue the holy 
meditation on the Most Sacred Passion of 
Jesus Christ; and I would like to have 
you all make it together. . . ." Letters II, 
613 (August 27, 1757— to Signora Gero- 
lama Ercolani). Cfr. Ihid., I, 610, 648; III, 
687-688, 342; IV, 135. 

io Rules, c. XXIII, n. 191. 

41 "When a maid of social standing 
came to confession to the Servant of God 
he perceived that she was vain in the mat- 
ter of dress. ... At first he said nothing 
about it to her, but diligently encouraged 
her to the exercise of some virtuous action 
that week. The maid returned a second 
time, and he then counselled her to 
spend some time each day in a little med- 
itation. Seeing the progress she made by 
putting into practice what was proposed 
to her, and that she had a love for holy 
prayer, then it was that he said clearly to 
her: unto what purpose do so many van- 
ities serve and these hooped-petticoats,— 
yes, wear clean clothes, but leave aside 
these vanities. Then heard the response 
from his penitent— that she had already 
done this— and that she had already set 
aside these vanities." S, 2, 435, 21 (P. 
John Mary of St. Ignatus). Cfr. also POR 
961v; POV 395; POR 282 sq., 1015 sq.; 
Gaetan, Doctrine, p. 46; Letters, I, 506. 

42 "I am going to the people with a 
kind of stratagem, but a good kind . . ." 
said the Saint explaining that he would 
be satisfied by a quarter of an hour's 
meditation on the Passion. POR 1016. 

43 S 2, 435, 21 (Father John Mary of 
St. Ignatius). 

44 Lexers II, 600 (July 13, 1753-To 
Signora Gerolama Frcolani). 

4'5Cfr. POR 2308v; POV 398; PAR 
664. It was a question of sending special- 
ized preachers for spiritual exercises. Cfr. 
Gaetan, Apotre et Missionnaire, pp. 242- 
255; Id., Recrutement, p. 60. 

46 PO 378,v; cfr. p. 24. 


*~ Letters III, 370 (June 20, 1759-to 
Teresa Palozzi). 

48 "They would have to render an ac- 
count to the Tribunal of God if they had 
not made prayer,— for which no excuse 
was valid." POR 954, v; cfr. Letters, I, 
415; 432. 

49 Letters I, 54 (February 21, 1722- 
to his own brothers and sisters). Cr. POR, 
2600; Letters, I, 560. 

^0 Letters I, 43 (January 3, 1729-to 
the Marchioness della Scala del Pozzo). 

51 Letters II, 377 (September 28, 1748 
—to Giovanni Francesco Sancezz); cfr. 
Ihid., Ill, 688. 

^2 Ihid., II, 619 (March 4, 1760-to 
Signora Gerolmaa Frcolani). 

5'^ Ihid., I, 611 (February 14, 1752-to 
Thomas Fossi). 

54 A small enough example is given in 
the Letters II, 51 (year 1737) to M. Pru- 
denza Angelini. St. Francis de Sales's 
method of prayer consists of two prepara- 
tory points: the Prensence of God and 
the Invocation (which includes humility): 
Cfr. Introduction to the Devout Life, P. 
II, cc. 2-3. St. Alphonsus has the acts of 
Faith, Humility, Repentance, Prayer: cfr. 
Praxis Confess., n. 123, 217, 226, cited 
by Keusch, La dottrina spirituale ... p. 
366. Note that the Praxis Confess, was 
published only in 1775. 

55 St. Francis de Sales concludes with 
a Thanksgiving, an Offering, a Prayer: 
Introduction to a Devout Life, P. II, c. 7; 
St. Alphonsus with Thanksgiving, Resolu- 
tion, Prayer; cfr. I.e. A qualified witness 
(the same one who wrote down the meth- 
od sent to the Bishop of Montefiascone) 
quotes in a rather small instruction the 
same method of meditation to which we 
have alluded: cfr. PO 396v-397. 

56 Cfr. Letters I, 109; 135; 113; 542; 

II, 496; III, 413, etc. 

5'i' Gaetan, Doctrine ... p. 30. 

58 Letters, II, 52 (see above); cfr. Ihid., 

III, -67; 380. 

59 He left meditation books to the Nuns 
(POC 495); he recommended the read- 
ing of them to his intimate friends CLet- 
ters I, 95); he had one of them trans- 
lated into French (Gaetan, Doctrine, pp. 
23-24); cfr. also Letters I, 397. 

60 POR 937v; 1059; POC 353. 

61 Cfr. S. Vincenzo M. Strambi, Dei 
Tesori . . . pp. 275-279; Bernardo M. di 
Gesu, Trattenimenti spirituali . . . pp. 

62 POR 937v; 1059; (Fr. Francesco L. 
di S.T.). 

63 Letters II, 577 (August 17, 1748- 
to Signora Gerolama Frcolani). Cfr. Ihid., 

I, 44; III, 215; 318. 

64 Cfr. Gaetan, Doctrine, pp. 43-50. 

65 Letters III, 359 (June 19, 1757-to 
Teresa Palozzi). 

66 Letters 1, 8 (Diary — December 8, 
1720). The Saint, describing this manner 
of prayer, adds that he received "an in- 
explicable lofty grace" in it. 

6' "Rest in God, loving Him always in 
a grand manner," Letters I, 555 (August 

II, 1746— to Thomas Fossi). "In that sa- 
cred interior desert . . . love in a grand 

manner and learn the science of the 
Saints." Ivi, IV, 4 (April 18, 1767-to 
Agnes Sagneri). "Remain alone in the in- 
terior oratory of your heart, and love God 
in a grand manner." Ivi, III, 397 (Decem- 
be 19, 1764-to Teresa Palozzi). Cfr. like 
expressions. Ivi, I, 385; 416, etc.; Gaetan, 
Doctrine, pp. 33-43. 

'''8 It is not within the scope of our 
treatment to give the whole spiritual doc- 
trine of St. Paul of the Cross. The Bib- 
liography includes many useful collec- 
tions of texts and can furnish a sufl&cient 
idea of the ascetical and moral counsels 
of the Saint. 


The Passionist 



Smallest Church in the World 

The place of the Passionist Con- 
gregation in California's early reli- 
gious history was recalled on Sunday, 
May 12, at Grimes, California. This 
tiny community was the scene of the 
first Holy Mass offered in Colusa 
county in 1856. Fr. Peter Magonotti, 
C.P., the Vicar General of Bishop 
Alemany (San Francisco) said this 

On May 12, a Parish Group from 
Our Lady of Lourdes, Colusa, erect- 
ed a plaque commemorating the 
event. The Rector of Christ the King 
Retreat House, Sacramento, Calif., 
Very Rev. Fr. Fergus McGuinness, 
C.P., gave the blessing at the simple 
ceremony. The church erected on the 
site is said to be the smallest church 
in the world. It is 12 feet square. 

Of Interest to All 
Passionist Priests 

Ffotn: "How to he I hippy, I low 
to he I loly" 

"¥r. Mathevv Crawley is, without 
doubt, one of the greatest mission 
aries in the world. Yet there is no 
one more kinti, more modest, more 
winning. Even when sjieaking to the 
greatest sinners, whom it has been 
his lot to encounter he refers to them 
with kindness and pity. 

"Yet one lact he recounts with 
great sadness. We heard the stor\ 
from his own lips. 'My Father,' he 
said, 'was a Protestant, a good living, 
honest, straightforward man. My 

August 1, 1957 

mother was a Catholic and reared 
her children in the Catholic faith. 
Her most ardent desire was to see 
my father converted. She acted with 
great tact and prudence. She placed 
her hope rather in prayer and ex- 
ample than in persuasion, though she 
found means, too, of making known 
to my father, without annoying him, 
the truths of the Catholic Church. 

"At last her hopes were on the 
verge of being fulfilled, so much so, 
that my father promised to come 
with us to Mass. He did so but un- 
fortunately the priest celebrated the 
Mass with so much haste and irrever- 

ence that my father returned home, 
disappointed and declared that never, 
never more would he think of be- 
coming a Catholic. 

"We, too, were profoundly dis- 
appointed, all the more as my father 
refused to listen to any further ref- 
erence to the Catholic faith. Years 
passed and we continued to pray. 

"One evening a missionary priest 
of the Passionist Order called on us, 
and my father in his usual hospitable 
manner invited him to remain. 

"By a strange providence the con- 
versation of this missionary produced 
a striking effect on my father! Once 
more he consented to hear Mass, to 
be celebrated by the missionary. 

"The Passionist Father celebrated 
Mass very simply but very piously 
and thanks to Almighty God my 
good father shortly after began a 
course of instruction and entered the 
Church. " 

Neither our Correspondent or the 
Editor know whether this priest is 
Father Mateo of international fame. 

Vestition and Profession 

The first class of students to leave 
the new Seminary at Warrenton, 
Mo., for the Novitiate numbered 13. 
They left amid the usual blessings 
and well wishes of all on June 4th. 
Their Director, Fr. Berchmans Pettit 
went with them to the Novitiate. 
They were vested on June 30. Those 
vested were Confraters Thomas Pat- 

Newly professed students at St. Paul, Kan. Confraters Kenneth O'Malley, Mark Tomo- 
sic, Joseph Von Leuwen, Blaise Czojo, Nicholas Klioro, ond Alphonse Engler. 


rick Donohue, Vernard Ormachea, 
Bernard Curran, David Kohne, Ma- 
rion Weiss, Edward Cherry, Norbert 
Baalman, Angelo Mary Ulett, Regis 
Mueller, Arnold Klemczak, Paul 
Emmanuel Schrodt, Allen Perry, 
James Mary Basham. 

Rev. Fr. Alvin Wirth, C.P., vicar 
of the Retreat, gave them the habit. 

On July 9, six of the novices fin- 
ished their novitiate and made their 
vows as Passionists. They were Con- 
fraters Nicholas Kliora, Mark Toma- 
sic, Alphonse Engler, Blaize Czaja, 
Joseph Van Leu wen, and Kenneth 

Confrater Timothy Joseph O'Con- 
nor whose vestition was later than 
the rest of the class because of his 
father's death will take his vows on 
August 2. 

Three students in St. Gabriel's Re- 
treat, Des Moines, took their final 
vows on the 9th of July. They were 
Confraters Benedict Olson, Damian 
McHale, and Francis Martin Keenan. 

On May 23, two of our Brothers, 
also stationed in Des Moines, made 
their perpetual profession. They were 
Brothers Pius Martel and Christopher 

Celebrates First Solemn 
Mass at Prep 

Another memorable "first" took place 
at the new Preparatory Seminary, 
Warrenton, Mo., on Ascension 

Novices at St. Paul, Kan. Front row, left to right, Thomas Patrick Donohue, Paul 

Emmanuel Schrodt, Marion Wiess, Arnold Klemczak, James Mary Basham, Allen Perry; 

back row, left to right, Vernard Ormachea, Norbert Baalman, David Kohne, Edward 

Cherry, Regis Mueller, Bernard Curran, and Angelo Mary Ulett. 

Brothers Pius Martel, G.P. (left), and 
Christopher Zeko, C.P. (right). 

Thursday when Fr. Henry White- 
church, C.P., celebrated his first Sol- 
emn Mass in the Seminary Chapel. 

Father Henry is a native of Argen- 
tina and a member of Immaculate 
Conception Province. Since Father 
could not go home for his celebra- 
tion, he honored the Community and 
Seminarians at Warrenton by singing 
his First Solemn Mass there. 

Very Rev. Fr. Thomas More New- 
bold, C.P., rector of the seminary, 
assisted as archpriest; Fr. Roger Mer- 
curio, C.P., lector of New Testament 
and Liturgy at Sacred Heart Retreat, 
Louisville, Ky., was deacon and Fr. 
Campion Clifford, C.P., lector of 
History at the Seminary, was sub- 
deacon. The sermon for the occasion 
was preached by Very Rev. Fr. Ky- 
ran O'Connor, C.P., first consultor. 
The seminarians under the direction 
of Fr. Claude Nevin, C.P., lector of 
Chant at the Prep, sang for the Mass. 

After the Solemn Mass a banquet 
was held in the auditorium and suita- 
able entertainment for the occasion 
was planned for the evening. 

Father Henry's Mass was not only 
a blessed privilege for all who at- 
tended but most especially an in- 
spiration to the Seminarians who long 
for the day of their own first Mass. 

Prep Seminary on the Radio 

On Wednesday afternoons the 
tower chimes of Our Mother of Good 
Counsel Seminary can be heard 
throughput a radius of sixty miles. 
Radio listeners in their homes and 

on the roads then hear the words: 
"Mother of Good Counsel Seminary 
presents: Truths We Live By." 

Thus begins a fifteen minute 
broadcast that originates in the lan- 
guage laboratory at the Preparatory 
Seminary, Warrenton, Mo. It is re- 
corded on tape to be later played on 
station KWRE, Warrenton, as a pub- 
lic service. 

Since May 25th, the talks have 
centered around the life of Christ. 
The speakers have been Frs. Leon 
Grantz, C.P., Bernardine Johnson, 
C.P., and Leo Patrick Brady, C.P. 
On July 17th, Fr. Conleth Overman, 
C.P., director of Our Lady's Retreat 
House, began a new series of talks, 
keeping within the general heading 
of the truths which direct the lives 
of those living at the Seminary. 

It was agreed that this approach 
would be a good way to enter into 
the good graces of KWRE listeners. 
The owner and personnel of the sta- 
tion asked the Fathers to contribute 
a fifteen minute program and were 
glad to have them give it their own 
coloring. The people of the area are 
curious about life at the seminary 
and so the speakers announce that 
the Fathers and Seminarians invite 
them to share the truths upon which 
life at the seminary is based. 

Under the direction of Fr. Claude 
Nevin, C.P., lector of Music at the 
Seminary, an excellent selection of 
choral music has been heard on the 
program. The professional work of 
recording the programs is under the 
direction of Fr. Cyprian Towey, 
C.P., lector of Latin. 


The Passionist 

Home from Hong Kong 

The Province welcomed Fr. An- 
thony Maloney, C.P., on his return to 
this country in April, after years ol la- 
hor in Hong Kong. There he had seen 
the safe release of all Passionist mis- 
sioners from Red-controlled Hunan. 
Meanwhile li\'ing at the MaryknoU 
House, he had served as editor first 
of Hunan News (information on our 
Passionist Mission in China) and 
then to the more general Mission 

Because of his long experience in 
the Orient, 1 ather has now been ap- 
pointed to assist in the prospective 
Philippine mission activity of the 
Eastern Province, and will depart 
shordy for Manila. During his stay 
with the Community in Chicago, 
Father Anthony showed some excel- 
lent color slide films of the Min- 
danao territory, and also of our own 
Japanese retreat house and mission 
which he had recently visited. 

Educational Conventions 

Easter week saw delegates from 
both American Provinces taking part 
in the fifty-fourth annual convention 
of the National Catholic Educational 
Association in Milwaukee. Among 
the many subjects treated at the huge 
convention, the sessions on Minor 
and Major Seminaries and that on 
Religious and Priestly Vocations were 
of special interest to us. At the same 
time the meeting of the American 
Catholic Philosophical Association 
was being held in Chicago, with the 
main emphasis centering on ques- 
tions of Moral Philosophy. This was 
.It tended by members of our Phi- 
losophy and Theology faculties. 

Missioner to Migrants 

I alhcr Pcllegrino, C'.P., a member 
of Immaculate 1 leart of Mary Prov- 
ince, North Italy, and a missionary 
to Mexico, was a welcome guest in 
Immaculate Conception Retreat, Chi 
cago, III., for se\eral days this past 
May. Father is one of many priests 
Irom Mexico who minister during 
llie summer months to the spiritual 
needs ol Spanish speakini; niit^rant 

The workers, who flock into this 
country during the fruit picking sea 
son, are largely C'atholic, but would 
be without a priest, were it not for 

the generous service of men such as 
Father Pcllegrino. His work this sum- 
mer has been especially in the re- 
gion of Cirand Rapids, Mich. 

World Vocation Exhibit 

The International Vocational Ex- 
hibition, held in Birmingham, Eng- 
land, from June 2-9, has attracted 
much interest and publicity among 
the world's Catholics. The Pontifical 
Work for Religious Vocations, which 
sponsored the exhibit, asked a Pas- 
sionist, Fr. Godfrey Poage, C.P., 
from Immaculate Conception Mon- 
astery, Chicago, 111., to represent 
there the religious communities of 
the United States. 

Father Godfrey is author of sev- 
eral books, and has won deserved 
recognition as an expert in the field 
of vocation recruiting. After the Ex- 
hibition in England, Father went to 
Rome in order to gather some more 
needed material for another book 
that he is presently writing — The 
Life of St. Gabriel of the Sorrowful 
Mother. Father Godfrey was request- 
ed by the Bruce Publishing Company 
to write this life of St. Gabriel for 
them for future publication. 

Laymen Retreat News 

Warrenton: Fr. Conleth Overman, 
C.P., Director of the laymen's re- 
treats at Our Lady's Retreat House, 
reports that the retreats are continu- 
ing at a satisfactory rate. During 
most of the summer, mid-week re 
treats for the clergy are in progress. 
It is gratifying to note that the priests 
making their retreat at Our Lady's 
Retreat House arc all enthusiastic 
over the entire setup, and especially 
with the Retreat Master. 

It should be noted, too, that the 
jiriests have shown very great inter- 
est in Fr. Rajihacl Grashoff's latest 
work on Our Lady of Guadalupe, 
which he reads during the meals. 

Citrus Ih'iohts: On January 31, a 
162 foot barrack buildiny Irom 
Mather Air Base was moved onto the 
Retreat I louse property. The trans 
fer ol this structure onci a 14 mile 
route was the subject of several news 
items in the local jiapers. 

Ihe building was placed on the 
hillside behind the Retreat I louse, 
close to the coltaijc which ser\ed as 
the original home ol the Passionists 

in Citrus Heights. 

Today, the barracks are quickly 
losing their military bearing. They 
are assuming, day by day, the appear- 
ance of a long, low Z shaped home. 
When completed (around the mid- 
dle of August) these new quarters 
along with the cottage will provide 
a complete monastery for twelve reli- 
gious, and accommodations for 17 
lay retreatants and two hired men. 

As you come in the front door of 
the cottage, you are in a large wood- 
panelled room which will ser\'e as 
the community recreation and li- 
brary. A walk through the house 
shows you that it has four cells, two 
washrooms, a kitchen and a refec- 
tory (now being built). A 50 foot 
by eight foot closed passageway leads 

Confraters Benedict Olson, C.P. (left), 
Damian McHale, C.P. (center), and Fron- 
ds Martin Keenan, C.P. (right). 

you to the other section ol the nion 
astery. Flere \()u lintl the Rector's 
offices, seven cells, a jiricst's confes- 
sional, a washroom and the choir. 

Beyond the choir, you enter the 
sacristy; then down the corridor you 
pass the nine single rooms and four 
double rooms lor retreatants. The 
rooms lor the laymen ha\e a wash- 
stand in each room. The shower and 
toilet room dixides each pair of 
rooms. In the retreatants section vou 
will see the foyer at the main en- 
trance, the utility rooms and mon- 
astery parlor. At the end of the cor- 
ridor, separated by a shower and 
toilet room are the living room bed 
room suites for the hired men. 

AiiciisT 1, 1957 


The whole building and passage- 
way will be stuccoed to blend in with 
the stuccoed cottage. Red asphalt 
shingles will cover the large roof area. 

This addition to Christ the King 
Retreat House will give the Reli- 
gious Community adequate facilities 
to carry on their religious observance. 
Most of all, it will provide the com- 
munity with the privacy which is 
lacking in the Retreat House. The 
added rooms for retreatants will raise 
the capacity of Christ the King to 46. 

The festival held this year on May 
26 contributed nicely towards the 
new construction. While the sale of 
tickets on the capital prize of $5,000 
was down from previous years, due 
to hard times in California, they had 
the biggest crowd on record. Almost 

Addition to Laymen's Retreat House, Citrus 
Heights, Calif. 

3,000 dinners were served by Broth- 
ers Theodore Lindsorst and Patrick 
Keeney and their crew of willing 
workers. Through the prayers of the 
Carmelite Nuns, the day was blessed 
with the finest weather possible. The 
success of this year's festival was in- 
sured by the long hours of planning 
and work done by Fr. Canute Hor- 
ack, Vicar, and the members of the 
Retreat Steering Committee. 

Parish Activities 

Cincinnati: Both Immaculata and 
Holy Cross Parish have been work- 
ing together the past months, along 
with the other parishes of the Arch- 
diocese, to raise funds for several new 
and improved high schools. As al- 
ways, the people of the hill have 
done their fair share. More than 

$75,000 has been pledged by the two 
parishes over a thirty month period. 

Chicago: Plans are under way to 
build four more classrooms at Im- 
maculate Conception Church to take 
care of all the children applying for 
admittance. It had been hoped that 
the new classrooms could have been 
completed by fall in order to take 
care of all the children. But, the ar- 
chitects are still working on the plans 
and none of the construction work 
has begun. 

During the month of June the 
house on the property adjoining the 
school and previously used by the Sis- 
ters as a convent was moved. The 
property will be graded and used as 
a playground for the children. 


The Province of Holy Cross cele- 
brated four jubilees during the past 
two months. Two of them were gold- 
en jubilees of ordination, one was the 
golden jubilee of profession, and the 
fourth was the silver jubilee of pro- 

Fr. Edwin Ronan, C.P., celebrated 
the golden jubilee of his ordination 
on June 5 in the Chapel of Holy 
Name Retreat House, Houston, Tex. 
Father Edwin was the celebrant of 
the Solemn Mass; Fr. Hyacinth Cla- 
rey, C.P., also celebrating his golden 
jubilee of ordination, was deacon; 
and Fr. Jordan Grimes, C.P., Retreat 
Director, was subdeacon. The ser- 
mon was preached by Very Rev. Fr. 
Kyran O'Connor, C.P., first con- 
suitor. The younger priests of the 
diocese sang the Mass. 

On the following day Father Ed- 
win was the main speaker at the an- 
nual meeting of the St. Paul of the 
Cross Club in the Houston Club 
House. Father spoke about his work 
with the Catholic Chaplain Corp of 
the Philippine Army. There were 
about 200 guests who attended this 
meeting and banquet. 

Father Edwin became acquainted 
personally with the late Manuel 
Quezon in 1928, when Quezon was 
being treated for tuberculosis in Cali- 
fornia. Their acquaintance grew and 
when Queson became President he 
personally asked for Father Edwin, 
who was a United States Army chap- 

lain in World War I, to form his 
chaplain staff. 

Ordered to the Philippines in 1937 
to organize the Chaplains of the Phil- 
ippine Army, Father Edwin was ap- 
pointed a Vicar Delegate of the Mili- 
tary Ordinariate shortly after the 
attack on Pearl Harbor. 

Manuel Quezon during the heroic 
stand on Bataan and Corregidor, paid 
tribute to Father Edwin and other 
Catholic Chaplains with him. When 
Manila was declared an open city, 
Father Edwin followed the troops to 
Bataan and stayed there until the 
early part of February when he went 
to Corregidor to be in close touch 
with the Army Headquarters. 

"My family and I had been living 
in Corregidor since December 24, 
and so we had the pleasure of hav- 
ing Father Edwin with us once 
more," said Quezon. "When upon 
the suggestion of General MacAr- 
thur, I had to leave Corregidor for 
Negroes, I asked Father Edwin to 
come with us, but he preferred to 
stay in Corregidor. 'I am the head 
Chaplain,' he said, 'and I consider it 
my duty to stay here where I can do 
more for the army." " 

Father Edwin had too much work 
yet to be done to flee to Australia 
with the Philippine Government dur- 
ing the final days of Corregidor, but 
later consented to go in the last plane 
to leave the fortification, going to 
Mindanao Island. 

"There I remained in the hills 
with the natives for three months 
until July, 1942, when depleted sup- 
plies forced us to surrender," he re- 

"The Japs quickly learned of my 
close association with President Que- 
zon and with typical Japanese thor- 
oughness but inefficiency I was 
picked out of the group of prisoners 
at Manila and taken to Tokyo. Then 
I was apparently misplaced and they 
forgot about me." 

After three years and one month 
as a prisoner of the Japanese, Father 
Edwin was liberated by the Amer- 
ican Army. 

The second priest of the Province 
celebrating the golden jubilee of his 
ordination during the month of June 
was Fr. Hyacinth Clarey, C.P. Fa- 


The Passionist 

ther sang the Solemn Mass of ordi- 
nation on June 2, at 4:00 p.m. in St. 
Francis Church, St. Paul, Kan. Fr. 
Matthias Cocn, C.P., was deacon 
and Fr. Ansclm Sccor, C.P., was sub- 
deacon. The sermon for the occasion 
was preached by Fr. Cornehus Mc- 
Graw, C.P. After the services, a din- 
ner was served in College Mall. 

Father Hyacinth had his two sis- 
ters who are Sisters of Charity, Sister 

Rev. Hyacinth Clarey, C.P. 

Mary Felix and Sister Mary Alicia, 
present, together with other relatives 
and many friends. 

Father 1 lyacinth was ordained in 
St. Louis, Mo., by Archbishop Cilen- 
non on May 29, 1907. Since that 
time he has served as Lector and Di- 
rector. For a time he preached mis- 
sions and retreats. Then, for many 
years he was engaged in parish work: 
Holy Cross Church, Cincinnati, 
Ohio; St. Rita Church, Sierra Madre, 
Calif.; at St. Paul and Erie, Kan., as 
well as other parishes in Kansas. For 
more than nine years he worked 
among the Mexicans in Hutchinson, 
Kan., at Our Lady of Guadalupe 

On May 16, Fr. Bernard Brady, 
C.P. celebrated his golden jubilee 
of religious jirofession. Father Ber- 
nard offered the Mass of Thanksgiv- 
ing with Frs. Dunstan Branigan, C.P. 
and Howard Ralenkotter, C.P. act- 
ing as ministers. After the dinner in 
Father Bernard's honor, Father was 
called upon to say a few words. With 
his usual sincerity and Irish humor. 
Father Bernard recalled some of the 
highlights of his Passionist religious 
life and pointed out how God had 
blessed him with singular good health 
through the years. 

Brother Bernard Schaefer, C.P. 
celebrated the silver jubilee of his 
religious profession on June 6th at 
Holy Cross Monastery, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. The Mass of thanksgiving was 
offered by the Rector, Very Rev. Fr. 
Boniface Fielding, C.P., in the eve- 
ning. The ministers were Fathers 
Dunstan and Howard. Father Boni- 
face preached the sermon. He out- 
lined a brother's call to holiness and 
reminded all present of that age-old 
principle of spirituality: Sanctity con- 
sists in doing ordinary things extraor- 
dinarily well. 

After Mass a luncheon was scrxed 
in the school hall. More than two 
hundred people — relatives, retreat- 
ants, and friends— were on hand to 
greet Brother and to wish him well. 

Key-Note Speaker for 
CFM Convention 

Fr. Forrest Macken, C.P., Lector 
of Moral Theology and Canon Law 
at Sacred Heart Retreat, Louisville, 
Ky., was the key-note speaker at the 
first state-wide CFM Convention 
held at Bellarmine College, Louis- 
ville, Ky., on April 28. 

Over 140 couples from all over the 
state of Kentucky were present at the 
convention. Flis address was well re- 
ceived and set the atmosphere of se- 
rious reflection and deep interest that 
marked this first CFM convention for 


Six Passionists were ordained to 
the holy jiriesthood on May 2S at the 
Cathedral of the Assumption, Louis- 

Brother Bernard Schaefer, C.P. 

ville, Ky., by the Most Rev. John A. 
Floersh, Archbishop of Louisville. 
The following morning they said 
their first Masses at St. Agnes 

Those ordained were. Frs. Gerard 
Steckel, Peter Berendt, Michael Jo- 
seph Stengel, Louis Doherty, Henry 
Whitechurch, and Thomas Anthony 
Rogalski. Fr. Michael Joseph was a 
former member of St. Agnes Parish, 
being pri\ileged to offer his very first 
Mass in his own parish church. Fa- 
ther Henrv is a member of the Im- 

Fr. Edwin Ronan, C.P. 

August 1, 1957 


Newly Ordained Priests, Holy Cross Province. First row, left to right, Frs. Thomas An- 
thony Rogalski, Gerard Steckel, Louis Doherty. Second row, left to right, Frs. Michael 
J. Stengel, Henry Whitechurch, Peter Berendt. 

maculate Conception Province, Ar- 
gentina. He will return to Argentina 
after this year of Sacred Eloquence. 

At this same time five Passionists 
received the Sacred Order of the 
Subdeaconate. They are: Frs. Ra- 
phael Domzall, Francis Cusack, Casi- 
mir Gralewski, Sebastian McDonald 
and Philip Schaefer. 

Nejys in Brief 

Fr. Philip Gibbons returned to St. 
Gabriel Monastery, Des Moines, 
Iowa, after having an operation in 
Mercy Hospital. A previous check 
up had shown that Father had an 
ulcer. It was decided to operate in 
order to determine whether or not 
it was malignant. Dr. Crowley per- 
formed a very successful operation 
and the ulcer was removed; there 
was no malignancy whatever. . . . 
Relatives of the following religious 
of the Province died during the last 
two months. Mother of Fr. Campion 
Clifford; Father of Confrater Leon 
Lacey (Prep Student); Father of Frs. 
John Baptist and Noel Pechulis; 
Brother of Fr. Gabriel Sweeney; 
Stepmother of Br. Daniel Smith. . . . 
Sister of Fr. Herbert Tillman. . . . 

The graduation ceremony of nine 
of our High School Students at the 
Preparatory Seminary took place after 
the High Mass on Sunday on June 


30. On the same day all the students 
left the Seminary to begin their sum- 
mer vacation. . . . Fr. Alban Hick- 
son, C.P., a member of Immaculate 
Conception Retreat, Chicago, 111., 
had the privilege of preaching his 
one hundredth parish mission last 
month in the state of Iowa. ... In 
spite of his prolonged illness during 
the school year, Fr. Paul Mary Boyle, 
C.P. made "summa cum laude" in 
his exams at Rome. . . . The thesis 
that Fr. Eugene Peterman, C.P. pre- 
sented for his Doctorate in Sacred 
Theology was well received by his 
professors of the Angelicum in Rome. 
One of them wrote him a special let- 
ter of congratulations. . . . 

Fr. Barry Rankin, C.P. took a sum- 
mer school course in Liturgical Mu- 
sic and Chant at St. John's Abbey, 
CoUegeville, Minn. . . . Father Car- 
roll Stuhlmueller, C.P. taught a sum- 
mer school course in Sacred Scrip- 
ture to Sisters at Saint Mary's Col- 
lege, Notre Dame, Ind. . . . Fr. Jo- 
seph Mary O'Leary taught three to 
four classes each day in Theology 
and Sacred Scripture during the sum- 
mer at the Mother House of the Sis- 
ters of St. Joseph, Wichita, Kan. . . . 

Five Fathers are taking the Sum- 
mer School Course of Spiritualitv at 
the Dominican House of Studies, 
River Forest, 111. They are: Fr. 

Jerome G. Stowell, Damian Cragen, 
Emmet Linden, Luke Connolly, and 
Rian Clancy. . . . The Passionist 
Nuns from Pittsburg are making a 
new foundation in Japan. Three of 
the Nuns will be leaving for Japan 
some time around the middle of Au- 


Fr. Denis McGowan from Vice- 
Master, St. Paul, Kan., to Japan. Fr. 
Ward Biddle from Director of Stu- 
dents, Chicago, 111., to Japan. Fr. 
Paulinus Hughes from St. Paul, 
Kan., to Director of Students, Sacred 
Eloquence Class, Sierra Madre, Calif. 

Fr. Luke Connolly from Des 
Moines, to St. Paul, Kan., as vice- 
master. Fr. Jeremiah Beineris from re- 
treat master to vicar, Houston, Tex. 
Fr. Simon Herbers from vocational 
director to director of students, high 
school, Warrenton, Mo. Fr. Raymond 
McDonough from lector to vocation- 
al director, Warreton, Mo. Fr. Leo 
Patrick Brady from director of stu- 
dents, Warrenton, Mo., to retreat 
master, Detroit, Mich. 

Fr. John Devany from retreat mas- 
ter, Warrenton, Mo., to retreat mas- 
ter, Sierra Madre, Calif. Fr. Declan 
Egan from retreat master. Sierra Ma- 
dre, Calif., to retreat master, Sacra- 
mento, Calif. Fr. Anselm Secor from 
chaplain, Wichita, Kan., to retreat 
master, Houston, Tex. Fr. Godfrey 
Poage from Chicago to retreat mas- 
ter, Warrenton, Mo. 

Fr. Barry Rankin from lector to 
director of students, Chicago, 111. Fr. 
Eugene Peterman from Rome to lec- 
tor of theology, Chicago, 111. Fr. Paul 
Mary Boyle from Rome to lector 
canon law, Louisville, Ky. Fr. War- 
ren Womack from provincial econ- 
omy to Mexico to teach English. Fr. 
Sylvester Cichanski from Des 
Moines, Iowa to Warrenton, Mo. Fr. 
Jerome Stowell from Houston, Tex 
to Chicago, 111. 

Fr. Gordian Lewis from retreat 
master Detroit, Mich., to mid-week 
retreat master. Sierra Madre, Calif. 
Fr. Elmer Sandman from Warren- 
ton, Mo., to St. Paul, Kan. Fr. Joyce 
Hallahan from vicar, Sierra Madre, 
Calif., to provincial econome, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

(Continued on page 323) 

The Passionist 


Father Frederick Corcoran, C.P. 

"Father Frederick of the Mon- 
astery Is Dead. " This was the Front- 
page headhne set in massive print 
across the entire page that announced 
the death of Fr. Frederick Corcoran 
in the Springfield Daily News in its 
evening edition of April 23, 1957. A 
lead editorial, a long eulogy of the de- 
ceased Passionist, titled "Friend and 
Counsellor," followed this headline. 

So a humble, retiring Passionist re- 
ligious lived to become an institu- 
tion in and around the metropolis of 

Rev. Frederick Corcoran, C.P. 

Western Massachusetts. A native son 
of Springfield and a member of a 
distinguished family, Father Fred- 
erick entered the Passionist Congre- 
gation in 1911 and was ordained in 
1917. A short decade later he was 
sent to Our Mother of Sorrows Mon- 
astery in West Springfield when that 
establishment was in its infancy. 

I le then possessed the distinction 
of being a poet and a playwright. But 
his success in these arts had broad- 
ened and deepened a great gentle 
love of humanity. In the thirty years 
that he served the monastery as priest 
receptionist thousands were to know 
the charity and the goodwill of the 
Passion ists. The young and old, sick 
and well, the rich and poor, all came 
to love the quiet spoken, gentle man- 

August 1, 1957 

ncrcd, silver haired Passionist who 
received them at the door of the 

The newspaper headline brought 
a sense of shock and dismay to all of 
Springleld. Anxiously they read the 
details of his death, how he was 
stricken early Easter Sunday with a 
cerebral spasm, how emergency brain 
surgery was resorted to at Mercy 
Hospital to save his life, how he died, 
just as he had lived quietly and in 
the serenity of God. 

The public chapel of Our Lady 
of Sorrows Monastery would have 
been entirely inadequate to accom- 
modate the clergy and laity who 
would seek to attend the funeral. 
Consequently, the Solemn Funeral 
Mass was sung in Immaculate Con- 
ception Church, in which edifice by 
a holy coincidence Father Frederick 
had been baptized. 

The Very Rev. Ernest Welch, 
C.P., was the Celebrant. Fr. Luke 
Misset, C.P., Rector of Our Lady of 
Sorrows was the Deacon and Fr. 
Francis A. Power, Pastor of Immacu- 
late Conception Church, Subdeacon. 
Fr. Leonard Gownley, C.P., former 
Rector of the monastery preached an 
eloquent and beautifully appropriate 
eulogy. Besides the religious commu- 
nity of Passionists, a large number 
of religious and diocesan clergy at- 
tended as well as a representative 
body of civic and professional offi- 

May the soul of Father Frederick, 
C.P., Friend and Counsellor, rest in 
peace with God and the Saints. 

Father Ignatius Formica, C.P. 

Father Ignatius of the Sacred 
1 learts (Anthony Formica) died at 
Calvary Hospital, Rome, on Pente- 
cost Sunday, June 9, 1957. His death 
is a pronounced loss to the Congre- 
gation and especially to the Province 
of St. Paul of the Cross. 

Father Ignatius was a priestly 
scholar and gentleman. At the close 
of his Philosophy Course, he was 
sent to Rome for his entire Theolog- 
ical studies. In 1936 he received 
sacerdotal ordination at the hands of 
I lis Eminence, Francesco Cardinal 
Marchetti - Salvaggiani, Vicar of 
Rome, in St. John Latcran. Three 
years of post graduate work in the 
Eternal City brought him degrees in 

Theology and Philosophy. Father Ig- 
natius then taught Philosophy in va- 
rious houses of the Province until 
assigned to the work of Italian mis- 
sions and retreats. 

The 36th General Chapter, con- 
voked in 1952, decreed the erec- 
tion of a special commission to studi- 
ously examine our Holy Rule and 
determine to what extent the exigen- 
cies of the time might seriously sug- 
gest accidental modifications. Father 
Ignatius was appointed to this com- 
mission and returned to Rome. Last 
year he submitted to a physical ex- 
amination because of recurrent sick 
spells and then the dread news be- 
came known that he had fallen a 
victim to cancer. An abdominal op- 
eration not only confirmed the truth 
of the diagnosis but also proved the 
malignancy to be in such an ad- 
vanced stage that no hope could be 
held for his recovery. 

The stricken Passionist, during his 
long months of illness, received de- 
voted care from the Blue Nuns at 
Calvary Hospital, and daily he was 
consoled by his brethren from near- 
by Sts. John and Paul Monastery. 
As his vitality drained away and the 
inexorable terminal pain of cancer 
fastened him to a cross, the saintly 
religious gave great edification in his 
holy and silent suffering. 

Father Ignatius was buried in 
Rome in the Passionist vault of the 
Campo Verano, the great cemetery 
near St. Lawrence outside the walls. 

Rev. Ignotius Formica, C.P. 



On Thursday, June 13, a Solemn 
Mass was sung in his native parish 
church, St. Joseph's, Sharon, Pa. A 
number of our rehgious from St. 
Paul's Monastery, Pittsburgh, attend- 
ed the Mass and the Vicar of St. 
Paul's, Fr. Vincent Frahlick, C.P., 
sang the memorial tribute. He was 
assisted by Fr. Daniel Hunt, C.P. 
Deacon and a nephew of Father Igna- 
tius, James Anthony Wiley, C.P., 
newly ordained Subdeacon from 
Hartford, was the Subdeacon. Sev- 
eral diocesan clergy and a goodly 
number of nuns were present for the 

May the soul of this saintly and 
scholarly Passionist rest in peace with 
God and the Saints. 

Special Roman Appointment 

Fr. Fintan Lombard, C.P., of this 
Province has been assigned to mem- 
bership on the recently formed Study 
Commission of the Congregation. 
This Commission was instituted by 
the General Curia for the purpose of 
adapting the "General Statutes" of 
the "Sedes Sapientia" to our curri- 
culum and of drawing up a "Ratio 
Studiorum" for the entire Congrega- 

Father Fintan has been Lector of 
Canon Law in our various monas- 
teries since his return from post- 
graduate studies in Rome in 1951. 
He holds a J.C.L. from the Lateran 
University School of Law. 

Holy Cross Seminary 

Holy Cross Seminary, Dunkirk, 
N.Y., conferred the degree of Asso- 
ciate in Arts on fifteen graduates of 
the senior class in the Junior College. 
These graduates will join several 
others who have been granted admis- 
sion to the Novitiate in Pittsburgh. 

The Board of Regents of New 
York State granted accreditation in 
1946 to Holy Cross Seminary after 
investigation proved the Seminary 
possessed all necessary qualifications. 
In 1951 the Seminary was permitted 
to confer the degree of Associate in 
Arts after completion of two years 
of college. 

New Subdeacons 

His Excellency, Most Rev. Henry 
J. O'Rrien, D.D., Archbishop of 


Hartford, conferred Subdeaconate 
on eleven of our Students in the 
Choir of Holy Family Monastery, 
West Hartford, on May 28. Very 
Rev. Aloysius O'Malley, C.P., Rec- 
tor, and Rev. Basil Cavanaugh, C.P., 
Vicar, were Archdeacon and Notary 
respectively. Archbishop O'Brien was 
assisted by Frs. Fintan Lombard, 
C.P., and Augustine Paul Hennes- 
sey, C.P. The Auxiliary Bishop of 
Hartford, Most Rev. John F. Hack- 
ett, D.D., as well as several Mon- 
signori and neighboring Pastors 
joined the Community later for 

The new Subdeacons are: Jerome 
McKenna, Pittsburgh, Pa.; James 
Anthony Wiley, Sharon, Pa.; Gerald 
Surette, Dover-Foxcroft, Me.; Her- 
bert Eberly, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Henry 

on Memorial Day, May 30. An esti- 
mated one thousand Confraternity 
members and associates from various 
Eastern areas as well as a large num- 
ber of religious gathered on the spa- 
cious lawns of Our Lady of Sorrows 
Monastery to attend the Pontifical 
Mass offered by His Excellency, 
Most Rev. Christopher Weldon, 
D.D., Bishop of Springfield, and to 
hear his inspiring words on the work 
of the Confraternity. His Excellency, 
Most Rev. Cuthbert O'Gara, C.P., 
exiled Bishop of Yuanling, China, 
together with a number of diocesan 
clergy and visiting Passionists, were 
present. His Excellency, Bishop 
Cuthbert, C.P., later presided at the 
Holy Hour of Reparation and 
preached the sermon. 

The program was arranged under 

Recently ordained subdeacons of Holy Family Monastery, West Hartford appear on TV. 

Free, Jersey City, N.J.; Roger Elliot, 
Wilkes Barre, Pa.; Boniface Cousins, 
Brooklyn, N.Y.; Alban Dooley, West 
Orange, N.J.; Gregory Paul, Nor- 
wood, Mass.; Leonard Murphy, 
Bridgeport, Conn.; Campion Cava- 
naugh, Philadelphia, Pa. 

These Subdeacons will move to 
Union City during the Summer and 
will be ordained at St. Michal's dur- 
ing 1958. 

Confraternity Day 

The Third Annual Confraternity 
Conference took place in Springfield 

the chairmanship of Reverend Ru- 
pert Langenbacher, C.P., Springfield 
Director of the Confraternity. A com- 
bined choir made up of Passionist 
clerics from Springfield, Brighton 
and West Hartford provided the mu- 
sical background under the direction 
of Fr. Fidelis Rice, C.P. 

Special conferences for religious 
and laity began at 3:00 p.m. Lec- 
tures on various aspects of Confra- 
ternity life were given by Fr. Cas- 
sian Yuhas, C.P., Confraternity Di- 
rector of Baltimore; Fr. Peter Quinn, 
C.P., Confraternity Director of Ja- 

The Passionist 


maica, L.I.; Fr. Martin J. Tookcr, 
C.P., Vice-Rector of the Springfield 
monastery; Fr. Kilian McGowan, 
CF., Confraternity Director of 
Union City, N.J.; Fr. James Verity, 
C.P., and Fr. Cornelius Davin, C.P. 
The First Congress was held in 
Hartford in 1955 and the second at 
the Immaculate Conception Mon- 
astery, Jamaica, L.I., on Memorial 
Day of last year. 

Native of Fatima on 
Passionist Program 

Mr. Dominic Rcis, a native of Por- 
tugal near to the spot where Our 
Blessed Lady appeared at Fatima and 
now a citizen of Hoyoke, Mass., was 
the special guest on the Program 
"1 lour of the Crucified" on May 26, 
from Springfield. Flis eyewitness ac- 
count of the "miracle of the sun" 
thrilled the radio listeners as Mr. 
Reis responded to the questions asked 
by Fr. George Nolan, C.P., Assistant 
Director of the Program, in the ra- 
dio interview. 

Mr. Reis was seventeen years of 
age when the great phenomenon oc- 
curred on October 13, 1917. 

Sadness and Gladness 

St. Ann's Monastery, Scranton, 
Pa., experienced a week unique in 
the annals of that Retreat during the 
tiavs from Mav 19 to 25. Fr. Robert 
O'i lara, C.P., of the Pittsburgh Com- 
munity, had just finished his Silver 
Jubilee Mass on Sunday, May 19, 
when word was recei\ed that the 
sister of V. Rev. Clement Buckley, 
C.P., Rector of St. Michael's Mon- 
astery, LInion City, had died. The 
Buckley homestead was directly 
across the street from the monastery. 
Two days later, Father Clement suf- 
fered another bereavement in the 
sudden death of his elderly father. 
A double funeral was then planned 
for Friday. 

On Wednesday, May 22, Fr. Xa- 
vier Welch, C.P., of the Scranton 
monastery celebrated a Jubilee Mass 
and later, the Pastor, Fr. Alfred 
Weaver, C.P., olTcrcd a Solemn 
I iigh Mass in St. Ann's Church. 
Fater that same day, Mrs. Catherine 
Carroll, the mother of Fathers Alban, 
Hugh and Tuonan Carroll, C.P., died 
suddenly. She also rcsidetl across 
Irom the monastery, only two houses 

August 1, 1957 

from Father Clement's father, Mr. 
John Buckley. Father Ronan had 
just enjoyed a Community Mass and 
Jubilee Dinner with his home com- 
munity at Holy Family Monastery, 
Hartford, when he received the un- 
believable news. 

The double funeral for Father 
Clement's father and sister was held 
at St. Ann's Monastery Church, on 
Friday, May 24. Assisting Father 
Clement were V. Rev. Rupert 
Langenstein, C.P., Rector of St. 
Ann's Monastery, Deacon, and Fr. 
Alfred Duffy, C.P. of St. Michael's, 
Subdeacon. His Excellency, Bishop 
Cuthbert O'Gara, C.P., who is resi- 
dent at St. Michael's, Union City, 
presided and gave the final absolu- 

The following morning, Saturday, 
the three Passionist sons of Mrs. 
Carroll officiated at her Funeral 
Mass. She was one of the world's 
privileged mothers to have three sons 
in the priesthood, in the same Order 
and in the same Province. 

Sunday, May 26, Fr. Ronan Car- 
roll, C.P., celebrated a Solemn High 
Mass in honor of his Silver Jubilee. 
He was assisted by his brothers, Fa- 
thers Alban and Hugh, C.P. His 
mother had joyfully anticipated that 
day but God had other designs. Her 
priestly sons went through with the 
plans for the day, knowing that it 
would have pleased her to do so. 

St. Ann's Miracles 

Dr. Henri Bon, Director of the 
Medical Clinic at Lourdes has cited 
two reported cures at St. Ann's 
Shrine, Scranton, Pa., as worthy of 
inclusion in his new work, Le Mi- 
racle devant La Science. Dr. Bon was 
in communication with the Superiors 
of the monastery and he has includ- 
ed the replies to his questions in this 
significant work. 

Springfield Cemetery 

V. Rev. Luke Misset, C.P., Rec- 
tor of Our Lady of Sorrows Monas- 
tery, West Springfield, blessed and 
dedicated the new community ceme- 
tery on the grounds of the monas- 
tery, April 24. The entire community 
walked in solemn procession from 
the house to the site wherein future 
deceased Passionists would await the 
Resurrection. Fr. Frederick Corcoran, 

Confraternity of the Passion Day, West Spring- 
field, Mass. (Upper) Very Rev. Luke Misset, 
C.P., Rector, greeting Bishop Weldon and pil- 
grims. (Middle) Procession to outdoor alter. 
(Lower) Bishop Cuthbert O'Gara, C.P. and 
Bishop Weldon in procession. 

C.P., who died on April 23 was the 
first religious to be buried in the new 


The Annual Meeting of the Supe- 
riors of the Proxince took place at 
Shelter Island Irom June 10 to June 
13. . . . Fr. Roger Gannon, C.P., gave 
scxeral addresses to TV in I lartford 
during Lent and I loly Week, with 
the Students of Holy Family Monas- 
tery apjiearing with him. . . . The 
Sign received an Award for Non- 
fiction anti one for Fiction at the re- 
cent Catholic Press /VsscKiation Con- 
vention held in St. Louis. ... Ft. 



New Retreat House and Entrance, Our Lady of Sorrows Monastery, West Springfield, 


Martin J. Tooker, C.P., Vicar of Our 
Lady of Sorrows Monastery, was 
among the 375 priests who attended 
the Second Diocesan Synod held in 
St. Michael's Cathedral, Springfield, 
on June 10. . . . Frs. Michael Rausch, 
C.P., Xavier Gonter, C.P., and Hya- 
cinth Sullivan, C.P., observed their 
Fortieth Anniversary of Ordination 
on May 30 at St. Michael's Monas- 
tery, Union City, the sole survivors 
of the Class of 1917. . . . Fr. Aloy- 
sius McDonough, C.P., Provincial 
Prefect of Studies and Editor of 
"The Sign Post," was elected Secre- 
tary of the Catholic Theological So- 
ciety for the tenth consecutive term 
at the Twelfth Annual Convention 
held in Philadelphia, June 24 to 
June 26. 

Changes and Transfers 

The annual seasonal changes and 
transfers reached a new high in this 
Year of Grace 1957. Unusual circum- 
stances were responsible for this rec- 

The Board of Regents of New 
York State has granted a Charter 
whereby our Students on completion 
of their Philosophical Course will re- 
ceive the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 
The commodious Monastery of the 
Immaculate Conception, Jamaica, 
L.I., now possesses the necessary 
qualifications for obtaining this de- 
gree, especially an approved philo- 
sophical library. The Provincial Curia 

has set aside the Jamaica monastery 
for the final two years of Philosophy. 

Likewise, other houses have been 
designated as permanent Houses of 
Study. First Philosophy will be in 
Hartford; First Theology in Brigh- 
ton; Second Theology in Baltimore; 
Third Theology in Scranton, and 
Fourth Theology in Union City, 
while the Sacred Eloquence Year wall 
continue at West Springfield. 

The Lectors and Directors for the 
current academic year are as follows: 

Hartford (Ist Philosophy) Frs. 
Justin Mulcahy, Cassian Yuhas and 

Ronan Callahan. Fr. Cronan Regan, 

Jamaica (2nd and 3rd Philoso- 
phy) Frs. John J. Reardon, Justinian 
Gilligan, Venard Byrne, Norman De- 
meck, Michael J. Brennan, Emman- 
uel Gardon. Fr. Declan Maher, Di- 

Brighton (1st Theology) Frs. 
Aquinas McGurk, Kevin McCloskey, 
Neil Sharkey, Norbert Herman. Fr. 
David Roberts, Director. 

Baltimore (2nd Theology) Frs. 
Silvan Rouse, Victor Donovan, Rich- 
ard F. Leary, Myles Whelan. Fr. 
Peter Hallisey, Director. 

Scranton (3rd Theology) Frs. Ber- 
tin Farrell, Aidan Mahoney, Colum- 
kille Regan. Fr. Harold Reusch, Di- 

Union City (4th Theology) Frs. 
Richard Kugelman, Nicholas Gill. 
Fr. Columba Moore, Director. 

Springfield (Sacred Eloquence) 
Fr. Fidelis Rice, Lector; Fr. Kilian 
McGowan, Director. 

Fr. Roger Gannon will teach Eng- 
lish for the First Semester in Jamaica 
and in Brighton during the Second 
Semester. Fr. Cyril Schweinberg will 
teach Music and English in Scranton 
for the First Semester and in Union 
City for the Second Semester. 

Seventeen members of the Sacred 
Eloquence Class were disbanded and 
received the following appointments: 
Frs. Timothy Fitzgerald, Patrick Mc- 

Chapel of St. Joseph the Worker, new Retreat House, Our Lady of Sorrows Monastery, 

West Springfield, Mass. 


The Passionistj 

Donough, Damian Towey, Norbcrt 
Dorscy, to Rome for Post Graduate 
studies. Frs. Aloysius Fahy, Martin 
Grey, Alan Gavanaugh, to the Gath- 
olie University, Porice, Porto Rico, 
tor special studies in Spanish. Fr. 
Brian Rogan to the Gatholic Univer- 
sity, Washington, and Fr. Albert Pel- 
licane to Cieorgetown University for 
Italian Studies. Father Raymond Pul- 
vino to Mother of Mercy Mission, 
Washington, N.G. The remaining 
seven were transferred to Toronto: 
Frs. William Davin, Francis Uanlon, 
Kilian McNamara, Kevin Gasey, 
Nicholas Zitz, Eugene Lcso and 
John F. McMillan. 

Xavier Gonter, Union Gity to St. 
Mary's; Athanasius Drohan, Union 
Gity to Springfield; Benedict Mc- 
Namara, Jamaica to Riverdale; Alex- 
ander Hoffman, Jamaica to Brighton; 
Austin Busby, The Sign to Unioil 
Gity; Edmund McMahon, Scranton 
to The Sign; Justin Garvey, from 
Ghina furlough to Scranton; Marcel- 
lus White, from Ghina furlough to 

Damian Rail, Hartford to Balti- 
more; Jude Mead, Hartford to 
Springfield; Hilary Sweeney, Hart- 
ford to St. Mary's; Malachy Hegerty, 
Jamaica to St. Mary's; Terence Bro- 
dic, Baltimore to Springfield; Bene 



Brighton to I lartford; Robert Ehrne, 
from Gatholic University to Holy 
Cross; James F. Follard, from the 
Navy to I lartford; Joachim Garrigan, 
Washington, N.G., to Baltimore; 
Berchmans McHugh, Greenville, 
N-C., to Springfield; Gerald Ryan, 
New Bern, N.G., to Toronto; Law- 
rence Mullin, Springfield to Union 
Gity; Paulinus Gepp, Pittsburgh to 
St. Mary's; Glaude Ennis, Baltimore 
to Scranton; Ghristopher Gzachor, 
Scranton to Baltimore; Gerard Kee- 
ney, Toronto to Scranton. 

Changes mnong the Brothers: Brs. 
Paul J. Morgan, St. Mary's to Balti- 
more; Bernardine Garmassi, Balti- 
more to Brighton; Xavier Vitacolon- 
na, Pittsburgh to Hartford; Henry 
Gavanaugh, Jamaica to Pittsburgh; 
Fd'^'ard Blai--, Scranton to Jamaica; 
Virgil Pasi, Union Gity to Scranton; 
Gonrad Federspiel, Union Gity to 
FIolv Gross; Vincent Gunningham, 
Holy Gross to St. Marv's. 


(Continued from page il8) 

Fr. Roderick Misey from Detroit, 
to retreat master, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Fr. Joel Gromowski from Mexico to 
Sierra Madre, Galif., as vicar. Fr. 
Howard Ralenkotter from retreat 
master Cincinnati to Detroit, Mich. 

Newly Ordained Priests, St. Paul of the Cross Province, in St. Michael's Monastery 
Church, Union City, N.J., by Bishop Cuthbert O'Garo, C.P. 

British West Indies: Frs. Basil 
Bauer, Ernan Johnston and Angelo 
Jacavone will join the Passionists 
working in the Diocese of Kingston, 
Jamaica, B.W.I. Fathers Basil and 
Ernan are former Ghina missioners. 

Cjtratcs: Fr. Lawrence Bellew 
from Jamaica to Dunkirk as /Xssistant 
Parish Priest replacing Fr. Ernan 
Johnston. Fr. Julius Durkan from 
Jamaica to Baltimore to replace Fr. 
Gerald I lyncs who becomes Voca- 
tional Director, Brighton. 

Other transfers: Frs. William Hard 
ing, Ri\erdale to Baltimore; 1 imothy 
McDermott, 1 lartford to Pittsburgh; 

diet J. Mawn, Baltimore to Retreat 
Master in Hartford; Stephen Has- 
lasch. Holy Gross to Greenville, 
N.G.; Maurus Schenck, Toronto to 
St. Mary's; Jude Dowling, Toronto 
to /\rmy Chaplain; John F. Mc- 
Laughlin, Toronto to St. Mary's; Cyp- 
rian Regan, Toronto to New Bern, 
N.G.; Regis Eichmiller, Toronto to 
Pittsburgh; Justinian Manning, To- 
.ronto to Baltimore as Vocational Di 

Boniface Hendricks, Toronto to 
Jamaica as Assistant Chaplain, Creed- 
mor; Germain I leilman, Ciermany to 
Scranton; Thomas A. Sullivan, 

August 1, 1957 




Visit Cardinal Wyszynski 

In the absence of Father General, 
Very Rev. Frs. Ignatius and Boni- 
face, General Consultots; together 
with Rev. Fr. Alfred, General Pro- 
curator, payed a formal visit to His 
Eminence Stephen Cardinal Wszyn- 
ski, Archbishop of Gnesa and Var- 
savia, Primate of Poland. 

The Cardinal spoke of the Passion- 
ists in Poland and expressed his joy 
in having one of our houses in his 
diocese and said that a request for 
a second foundation in the diocese 
had been made. He said that the only 
possible vi^ay for this new foundation 
would be if tljle Fathers would take 
a parish in Varsavia. 

His Eminence stressed the deep 
religious spirit of the people in Po- 
land, which is shown by the large 
number of vocations. The seminaries 
and novitiates are over crowded. He 
expressed his regret at not being able 
to visit Sts. John and Paul while in 

Lay Retreat House 

In the past three months quite a 
few laymen have been making re- 
treats at Sts. John and Paul. One of 
the groups was from a strongly Com- 
munistic center. They were persuad- 
ed to make the retreat by the Cath- 
olic Action group of the parish with- 
in whose limits the Mother House 
is located. 

Several groups of seminarians, es- 
pecially from the English College 
and the Fathers of Mercy, made 
their retreat at Sts. John and Paul 

in preparation for ordination. The 
first clergy retreat of the year was 
held from June 9 to 15'. 


Lent at Scala Santa 

On the Fridays during Lent 
crowds of people can be seen going 
up the stairs at the Retreat of Scala 
Santa, Province of the Presentation, 
Rome. On these days they also use 
the two side Holy Stairs which are 
indulgenced during Lent. 

Every Friday during Lent Masses 
are said in the Retreat continuously 
from 4:30 A.M. until 12:00 o'clock 
noon. There are always confessors 
available for the many people who 
come to the church. On Friday eve- 
ning during Lent there is a Sermon 
on the Passion, Way of the Cross 
and Benediction of the Blessed Sac- 
rament by a Cardinal. This year the 
Benediction was given His Emi- 
nence, Benedict Aloysius Cardinal 
Masella, Prefect of the Congrega- 
tion of the Sacraments. 

Centanary of the Birth 
of Righetto 

Large crowds gathered at the Mon- 
astery of Madonna della Stella, to 
celebrate the centenary of the birth 
of Righetto Cionchi. From early 
dawn till after noon Masses were 
celebrated continually. Confessions 
were heard during the celebration of 
the Masses and the number of Com- 
munions of that day broke all pre- 
vious records. Over 4000 people re- 
ceived Holy Communion. 

Righetto Cionchi was born April 
17, 1857. Soon after his birth the 
parents made their home in Monte- 
falco, which is walking distance from 
the Monastery of Madonna della 
Stella. In 1861 while Righetto was 
shepherding a small flock near a 
small chapel of the Blessed Mother, 
Mary appeared to him and gave him 
this simple message: "Be good." She 
appeared to him several times with 
the same message. During her last 
apparition she asked that a church 
be built on that spot in her honor, 
and promised to grant many favors 
to those who would visit it. 

In consequence of the many favors 
granted to the people who visited 
this chapel, a church was soon built 
and dedicated under the title of "Ma- 
donna della Stella." It was under this 
title that our Blessed Mother was 
venerated in the parish church of St. 
Luke in Montefalco which. was the 
church that the Righetto family at- 
tended. In 1884 the church was con- 
fided to the Passionist Fathers of the 
Pieta Province. The church of Ma- 
donna della Stella is near Spoleto, 

At the age of 20 Righetto entered 
the order of "Somaschi" and perse- 
vered until his death. May 31, 1923. 
Then, on May 1, 1931 his remains 
were transferred to the Church of 
Madonna della Stella. 

One of the features of the celebra- 
tion was the dedication of the monu- 
ment at the entrance of the road lead- 
ing to the church. The monument 
represented Righetto inviting all to 
go to the Blessed Mother under her 
title "Madonna della Stella" and ask- 
ing them to obey her message: "Be 

After the blessing of the monu- 
ment by the Bishop, His Honor Sen- 
ator Salari gave a talk on the ap- 
parition and on our Blessed Mother. 
Salari had good reason to speak about 
our Blessed Mother for as a child he 
had been unable to speak. His moth- 
er took him to the Church of Ma- 
donna della Stella and prayed for 
him to receive the gift of speech. 
After she returned home with him, 
he began to speak for the first time. 

Kindergarden and Parish 
Hall Opened 

A dream of long standing was 


The Passionist 

realized on April 25 for the people 
around our monastery of Madonna 
della Rocche, Molare, when the new 
kindergarden and parish hall were 
formally opened. The provincial of 
Immaculate Heart Province, Very 
Rev. Fr. Primo, C.P., offered Holy 
Mass during which he gave First 
Holy Communion to the children of 
the new kindergarden. At 2:30 in 
the afternoon the Bishop confirmed 
the First Communicants and then 
dedicated the new kindergarden and 
parish hall. 

The Monastery of Madonna delle 
Rocche at Molare is not too far from 
the town of Ovada, the birthplace of 
St. Paul of the Cross. 

On May 1st the Monastery was 
host to the Seminarians of the dio- 
cese of Acqui who celebrated Moth- 
er's Day there. All of the Seminar- 
ians with their Mothers were present 
for the Solemn High Mass in the 
Monastery Church and for the ser- 
mon preached by the Rector. A con- 
ference was given by a Salesian Fa- 
ther for the Mothers. They also saw 
a movie on seminary life. 

Former War Prisoner in U.S. 
Ordained Passionist 

While still a prisoner of war in 
the United States, Fr. Giampaolo 
Vaccaro, C.P., visited St. Paul of the 
Cross Monastery in Detroit and met 
the Passionists. On the 28th of April 
he was ordained a Passionist priest by 
the Archbishop of Amorio in the 
small church of S. Maria del Sasso 
in Caravate, Immaculate Heart of 
Mary Province. 

The history of Father Giampaolo's 
vocation to the Passionist way of life 
is very interesting. In 1940 when he 
was 19 years old, he volunteered for 
the Italian Army. He was promoted 
to a sergeant in 1941 and then sent 
to North Africa, where he took part 
in many dangerous battles. English 
motor troops captured him in 1942. 
After three months of captivity and 
having been in 1 1 prisoner of war 
camps, he was handed over to the 
American Army. 

With 4,000 other war prisoners, he 
left North Africa for America and 
arrived at New York. From here he 
was sent to Camp Clark in Nevada. 
Here in the "solitude" of a prisoner 
of war camp the hidden germs of a 

vocation were fostered. The death of 
his father and mother caused him to 
reflect on the spiritual life. 

He remembered the Passionist 
Missionaries who preached the mis- 
sions in his home town. His military 
chaplain, an Italian prisoner priest, 
helped him to meet the Passionists 
in Detroit. Fr. Firmian Parenza, C.P., 
now director of students at Sacred 
Heart Retreat, Louisville, Ky., wrote 
him many letters. He was permitted 
to visit the monastery in Detroft. 

After 28 months in America, Ser- 
geant Vaccaro returned to Italy in 
1945. He soon asked to be admitted 
to the preparatory seminary and was 
accepted by the Provincial, Very Rev. 
Fr. Geremia, now Bishop Pesce. At 
the first Mass celebrated by Father 
Giampaolo there were present many 
of his former prison and army com- 

On the same day that Father Gi- 
ampaolo was ordained, there were 
two other deacons of Immaculate 
Heart of Mary Province ordained. 
They were Fr. Igino Bagnati, C.P., 
from the diocese of Novara and Fr. 
Paolo Baggio, C.P. from the diocese 
of Vicenza. 

New Buildings 

The Province of Immaculate Heart 
of Mary has a large building pro- 
gram under way now. The new 
house of philosophy at Mondovi is 
almost completed. Besides being a 
house of philosophy this new build- 
ing will be a Preparatory School for 
Lay Brothers. At present they have 
almost 20 boys from 12 to 16 years 
of age who desire to be Passionist 

The new large church of S. Pan- 
crazio at Pianezza near Turin has 
also been completed. During the 
months of May and June great 
crowds of people from all parts of 
Piemonte visit this Shrine. 

Because of the urgent need for a 
new Preparatory Seminary, the Prov- 
ince began another building at Cal- 
cinate, not far from the present Re- 
treat of Basella, which is in the most 
Catholic province oi Bergama. This 
area supplies a large number of vo- 
cations. The building is almost com- 
pleted and it is hoped that in a few 
months it will be ready for use. Dur- 
ing the recent Provincial Chapter, 

all the Capitular Fathers visited the 
new building. 

The corner stone for a new re- 
treat in Verona-Sezano was blessed 
by Mons. Peruzzo, C.P., Archbishop 
of Agrigento. A part of the Minor 
Preparatory Seminary will be located 


Shrine of Si. Gemma in Madrid 

It is estimated that some 20,000 
people visited the Shrine of St. Gem- 
ma in Madrid on her feast day, May 
14. Part of the ceremony was car- 
ried by the radio and television sta- 
tions of Madrid. In preparation for 

Fr, Modesto Seoone, C.P., Superior of 
Sanctuary of St. Gemma in Madrid re- 
ceiving the relic of the Saint from Bishop 

the feast a sort of "novena" of 14 
days was held from the 1st of May 
to the feast day itself. This devotion 
to St. Gemma is gradually becoming 
nation v\'ide as is evidenced by the 
thousands of pilgrims who come to 
the church each years to ask for fa- 
\ors through the intercession of St. 

This year a large relic of St. Gem- 
ma was obtained Irom Lucca and 
triumphantly carried into the shrine 

August 1, J957 


Chapel of St. Gemmo in Madrid, Spain. 

on May 5 by the Auxiliary Bishop 
of Madrid. The rehquary which con- 
tains this rehc is gold and silver plate 
and very artistically designed. This 
reliquary is made in the form of our 
Passionist Sign and was designed by 
Fr. Modesto Seoane, C.P., because 
it expresses better the central idea 
of Gemma's life, to be crucified with 

This devotion to St. Gemma in 
Spain has made such rapid progress 
because of the wonderful work done 
by Fr. Modesto Seoane. Father Mo- 
desto was brought back from Chile 
in order to help spread this devotion 
to St. Gemma. While in Chile, Fa- 
ther Modesto build a shrine in honor 
of Gemma in Santiago and encour- 
aged the people to make pilgrimages 
on her feast day. 

It was during the years 1948 to 
1954 that the new church in honor 
of St. Gemma was build in Madrid. 
It is the first of its kind in Spain and 
is build in modern artistic design. 
Above the main altar there is a very 
large statue of St. Gemma carved in 


On June 6 three Passionists from 
Chile made their perpetual profes- 
sion in the Monastery Church at 
Mieres, Precious Blood Province, 
Spain. During the ceremony the Pro- 
vincial of Precious Blood Province 

was assisted by Father Modesto, 
founder and first superior of the Sem- 
inary of Los Lirios, and present su- 
perior of the Sanctuary of St. Gem- 
ma, and by Father Mario, director 
of students. 

In our picture the three newly pro- 
fessed have the appearance of good 
novices, with downcast eyes, serious 
and composed countenances which 
the gravity of the ceremony demands. 
But, "don't think they are as somber 
as they look. Carpento on the left is 
a phenomenal cartonist who can 
quickly draw a funny carton. Ca- 
brera in the center can manage a 
saw as easily as a tract in meta- 
physics. While James on the right 
can sing any of Chile's popular songs 
with all the grace and wit of a na- 

The Passionist house of studies in 
Mieres is like a mosaic piece with 
three basic colors; four students from 
Chile; three from Portugal and 26 
from Spain. It is something like an 
international house of studies and 
the students work very well together. 

Missions in Diocese of Zaragoza 

The greatest field of labor for the 
Fathers of Holy Family Province, 
Spain, is without doubt the Arch- 
diocese of Zaragoza. In the last 30 
years the Passionists of this Province 
have preached missions in almost 
every town and village of that large 

territory. In many of these places 
they have preached more than one 
mission. Their missionary work is 
very much appreciated by the people 
and their pastors. 

Recently His Excellency Lorenzo 
Beriacertua, formerly Auxiliary Bish- 
op of Zaragoza and now Bishop of 
Siguenza, earnestly asked the Fathers 
of Holy Family Province to give mis- 
sions in his diocese. But, notwith- 
standing their great friendship with 
His Excellency and their sincere 
wish to help him, the Provincial 
could not send him any missionaries 
because all of them were engaged in 
the diocese of Zaragoza. 

50 Missionaries Preach 
in Saniander 

Fifty missionaries from all parts of 
the Province of the Precious Blood at 
the invitation of the venerable Bish- 
op Don Jose Egunio y Trecu came to 
Santanter, the capital of summer va- 
cation resorts in order to preach the 
parish missions. The missions lasted 
from the 3rd to the 14th of April. 

The missionaries were entrusted 
with four centers in the area and 
among them ' was the Cathedral 
Church. The great faith of the peo- 
ple of Santander was shown by their 
attendance at the missions and the 
special devotions that were held. 
Worthy of mention was the joyful re- 
ception given to the relics of the 
Cross. These are the greatest relics 

Passionist Students from Chile, 
their perpetual profession in 



The. Passionist 

of the Cross in the world and were 
hrought from the monastery of Santo 
Toribio de Liebana in order to have 
the most outstanding place of honor 
during the missions. 

At the public way of the Cross that 
took place at 8:30 on Friday eve- 
ning, an estimated 40,000 people 
took part. Among this number there 
were many students from the col- 
leges and universities. 


On their last day at Mass, the 
Chaplain promised them that every 
Sunday after the principal Mass a 
Pater and Ave would be recited that 
they would persevere in their voca- 
tion. On the Sundays when the Stu- 
dents were free, tours were arranged 
for them to different parts of Austria. 
Besides the Passionist Students, there 
were other groups of students help- 
ing in the construction work. 

•v ,tp 


Missionaries of Precious Blood Province, Spain, who preached the general mission of 



C.P. Students Build 
for Refugees 

LInder the supcrxision ol regular 
construction men, philosophy and 
theology students of St. Gabriel's 
Province, Belgium, built new cot- 
tages for the refugees of Russian per- 
secution. Very soon after their exams 
they left in trucks for a 20 hour ride 
to StadI Paura, Austria. 

While living in a camji, they 
worked eight hours a day and six 
days a week for four weeks, tearing 
down delapidatcd barracks and lay- 
ing cement foundations for new cot- 
tages for the refugees. In that par- 
ticular camp there were some 1200 
refugees who had been turned out 
of Russia and Jugoslavia. Although 
the conditions were pitiful, the poor 
people were sympathetic and did 
their best to help in the work and 
show their gratitude to the students. 

AiicusT 1, 1957 


Passionist Sisters Help 
in Convert Work 

/\t a national Young Christian Stu- 
dent Conference held in London, 
which meets annually to sharpen the 
Sword of the Spirit in the Lay Apos- 
tolate, Bishop Beck spoke to four of 
the Passionist Sisters from Mount St. 
Joseph, Bolton, Lancashire and em- 
]ihasi/ed how much he counted on 
their cooperation in a new all-out 
coinert eflort he hoped to start in his 
diocese this year. 

I le knew that the Sisters would 
cooperate and attempt to make Bol- 
ton the first all-Catholic town in 
England, since the conversion of 
Lngland is an ideal \ery close to the 
heart of our Passionist Sisters, hand 
ed down to them from their Passion- 
ist lounder Father Caudentius and 
his coadjutor, Father Ignatius Spen 

The Passionist Sisters have a 
school in Bolton where they teach 
over 500 girls up to University level. 
In March there were ten novices who 
made there religious profession and 
six postulants who received the reli- 
gious habit in the Chapel of the Pas- 
sionist Sisters. 


New Rector of Mount Argus 

Because of sickness and following 
the suggestion of his doctor. Very 
Rev. Fr. Kevin Matthews, C.P., ten- 
dered his resignation as rector of 
Mount Argus, which office he held 
since May 1956. The news was re- 
ceived with regret by the Province 
of St. Patrick since Father Kevin is 
a comparatively young man. 

Very Rev. Fr. Bernard O'Donnell, 
C.P. was elected to be rector of 
Mount Argus in his place. Father 
Bernard, who is just 36 years of age, 
is the second youngest rector of 
Mount Argus since the illustrious 
first rector of the retreat, Fr. Paul 
Mary Pakenham. Father Paul Mary 
died at the age of 36 in 1857. 

Father Bernard is a graduate of the 
National University of Ireland. After 
his ordination in 1949 he taught 
Latin in the Juniorate. He later be- 
came director of students at Mount 


Fr. Benignus Morrin, C.P., cele- 
brated the silver jubilee of his ordi- 
nation on June 5th. Father Benignus 
was ordained at the National Sem- 
inary, Maynooth, on June 5th, 1932, 
ha\ing obtained there the Degree of 
Bachelor of Science. I le entered the 
Passionist Novitiate, The Graan, 
Enniskillen, the following year and 
was professed on September 17th, 

For the past 22 years Father Benig- 
nus has been teaching at the Juni 


Missionary Parishes 

There are now two distinct Mis- 
sionary Parishes in the Swedish Mis- 
sion which was just recently raised 
to the status of a Missionary Region. 



The one is St. Mikaels Parish and is 
centered at Vaxjo and the other is 
St. Frankiskus Parish with the main 
church at Jonkoping. 

The number of CathoKcs in the 
Vaxjo area fluctuates between 250 
and 300 and they are scattered in 
more or less small groups throughout 
the 17,063 sq. km. that make up 
the parochial territory. They are, as 
Father Dominic, Superior of the Mis- 
sion, reports, "Mostly of the lapsed 
kind," and the difficulty of minister- 
ing to them is further increased by 
the fact that they do not form a sta- 
ble population. There are three per- 
manent Mass Centers served from 
Vaxjo— Kalmar, Oskarshamn, and 

Kalmar, which lies about 11 miles 
to the east of Vaxjo is the biggest 
and most flourishing town in this 
parish with a population of 28,000. 
Mass is said regularly once a month 
in Kalmar where a room in a hotel 
is hired for the purpose. The attend- 
ance averages about 25 out of a pos- 
sible 60 Catholics in the town. 

Oskarshamn is 86 miles east of 
Vaxjo and has a population of 1 1,000, 
mostly engaged in industry and the 
work of the port. Catholics are few 
but an average of perhaps 12 attend 
the Mass which is said there once a 

Karlskrona is one of the important 
naval bases in Sweden. It is situated 
outside the limits of the Missionary 
Region. However, by a separate 
agreement with the Diocese of Stock- 
holm our Passionist Fathers attend 
to the spiritual needs of the few 

In Vaxjo itself the number of 
Catholics remains about 60, but the 
practice of religious duties amongst 
them is far from fervent. No more 
than 20 or 25 attend Sunday Mass, 
and this number includes some Swe- 
dish non-Catholics. 

Of the general work in the Vaxjo 
district Father Dominic reports that 
"during last summer five children 
made their First Communion. Three 
others had to be deferred owing to 
the fact of their not attending Mass 
at all or the impossibility of giving 
them Mass. . . . During the winter 
19 children were given weekly cate- 
chism. Apart from three of them, 
they live deep in the country and 

the priest spends five afternoons a 
week getting around to them— a tour 
of 400 miles." 

A letter from Father Killian de- 
scribing the Christmas season gives 
a vivid picture of what the Mission- 
ary's work in Sweden involves. He 
writes: "On Christmas Eve Father 
Dominic and I set out for the vari- 
ous Mass Centers. Father Dominic 
said evening Mass in Ronenby for 
the Hungarians (about 100 Cath- 
olics) and returned to Vaxjo for 
Midnight Mass. I went to Kalmar 
where I said Midnight Mass in the 
Hotel Vitt. There were between 30 
and 40 present, including about 
eleven Swedes, three of whom are 
Catholics. After a few hours sleep 
I left the next morning for Borg- 
holm where I said Mass for the Hun- 
garians. There were about 160 pres- 
ent, all Catholics. It was a wonder- 
ful experience and very inspiring. 
The Hungarians sang right through 
the Mass. . . . They are charming 
people and very happy in spite of 
what they have been through. . . . 
Perhaps, in God's Providence, they 
are destined to play a big part in the 
conversion of Sweden. ... I said my 
third Mass in the evening at the 
home of a fervent Swedish convert 
in Kalmar. I arrived back in Vaxjo 
at eight o'clock on Christmas eve- 

The reference to the Hungarians 
is interesting. There are some 4,500 
in Sweden as a whole. How many 
of these are in the Passionist Mis- 
sionary Region is not yet known, nor 
is it possible to judge how far they 
will settle and become integrated in 
Swedish life. It is a situation which 
the Missionaries will watch carefully 
and turn to the best advantage of the 

The new territory which was add- 
ed to the Mission since the signing 
of the contract with the Diocese of 
Stockholm last year comprises the 
already existing parish of St. Francis 
of Assisi, Jonkoping, which extends 
over an area of some 11,500 sq. km. 
Father Gerard has been in charge of 
this parish since last September. 

The town of Jonkoping with its 
sister town of Huskvarna nearby is 
one of Sweden's flourishing and im- 
portant industrial areas. The popula- 
tion of the two towns combined is 

59,000. It is not possible to say ex- 
actly how many of these are Cath- 
olics, but there is an average attend- 
ance of between 80 and 90 at Sun- 
day Mass in the chapel. 

It is too soon yet for the Mission- 
aries to determine where permanent 
Mass Centers will be set up in the 
Jonkoping district. There are at 
least six outside places where Mass 
has been said since the Fathers took 
over this district. 

Brother Gabriel 

Besides looking after the material 
wants of the Missionaries in Sweden, 
Brother Gabriel has contributed im- 
measurably to the prestige and apos- 
tolate of the Passionists in Sweden. 

The Lourdes Grotto which he 
built in the garden at Vaxjo has 
proved a silent but effective apos- 
tolate in itself, standing as it does 
in view of a people who have long 
forgotten and ignored the Mother of 
God. Every year, about the Feast of 
the Immaculate Heart of Mary, an 
open air service and sermon are held 
at the Grotto to which many of the 
local non-Catholics are attracted. So 
renowned has this grotto become 
amongst the small Catholic popula- 
tion of Sweden that the Briggetine 
Nuns at Vadstena, the cradle of St. 
Brigitta's Order, were inspired to 
have a similar grotto erected in their 
convent grounds. 

Brother Gabriel spent some weeks 
at Vadstena last year and in that 
time constructed a large and very 
beautiful grotto there almost single- 
handed. It will go down in history 
that the re-emergence of public 
shrines to our Blessed Lady in Swe- 
den is due through Brother Gabriel 
to the Passionists. 

Conversion Work 

It remains true that a more direct 
approach to Swedish non-Catholics is 
desirable and necessary, and Father 
Dominic, as Superior of the Mission, 
is concerned with this problem. It is 
inevitable that the first years should 
have been devoted to the task of 
establishing a foot-hold in Sweden 
and making the presence of the 
Church felt in this Missionary Re- 
gion after 400 years. And that task 
has been most effectively accom- 
pHshed by the efforts of the Mission- 


The Passionist 

aries. But now that the position of 
the Church is clarified and consoli- 
dated by the signing of the contract 
at the end of last year, a new phase 
of Missionary activity can begin. 


An Eye to the Future 

Recently a convention of all Mas- 
ters of Novices was held in Poland. 
During the convention the problem 
of vocations was discussed, especially 
in view of the fact that all the Prep 
Schools had been closed. But a hope 
was expressed that they would soon 
be able to open again. 

During the first half of 1957 our 
Fathers of the Vice Province of the 
Assumption were busy preaching 
missions and retreats. From the Re- 
treat of Sadowie the Fathers gave 19 
public parish retreats and one mis- 
sion while the other retreats of the 
Vice Province did an equal amount 
of preaching. 

Plans are also under way for new 
Passionist Foundations in Varsavia 
and also in Lodz. It is also hoped 
that a new church can be built in 
Sadowie since it is now too small for 
the growing congregation. Recently 
this church was redecorated and a 
new chalice was spontaneously gi\'en 
to the Fathers by the railroad work- 
ers of the Parish. 


First Laymen's Retreat House 

At the invitation of the provincial, 
Very Rev. Fr. Xavier, llis Eminence, 
Cardinal Gilroy, Archbishop of Syd- 
ney, blessed and laid the foundation 
stone of the first Passionist retreat 
house for laymen in 1 loly Spirit 
Province, Australia. 

Assisting His Eminence at the 
ceremony were I lis Grace, the Arch- 
bishop of /\delaide ,and his newly- 
appointed Auxiliary, Most Rev. James 
Gleeson, D.D.; Most Rev. T. M. 
Mox, D.D., Bishop of Wilcannia- 
Forbes; Most Rev. J. OLoughlin, 
M.S.C.. D.D., Bishop of Darwin and 
Most Rev. Brian Gallagher, D.D., 
Bishop of Port Pirie. Many of the 
clergy, both secular and regular, and 
over 2,000 laity were also present. 

The rector of St. Paul's Retreat, 
Very Rev. Fr. Alphonsus, presided 
and extended to everyone present a 
most cordial welcome. A special vote 
of thanks to His Eminence was pro- 
posed by Very Rev. Fr. Xavier, pro- 
vincial. The Cardinal expressed his 
delight in being able to be present 
and in an eloquent address stressed 
the importance of the lay retreat 

During the same ceremony Car- 
dinal Gilroy, also laid and blessed 
the foundation stone of the new ad- 
dition to St. Paul's Retreat. Although 
it is not yet known how long it will 
take to build the Retreat House and 
the addition to the Monastery, it is 

while Father Casimir presided in the 

Father Casimir is the second Aus- 
tralian-born Passionist to reach the 
Golden Jubilee of his Priesthood. 
The first was Rev. Fr. Reginald Lum- 
mer, who for many years now has 
been a member of the community of 
Mater Dolorosa Retreat, Sierra Ma- 
dre, Calif., U.S.A. 

Father Casimir was born at Wind- 
sor, N.S.W. on February 12, 1874. 
Before he entered the Passionist Con- 
gregation, Father taught school. As 
there was no no\'itiate in Australia at 
the time, he was sent to England 
where he made his Novitiate. After 
his profession he completed his 

Procession returning from blessing of corner stone for new additions to St. Paul's Re- 
treat, Glen Osmond, South Australia, by Cardinal Gilroy, Very Rev. Fr. Xavier, C.P., 
provincial (to right of Cardinal). Rev. Fr. Charles, C.P., director of Students (to right 

of provincial). 

estimated that the work should be 
finished within the next 12 months. 
The appeal for funds for the new 
additions, which was met with a 
\'ery generous response, was made by 
an old friend of the Passionists, Mr. 
H. Alderman, Q.C. 

Golden Jubilee 

On Saturday, May 25, Father Cas- 
imir of the Sacred Heart, celebrated 
the Golden Jubilee of his Ordina- 
tion to the Priesthood, at St. I\es, 
the Preparatory Seminary. T he Jubi- 
lee Mass was sung by the \icar ol 
St. Pius X Retreat, Rev. Fr. Stephen, 

studies in England and Ireland and 
was ordained to the Priesthocxl. 

Upon his return to Australia, Fa- 
ther Casimir gave missions and re- 
treats in various parts of the coun- 
try. In 1918 he was appointed Supe- 
rior and Parish priest at St. Brigid's, 
Marrickville, which office he held off 
and on for many years. 

Increasing ill health forced him to 
relinquish active work about nine 
years ago. During these past years he 
has been li\ing in retirement at the 
Juniorate at St. I\es. Father Casimir 
is now 84 vears old. 

August 1, 1957 



Newly Discovered Gold Mines 
Increases Population 

With the discovery of new gold 
mines it is expected that the popula- 
tion of Carletonville, South Africa, 
which at present is 18,000 people, 
will double in the next five years. 
The mines in this area are the rich- 
est in the world with a monthly profit 
of almost 1,500,000 pounds. 

The Passionists were invited to 
come to this area in 1955 by the 
Bishop of Johannesburg, Bishop 
Boyle. In September of that year Fa- 
thers Augustine and Kieran arrived 
and took up their residence at Bank 
in the Transvaal. This is a native 
mission with a native school attached. 

About eight miles from Bank a 
new town began to grow up around 
the newly discovered gold mines and 
it grew so quickly that the Fathers 
realized that a church was needed 
there. The name of this town is 
Carletonville. They immediately be- 
gan making plans for a church and 
in July, 1956, work was begun. The 
church and an adjoining rectory 
were completed in November, 1956, 
and dedicated by the Bishop on the 
following December 2. The new par- 
ish is called Our Lady of Dolours. 

The parish that these Fathers are 
in charge of is quite large— extending 
50 miles South. They have about 600 
European Catholics and about 1,500 
native Catholics in the parish. Most 
of their parishioners work in the 
nearby gold mines. 

In June, 1956, the two Fathers 
were joined by Brother Isidore who 
came to Africa from Ireland on the 
previous November. During the time 
in between. Brother was learning 
something about farming at a large 
farm run by the Redemptorists in 

In September, 1956, Fathers Je- 
rome and Donald arrived from Ire- 
land. Father Donald took charge of 
the parish of Westonaria, about 15 
miles from Bank, which contains a 
large native secondary boarding 
school run by the Notre Dame Sis- 
ters. Besides looking after the parish. 
Father Donald acts as chaplain for 
the Sisters and lives at the Convent. 
Father Jerome remained at Bank 
with Brother Isidore, 

As far as their limited numbers has 
allowed, the Fathers have been 
preaching missions and retreats. They 
have received many requests for re- 
treats, especially to religious. But as 
most of these are during a particular 
time of the year (school holidays) 
they have only been able to take a 
limited number of them. 

Their greatest need at the present 
time is a convent school. They have 
acquired a large piece of property be- 
side the church for this purpose and 
are hoping and praying that the Sis- 
ters of Notre Dame will be able to 
begin work there next year. 


Polish Refugees in Giordania 

The official organ of the Latin 
Patriarchate in Palestine, Jerusalem, 
gave public recognition to the work 
of Father Pius, C.P., Superior of 
Bethany for his work among the 
Polish refugees in Giordania. Men- 
tion was also made in the same peri- 
odical of the work done by our Fa- 
thers in the newly opened "Old 
Folks Home." The Home was opened 
February 2, 1957 with Mass by one 
of the Fathers at Bethany. 

On Easter Monday a 23 year old 
Mussulman was baptized and re- 
ceived his First Holy Communion 
very privately in the Passionist chapel 
at Bethany. This is a very rare con- 


The Passion on Radio 

During the past Holy Week the 
entire direction of the National Ra- 
dio was given over to the Passionist 
under the direction of Fr. Valentine 
Fuentes, C.P. All the regular radio 
programs were suspended on Good 
Friday, Holy Saturday and the fore- 
noon of Easter Sunday and in their 
place there were programs on the 
mysteries of the Passion and Re- 

The whole life of the Savior from 
the Nativity to the Resurrection was 
presented by actors from Chile who 
were the narrators. The Tre Ore on 
Good Friday was broadcasted direct- 

Seminarians with their Superior and Di- 
rector, Los Lirios, Chile. 

ly from the Passionist Church of St. 

The program had been announced 
on the radio every day and every 
hour on the hour during the previ- 
ous week. The appreciation shown 
by the large amount of letters re- 
ceived and the notices in the public 
press surpassed all expectations. It 
was a new experience for the Chile 
radio and a wonderful sermon on 
the Passion. 

Preparatory Seminary 

This year the Passionists in Los 
Lirios are celebrating the tenth anni- 
versary of the existence of their prep- 
aratory seminary there. At present 
they have five professed students in 
theology, five novices and 27 prep 
students. The prep students are di- 
vided into three classes and are un- 
der the direction of four teachers. 


Provincial Chapter 

The eighteenth Provincial Chapter 
of Immaculate Conception Province 
was opened on May 27th, and closed 
on June 4th. Because Most Rev. Al- 
bert Deane, C.P., former General of 
the Passionists and Provincial of Im- 
maculate Conception Province was 
named Bishop of Villa Maria, the 
Chapter was anticipated by six 
months by a special rescript obtained 
from the Sacred Congregation of Re- 
ligious. The Holy See authorized 


The Passionist 

Bishop Albert to continue as Provin 
cial to the Chapter and to act as 
Most Rev. Fr. Malcolm's representa- 
tive in the same Chapter. 

The following Superiors were 
elected in this eighteenth Provincial 
Chapter: Provincial, Very Rev. Fr. 
Ambrose CJeoghegan, C.P., who had 
been provincial before Bishop Al- 
bert; first consultor, Very Rev. Fr. 
Peter Richards, C.P., who was pre- 
vious rector of Holy Cross Retreat, 
Buenos Aires and later provincial 
consultor; second consultor, Very 
Rev. Fr. Cerard Pez, C.P., who was 
re-elected to the same office; rector 
of Holy Cross Retreat, Very Rev. Fr. 
Charles O'Leary, C.P.; rector of 
Most Holy Rosary Retreat, Very 
Rev. Fr. Fucas Walpole, C.P., who 
was previously prefect of Studies and 
lector of canon law; rector of the 
Retreat of St. Paul, Very Rev. Fr. 
Fidelis Rush, C.P., superior of the 
Retreat of St. Gemma, Montevideo, 
Uruguay, Rev. Fr. Fredrick Richards, 
C.P. Very Rev. Fr. Gerome Poggi, 
C.P. was elected master of Novices. 

Bishop Consecrated 

The Most Rev. Albert Deane, 
C.P., former General of the Passion- 
ists and former provincial of Immacu- 
late Conception Province was con- 
secrated bishop of Villa Maria, Prov- 
ince of Cordoba, on June 29th. 

Bishop Albert was consecrated in 
Holy Cross Church attached to the 
retreat which is the provincial house 
of Immaculate Conception Province. 
The new bishop took possession of 
his new see on July 4th. Fie is the 
second Passionist bishop in Argen- 
tina. The first is Bishop Charles Han- 
Ion, C.P. of Catamarca who was 
elected at the time of the Eucharistic 
Congress in Buenos Aires and still 
rules his diocese, almost 25 years a 

The ceremony was carried out 
with all the ritual and splendor of 
the Church with a special choir and 
music for the occasion. The conse- 
crating Prelate was His Excellency, 
Fermin Lafitte, archbishop of Cor- 
doba and Apostolic Administrator of 
the Archdiocese of Buenos Aires, 
assisted by the co-consecrators. His 
Excellency Carlos Hanlon, C.P., 
bishop of Catarmarca and His Ex- 
cellency, Anunciato Seralini, bishop 

August 1, 1957 

of Mercedes. 

A large gathering of people were 
present for the consecration of the 
new bishop. Present were His Excel- 
lency Mons. Mendez, auxiliary bish- 
op of Buenos Aires; Commodore 
Edw. McLoughlin, Minister of Avia- 
tion in the present government; the 
Federal Administrator of the Prov- 
ince of Cordoba; Senor McGovern, 
the Argentine minister to Ireland, 
who came especially for the occasion; 
the Irish Minister to Argentina, Mr. 
Horan. Various federal and provin- 
cial authorities and military officials 
from the provinces of Buenos Aires 
and Cordoba were also present. 

The day for the reception of Bish- 
op Albert and the taking possession 
of his newly created see was set for 
July 4. As he approached the city, 
the bishop was met by a group of 
ecclesiastical, municipal and military 
authorities and a crowd of people. 
Driving through the city, the bishop 
passed through closely packed lines 
of people and finally came to the 
central plaza which was also thronged 
with his flock. "An impressive gath- 
ering, such as seldom has been seen 
in our midst" wrote the local corre- 
spondent for a Cordoba newspaper. 

Arriving at the plaza, Bishop Al- 
bert was greeted by a waving sea of 
white handkerchiefs and the accla- 
mations of the people to the Church, 
to the Country and to Christ the 
King. Proceeding through the ranks 
of a military guard of honor, he ap- 
proached the bust of General San 
Martin where he placed a floral 
wreath to the Liberator of the coun- 

This brief ceremony of homage 
being completed, the Bishop was re- 
ceived by the mayor, welcomed to 
the city and ]iresented with a set of 
the city's symbolic keys. The proces- 
sion then entered the Cathedral 
where the Pontifical Bull of the erec- 
tion of the new diocese was read by 
His Excellency Fermin Lafitte, y\rch- 
bishop of Cordoba, who placed the 
new bishop in canonical possession 
of his diocese. 

After concluding the ceremony of 
installation, the new bishop went 
out to the grandstand that was erect- 
ed for the occasion on the steps of 
the Cathedral. 1 lere the assembled 
people, the majority of whom were 

unable to enter the Cathedral for 
the ceremony, awaited the appear- 
ance of the Bishop. There followed 
a series of talks at the conclusion of 
which Bishop Albert addressed his 
people. Then he imparted his epis- 
copal blessing to his flock for the 
first time. 


40,000 Attend Good 
Friday Service 

Some 40,000 people came from all 
over Brazil to attend the 'Tuneral 
Procession ' of our Lord, which was 
held in the Passionist Parish of Bar- 
reiro in the State of Minas Gerais, 
which is under the care of our Fa- 
thers of the Sorrowful Mother Prov- 
ince, Naples. 

The procession was preceded by 
the Passion Play in the piazza in 
front of the parish church, represent- 
ing the taking down from the Cross. 
The cross that was erected was four 
meters high. All the actors wore cos- 
tumes that were traditional in the 
time of Our Lord. There were ves- 
sels with ointment for the embalm- 
ing. During the procession trained 
singers sang Passion music and were 
accompanied by orchestra music. 

On Holy Thursday one hundred 
complete families received Holy 
Communion in a body. This was the 
first time such a practice was tried. 
On Saturday evening confessions 
were heard until 11:00 P.M. when 
the Easter Vigil Service began. 

This parish in Barreiro was con- 
fided to the care of the Passionists 
two years ago. 


Papal Nuncio Visits 
Parish Church 

His Excellency Monsignor Ra- 
phael Forni, Papal Nuncio for Vene- 
zuela, visited the parish church of 
Our Lady of Fatima recently built in 
Caracas by the Passionists. Together 
with 1 lis Excellency Raphael Arias, 
Archbishop of Caracas and Very 
Rev. Fr. Paulinus, C.P., Provincial 
of I loly Family Pnn ince. S|iain. the 
Papal Nuncio inspected the church 


and praised its style and architecture 
which is much in hne with modern 
rehgious art. The Nuncio had words 
of praise for the apostohc work car- 
ried on by the Passionist Fathers in 

After the visit of the church, Fa- 
ther Provincial invited the Nuncio 
and the Archbishop of Caracas to 
dinner in the residence of the church. 
The pleasant conversation showed 
the close collaboration and good un- 
derstanding that' exists between the 
Passionists and the spiritual heads of 
the Church in Venezuela. Four days 
later the Papal Nuncio invited the 
Provincial and the Rector of the 
Community in Caracas to dinner in 
his own palace. It is hoped that these 
contacts will help to extend more and 
more the spiritual work of the Pas- 
sionists in Venezuela. 

To Offsel Masonry 
and Protestantism 

In order to offset the strong in- 
fluence of Masonary and Protestant- 
ism in Venezuela, the Passionist Fa- 
thers in Maracay have organized 11 
catechetical centers in which some 
2000 children receive religious in- 
struction. They have founded several 
pious associations such as the guild 
of the Children of Mary for girls 
and a Catholic Action Society for 
men. The Fathers also publish a 
parish monthly paper. 

In September 1955 the Passionists 
of Holy Family Province, Spain, 
were requested by the Archbishop of 
Caracas to take charge of a new 
parish church in Maracay. Maracay 
is the capital of Aragua State in 
Venezuela and has over 70,000 in- 
habitants. It is an industrial center 
producing sugar and tobacco. 

Before the Passionists took over 
this parish there was only one other 
parish in the city. Since their arrival 
two years ago the Fathers have been 
able to do wonderful work among 
the people. Maracay had been a field 
for Protestant and Masonary activi- 
ties. But through the zeal of our Fa- 
thers the faith and religious prac- 
tices of the people have been re- 


Apostolic Delegate 
Visits Passionists 

The Passionists in Espiritu Santo 
were privileged to have the new 
Apostolic Delegate to Mexico, the 
Most Rev. Archbishop Luigi Rai- 
mundi, celebrate Mass in their 
Church on the Feast of St. Paul of 
the Cross. This was the Apostolic 
Delegates first official visit to Es- 
piritu Santo. Archbishop Luigi 
preached on the glorious work of 
preaching Christ's Sufferings in imi- 
tation of St. Paul of the Cross. 

A solemn Mass in honor of St. 
Paul of the Cross was celebrated later 
in the morning by Rev. Fr. Germano, 
Superior of the Italian Passionists in 
Mexico. The Seminarians from the 
Passionist Seminary in San Angelo 
sang the Mass. 

A special dinner was served at 2:30 
p.m. to honor the Apostolic Delegate 
and also show the gratitude of the 
community to the various benefactors 
and friends of the Passionists in 

Another Solemn Mass was sung at 
7:30 in the evening. The celebrant 
was the Very Rev. Isidore Portigo, 
O.P., Pastor of the Parish of Can- 
edlaria, within whose boundaries the 
Church of Espiritu Santo is located. 
Father Portigo preached an eloquent 
sermon on the work of the Congre- 
gation and its Founder. 


Father Provincial Visits Japan 

Very Rev. Fr. Neil Parsons, Pro- 
vincial of Holy Cross Province, spent 
three weeks with our Fathers in 
Japan during the last two weeks of 
May and the first part of June. Fa- 
ther Neil was able to see first hand 
the needs and difficulties that face 
the Passionist Foundation in Japan. 
It was a source of satisfaction to the 
Missionaries to be able to express to 
Father Provincial their personal 
views on the future of the Passion- 
ist work and way of life in Japan. 

Father Provincial was very pleased 
and even surprised to see the solid 
beginning already made in each of 
the fields of the apostolate— parish 
missions in Japanese; retreats for 

Community at Espiritu Santo, Mexico 
with Apostolic Delegate, Most Rev. Arch- 
bishop Luigi Raimundi. 

priests and religious men and women 
in both English and Japanese; lay re- 
treats being given both at our lay 
retreat house and at the parishes; he 
was also pleased at the flourishing 
state of the Parish of the Passion in 

Father Provincial was particularly 
impressed with the contribution the 
mission and retreat work can make 

Very. Rev. Fr. Neil Parson, C.P., Provin- 
cial of Holy Cross Province (right) with 
Fr. Carl Schmitz, C.P., in Japan. 


The Passionist 

Very Rev. Fr. Neil Parsons, C.P., provincial of Holy Cross Province (center) with the 

Community ot Japan. 

in strengthening the many new con- 
verts in Japan, as also the great good 
our retreats For priests and rehgious 
can do. Being on the spot, he felt 
very keenly their need to expand 
their work in Japan. He was able 
to understand first hand the difficul- 
ties of the language and culture that 
the Passionists must overcome to car- 
ry out their work satisfactorily. 

As one of the problems facing the 
Fathers in Japan is to pick a suitable 
site for their future monastery and 
retreat house wiii'^, Father Provin- 
cial's experience in building was a 
great help to them. Father Neil also 
looked over several possible locations 
for the Passion ist Nuns who are soon 
to arrive in Japan from Pittsburg. 
But, none of the sites proved to be 

Heavy Summer and 
Fall Schedule 

As it becomes more and more 
known that our Fathers preach in 
Japanese as well as in English, the 
demands for retreats and missions 
continue to increase. After a short 
rest, Father Clement Paynter onened 
his first Sister's retreat, Easter Wed 
nesday, for the Maryknoll Sisters in 

The lay retreat house continues to 
have a closed retreat nearly every 
week end. There have been recjuests 
lor more than a do/en Communitx' 
retreats for Priests and Sisters to be 
given during the summer and fall. 

August 1, 1957 

There are also requests for missions 
to be given in two Mission Districts. 
Since Easter, Fr. Peter Kumle has 
been giving lectures at the Catholic 
Center in Osaka on Ascetical and 
Mystical Theology in Japanese as 
part of a course in theology for Sis- 
ters, Catechists and Laity. There are 
about 100 persons who attend these 


Christiana Mission 
Gels Face-Lifting 

Last October Christiana, Manches- 
ter was taken out of the category of 

a "Mission of Mandeville" and made 
a full-fledged church with a resident 
pastor, Fr. Anthony Feeherry, C.P. 

Since then great strides have been 
accomplished both spiritually and 
materially. The congregation has 
grown considerably and the church 
and grounds have undergone a face- 
lifting which has completely trans- 
formed the Little-Church-Beside-the- 
Road that no one took too much no- 
tice of before. 

The church itself has been paint- 
ed, the roof has been repaired and 
painted, a new floor has been laid 
in the church, a beautiful drape has 
been hung behind the altar, the pews 
have been repaired and painted and 
many other incidental decorations 
and furnishings have been added. 

Outside the church, part of a 
mountain has been removed to make 
space for a future rectory. It is esti- 
mated that about five thousand tons 
of rock have been pulled down and 
levelled off^ to make an area of about 
100 feet by 120 feet. 

These are the material changes 
and improvements that ha\'e come to 
the Christiana church. But the spir- 
itual improvements have kept pace. 
Since there is a resident priest, of 
course there is daily Mass. Holy 
Hour is held each Thursday before 
First Friday. The usual novenas are 
conducted and special services are 
held at some time each month for 
particular feasts. 

Possionists in Jomaico, B.W.I, working on the porish church ot Christiana, Manchester. 


October 1, 1957 


OCTOBER 1, 1957 




Bruce Henry, C.P. 



New Testament-Liturgy 

Roger Mercurio, C.P. 
Moral-Canon Law 

Forrest Macken, C.P. 
Old Testament 

Carroll Stuhlmueller, C.P. 

Barry Rankin, C.P. 

The Passionist is published bi- 
monthly by Holy Cross Province 
at Immaculate Conception Re- 
treat, 5700 N. Harlem Ave., Chi- 
cago 31, Illinois, U.S.A. It is is- 
sued on the 1 St of the months of 
February, April, June, August, 
October and December. 

The Passionist' is financed by 
the free-will offerings of its read- 
ers. There is no copyright. The 
Magazine is a private publica- 

The Passionist' aims to help its 
readers attain more perfectly the 
twofold end of the Congregation. 
For this reason it offers a variety 
of articles and special feature 

Contributions by members of 
the Congregation are welcomed. 
Anything that will be of interest 
or help to us as Passionists will 
be accepted. Articles should be 
approximately 4000 to 5000 
words in length. 



by Federico Menegasso, C.P. 


by Costa nte Brovetto, C.P. 


by Ronald Murray, C.P. 


by Barry Rankin, C.P. 


by Vincent Giegerich, C.P. 


by Carroll Stuhlmueller, C.P. 




VARIA 368 



Individualism versus the Common Life 

■ A WORLD, poisoned with the spirit of a disordered in- 
dividuahsm, confronts us on exery side. Today perhaps 
as never before, we are surrounded by a spirit of defiant 
liberty rehelHng against rightful authority. Individual en- 
terprise is pitted against eolleetixe authority and group 

The antidote against this unhealthy atmosphere that 
we arc breathing all around us is the Gospel teaching 
of Christ. It is true that a Christian knows no law but 
that of charity. But these words of St. Paul can be joined 
harmoniously to Christ's words: "He who hears you 
hears me." /\ Christian obeys not out of a motive of 
coercion but from a spontaneous burst of charity. This 
same Cospel message as contained in the evangelical 
counsels is the basis of all religious life, is inspired by 
the I loly Spirit through the instrumentality of saintly 
founders and approved by the Church. 

■ AiMONc; these societies is our own Passionist Congre- 
gation. St. Paul of the Cross calls each religious to "with- 
draw far from the society of men and noise of the world." 
A Passionist is expected to ha\e a real lo\e of being 
despised . . . dead to himself and to the world, in order 
to live only for Ciod, in Cod, and through Cod, will- 
ingly hiding his life in Christ, Who lor our sake chose 
to become the reproach of men and the outcast of the 

INovv it is the common lile and reguLu obserxance 
that clears the religious atmosphere of the worldly poison 

of individualism and reckless opposition to authority. A 
Passionist obeys the superior and the bell "promptly, sim- 
ply and gladly," for in each he considers and reverences 
Cod. In this way he satisfies the deepest longing of a 
Passionist's heart— union with Jesus Crucified, Who was 
"obedient unto death, even to death upon the cross." 

■ For this reason, a Passionist should continually grow 
in love for the common life and regular observance. 
Nothing can inspire him with this love and esteem of 
the regular life as much as St. Paul of the Cross' own 
love of the common life. 

St. Paul had a deep love of the common life. None of 
us can doubt this. This can easily be seen from his faith- 
fulness to the least detail of the regular observance. 
When he was in suffering and great pain, he assisted in 
choir and at the other common exercises. Only absolute 
incapability, resulting from the increase of his sickness, 
could keep him away. Even when he was over seventy 
and could scarcely hobble along, he still came to matins 
leaning on his crutches. He had to be nailed to his bed 
by illness before he could be kept away. 

■ Paul had this love of the common life because he 
saw in it the will of God. "The Rule of his Institute," 
said one of his religious, "was the rule of his conduct. 
Therein, he saw not his own will as Founder, but the 
will of God who inspired him to write it, and of the 
Sovereign Pontiffs who approved it." 

It is easy to appreciate the impression that Paul's love 
of the common life and regular obserxance had on his 
religious. They were unanimous in recognizing this. "Our 
Father's example was an incentive to us to be exact in 
the observance, and not to take advantage of dispensa- 
tions, which the Superior might give out of charity un- 
less there was a serious reason for doing so. " 

Because Paul loved the observance as the will of God, 
he insisted that it be followed. In order to maintain the 
regular observance, he had, at times, to be firm and 
resolute with certain ecclesiastical superiors who asked 
for assistance that would be contrary to the spirit of the 

"In season and out of season he demanded from others 
the same fidelity that he himself showed. He never ceased 
to inculcate it with great ferxor on ex'ery occasion and 
especially during the time of xisitation." 

■ St. Paul's loxe for the obserxance xvas not a formal- 
istic attachment to externalism. It xvas the spontaneous, 
loving reaction of a religious xvho has no other desire 
than to hang with Christ upon the Cross. He considered 
the regular obserxance antl common life as the best safe- 
guard against the false spirit of the xvorld, the surest 
guarantee of Christ-like formation of souls. In defending 
so strenouslx the regular obserxance Paul xvas strixing 
to conform his men to lesus Crucified. 

d^ruce J^enrUj L^, /. 

October 1, 1957 


by Federico Menegazzo, C.P. 

In the work of St. Paul of the Cross with lay retreats there was one 
basic idea which unified all his activity. It was especially by means 
of meditation that he aimed at the reform of the christian world. 


While working with the early documents of our con- 
gregation I uncovered many interesting items about our 
lay retreat work. Although I have not had time to do 
the study or research this subject really demands, I 
thought I would none the less present the few things I 
have come across. 

In the work of St. Paul of the Cross with lay retreats 
there was one basic idea which unified all his activity. 
It was especially by means of meditation that he aimed 
at the reform of the christian world (as the witnesses 
for his canonization inform us). Great contemplative that 
he was, he knew from personal experience the trans- 
forming power of meditation. He wanted others to share 
in this rich "treasure hidden in a field." The instruction 
he gave to our missionaries and spiritual directors was: 
"Take this as a rule— work to instill but a grain of prayer 
in souls, and then you can lead them where you wish."^ 

The Saint had seen in the wounds of Jesus the needs of 
the clergy, as he once confided to Rose Calabresi.^ The 
remedy he proposed was to make more general the prac- 
tice of meditation, particularly meditation on the Pas- 
sion. To a retreatant at St. Angelo he gave merely the 
simple counsel: meditate on the martyrdom of the Son 
of God.^ Our Holy Founder's long and wide experience 
only confirmed this basic idea of meditation. When he 
proposed to Clement XIV "a good plan, one greatly rec- 
ommended by the same Pontiff, for the reform of the 
Regular Clergy,"* the fundamental point was the intro- 
duction of the practice of prayer.''' To help the Saint in 
this great work Pope Clement XIV, even from the be- 
ginning of his pontificate, was looking for a Retreat 
House in Rome for St. Paul of the Cross and his sons." 

Our Holy Founder was not only thinking of reform 
among the clergy by means of meditation, but he also 




The Passionist 

maintained that it would be a sov- 
ereign means oF salvation for the 
laity. When giving missions he took 
great pains to introduce the practice 
of meditation. In the district around 
Pereta the meditation on the Passion 
made each morning in the church 
had been continued after the Saint's 
Mission, and was still going on when 
the deposition was made at the 
Processes." We also know that he 
gave a zealous Priest the task of 
teaching meditation. When this 
was unsuccessful, St. Paul appointed 
a certain "Leader of Prayer" at the 
head of a group of souls who pledged 
themselves to the practice of daily 
meditation. At Sutri and in very 
many other Dioceses, after Missions 
conducted by him, daily meditation 
was continued for six months or a 
year. In many it was still practiced 
at the time of the Processes.^ 

BUT FROM the very beginning, in 
order to spread the practice of 
meditation more efficaciously, St. 
Paul wanted retreats to be given in 
the same solitude which he enjoyed. 
Already at St. Stefano he had aroused 
the admiration of his cousin Paul 
Sardi by the fact that he taught 
prayer "to a group of ladies" and 
gave instruction to the people at a 
very early hour." At Gaeta near the 
Sanctuary of Our Lady of the Chain, 
not far from the city. Saint Paul gave 
retreats to Priests and to the Ordina- 
tion Classes, besides the catechising 
and visiting of the sick which were 
his frequent if not ordinary occupa- 
tions. The Bishop, the Theatine 
Monsignor Pignatelli, who often 
visited the Brothers in their hermit- 
age of our Lady of the Chain, may 
well have seen in them a long sought 
lor means of reform. Certain ex- 
pressions in his letters seem to im- 
ply this. He says, for example, that 
in Ckieta "The Religious have great 
need ol relorm;"'" "I see religious 
discipline so relaxated that it breaks 
my heart; the holy cloister is be- 
foulded not only by day, but sends 
off a stench even at night," for some 
religious spend their nights outside 
the Monastery, "where they are 
pleased to live as libertines." This was 
tor him "a very bitter chalice."" 
Meanwhile the Church Universal 

"must hope from God the coming 
of a golden age."^- But his great 
dream was to be dashed against the 
rock of the human interests of the 
Patrons of the Oratory, and St. Paul 
of the Cross was guided by the hand 
of Gt)d to try elsewhere his zealous 
work of interior reform. 

There was little to accommodate 
retreatants at the hermitage of St. 
Anthony on Monte Argentaro. Still 
the Saint busied himself to provide 
spiritual direction in the best man- 
ner possible for souls desirous of re- 
treat. Isifile Mura, a widow from 
Cremona, her sister Lienor, Mag- 
dalen Antioco a servant of Joan 
Grazi, M. Guerraccini, and the fu- 
ture Religious, Julia Stoppa, went 
there to make a retreat under the 
Saint.'-* Because of the distance from 
the city, they had to sleep at the 
hermitage. They occupied a room on 
the first floor, from which they could 
hear the chanting of Matins.^* Straw 
ticks may have been their mattresses, 
as was certainly the case with Sulpi- 
tia Roselli (later Sister Mary Agnes 
of the Infant Jesus) who also made 
a retreat at the hermitage with her 
brother Dominic and M. Octavia 
Aquilini.''"' After the first Retreats 
of the Congregation had been 
founded, the practice of having small 
groups on retreat became common 
and was governed by set regulations. 
Hence, the Processes speak in gen- 
eral terms of "Laity and ecclesiastics 
who retire among us during the year 
to set in order the affairs of their 
souls."'" We know of the proposal 
of the Intendant General of Fortifi- 
cations, Joseph Speletta, to make a 
retreat. He had been converted by 
a conversation with the Saint. But 
he kept putting it off, and was final- 
ly prevented from doing so by 

This practice was in harmony with 
the foundation permits of our Re- 
treats. In fact, as early as 1731. the 
Saint had asked permission from 
Cardinal Altieri to found a retreat. 
It would also be a place for giving 
spiritual exercises, since St. An 
thony's was too small for that pur- 
pose.'" There was great need for 
this, especially to provide a place of 

Father Frederlco Menegazzo, C.P.. is Post- 
tulator General and a member of Sacred 
Heart of Mary Province, Italy. 

October 1, 1957 

retreat for the ecclesiastics of the 
Maremma.'" Precisely in order that 
the new Retreat might be a place 
of spiritual exercises for Officials and 
Priests, the King of Naples had been 
very generous in his alms for the 
Foundation.-" Indeed, the first plan 
was to erect a separate building for 
this purpose, distinct from the Re- 
treat.-' Although the Saint declared 
that it was contrary to the Institute 
to board youths in our Retreats, he 
added that they could be received 
for a course of spiritual exercises, or 
to try their vocation.^- In 1743 work 
was under way on the construction 
of a special house for retreatants on 
Monte Argentaro-^; however it was 
not to be used for this purpose. Yet 
when the new novitiate was finished, 
the Saint expressed his happiness 
over the improved accommodations 
for the retreatants at the Retreat of 
the Presentation.-^ 

St. Paul still hoped to see a like 
project realized at the foundation at 
Cerro near Toscanella. He had al- 
ready found a benefactor who would 
cover the expense of building a Re- 
treat on the hill so as to avoid the 
unhealthy air. The old building 
next to the Sanctuary of Mary most 
Holy would be used for the retreat- 
ants, but without inconveniencing 
them, for retreats would be given 
only during the better seasons of the 
year.^^ We learn from the Processes 
how the discussion of the project 
went. The Rector, Fr. Dominic, 
thought that it was not advisable, 
fearing talk among the people and 
that the gain for health from the 
better air would be but small. The 
Saint asked the contractor Andrew 
Pasquali (the witness in the Pro- 
cesses) about it, and found him of 
the same mind as the Rector. He 
then abandoned the idea.-® 

ALL THIS was according to the in- 
junctions of the Holy Rule. 
The 1741 edition reads: "As regards 
the giving ol the sjiiritual exercises, 
let none be admitted into our Re- 
treats, but let them be given a house 
set aside for that purpose."-' But the 
1747 edition stipulates: "Let no more 
than two be admitted into our houses 
for the sake ol spiritual exercises, but 
let the exercises be gi\en for all in 


those dwelling which shall be built 
near our common houses of religious 

Nevertheless this instruction does 
not seem to have been practical at 
that time, for we know that it was 
never put into execution. In the 
foundation at Terracina the project 
is spoken of as "a little dormitory" 
or corridor of cells for the retreatants, 
similar to those of the religious.^^ But 
he wanted the house for the giving 
of the exercises to be united with the 
Retreat, separated by a door which 
would remain closed during the time 
of the exercises. Only the Director 
and those serving would be free to 
enter. He permitted three or four 
larger rooms for Prelates. All together 
it appeared "very fitting for giving 
the holy exercises to Priests, Clerics, 

Yet our Holy Founder insisted on 
the instructions of the Rule, and 
quoted them on occasions when he 
was being importuned. For example 
he wrote in 1769 that our Rules 
"Permit us to receive not more than 
one or two retreatants in our Re- 
treats for a space of ten days, or fif- 
teen at the most, but that there are 
to be houses for retreatants joined to 
our Retreats. If God provides," he 
adds, "this will all be done in due 
time. Then Your Reverence can send 
retreatants at your pleasure for eight 
or ten days, or fifteen at the most. 
But we will not receive men who 
are under sentence or those perform- 
ing penance, for our Retreats are 
religious houses and not galleys or 

The first General Chapter took up 
this subject, but only to prohibit the 
retreatants having contact with the 
Religious during recreation. ^^ 

Although in the 1775 edition of 
the Rule there was no mention of 
retreats, this certainly wasn't meant 
as a condemnation or disapproval of 
them. The laws regarding them were 
always passed on by custom and in 
the Regulations. A similar phe- 
nomenon is found in the Rules and 
Constitutions of the Passionist Nuns. 
There is no mention of lay retreats 
until, at a certain point, there is a 
whole chapter entitled, "On the Mis- 
tress of Christian Doctrine and the 
Spiritual Exercises."^^ In this chapter 
the teaching of meditation, especially 


on the Passion, is called "The princi- 
pal end of the Institute."^* 

The traditions of this work con- 
tinued in full vigor in the Congrega- 
tion. In praise of Fr. John Baptist of 
St. Vincent Ferrer it was written, 
"In all our Retreats he kept up the 
custom of gathering together, for a 
prudent space of time, laymen who 
desired to make the spiritual exer- 
cises. By having them remain thus 
in solitude, with frequent hearing 
of the word of God, the reading of 
good books, and other devotional oc- 
cupations, the fruit he gained was 
greater than that of the missions."^^ 
Nor were retreats neglected by the 
second successor of our Holy Founder 
in the governing of the Congregation, 
Fr. John Mary of St. Ignatius. He 
extended the regulations for retreat- 
ants, determining minutely their 
mode of life.'^^ 

RETREATS were given especially 
during Lent. The Processes 
note that the prohibition on Lenten 
Courses had the advantage of free- 
ing the missionaries for this work. In 
reporting the spiritual testimony of 
the Saint, Fr. Joseph of Holy Mary 
records these words, "I recommend 
above all the promotion of devotion 
to the Passion of Jesus Christ and 
the Sorrows of Mary Most Holy. I 
also recommend that we do not go 
to preach Lenten Courses." "The rea- 
son is that during Lent there are 
many workers who announce the 
word of God." St. Paul wished how- 
ever that besides retirement and soli- 
tude during this time confessions be 
heard, the exercises be given in Re- 
treats and Monasteries, and other 
similar works performed.^^ Hence 
the Saint counseled Don Dominic 
Giordani, parish priest of Allumiere, 
not to come alone to make a retreat, 
but rather to wait till Lent.^^ At the 
same time he invited Angelo An- 
thony Palozzi to come with some 
others for the exercises the following 
Lent.^'' He repeated the same to 
Canon Felix Pagliari, namely that 
he preferred that he did not make 
the exercises alone. *^ He was await- 
ing the return of the Missionaries, 
one of whom could assist him as Di- 
rector. Another season for the giving 
of retreats was early autumn (Sep- 
tember - October).''^ 

Often our Holy Founder preached 
the retreats himself. Sometimes he 
acted as a Director for individual re- 
treatants.^- Particularly memorable 
was a very fervent way of the cross 
he preached in St. Angelo at Vetralla 
to our Religious and a number of 
retreatants.*'^ Also celebrated was a 
triduum on the Passion he preached 
to our Religious and three retreatants 
at Ceccano.*'* 

He was very exact in conducting 
the retreats. Father Joseph of Holy 
Mary noted how our Holy Founder 
distributed carefully the different 
tasks, appointing certain missionaries 
'to work for the good of those, 
whether ecclesiastics or laymen, who 
retire among us during the year to 
attend to the affairs of their souls. 
The retreatants were well provided 
for, as capable men were appointed 
to give the meditations, to hear their 
confessions, and to offer any spiritual 
help they might need."*^ He also 
had to be justly severe about the con- 
duct of the retreatants. Fr. Anthony 
of St. Augustine informs us that he 
threatened to send one Cleric away 
because he was always gazing about, 
something that Father Paul could not 

We have a horarium which our 
Holy Founder drew up, which is 
given at the end of this article. It is 
probably the work of years. 

We are not too certain about the 
method he followed, but it may well 
have been the classical method of the 
exercises of St. Ignatius. We learn 
from the life of Fr. Philip Hyacinth 
that St. Paul followed the Ignatian 
method of all the principal novenas 
of the year ,during which he gave a 
series of talks.*'' 

IT SEEMS from the testimony we 
have that the fruit of the retreats 
was ordinarily quite abundant. St. 
Paul hoped by means of them to 
change a certain Mr. Costance of J 
Tolfa.**^ A famous fugitive, returned 
from Geneva, was confirmed in good! 
resolutions he had taken. *^ There is 
the beautiful conversion of a young j 
man on retreat at St. Angelo. ^° Don] 
Domenico found the retreats excel- j 
lent.-'^^ They attracted generous souls 
like Don Joseph Cima who spent a 
week at St. Angelo.^^ A youth of] 
(Continued on page 369) 

The FAssioNisrl 

Remembrance of the Passion 
and First Mystical death 

continues in chapter three. 

by Costa nte Brovetto, C.P. 

JjETWEEN union with God which 
can be had in the beginning of the 
spiritual Hfe and the ah-eady experi- 
mental mystical stages, there is as it 
were an intermediate period. The 
soul must still perfect the dispositions 
which will enable it to be caught up 
by the Divine embrace, but at a cer- 
tain point it mysteriously begins to 
perceive the first fruits of it.®'' We 
intend to dwell upon this period for 
a short while. 

St. Paul of the Cross was divine- 
ly careful to sec that souls whom he 
discerned to be truly called, would 
reach thresholds of more lofty pray- 
er."" In a practical way he met the 
call to contemplation by plunging the 
soul into a continual lo\ing memory 
of the Passion and tears away every 
accessory element from the taste for 
prayer and concentrates it on the 
"Joy of joys,"— the supremely lovable 
God in Ills sorrowlul humiliations. 

"By these aridities, God intends to 
despoil the soul of every pleasure, in 
order that God alone might be the 
joy of its joys. Oh, my daughter! for- 
tunate is that soul which is detached 
from its own feeling and from its 
own way of looking at things! This 
is the most important lesson: God 
will teach the soul this lesson if it 
will put its joy in the Cross of Jesus 
Christ, in dying on the Cross of the 
Saviour to all that which is not 

This total detachment from every 
created thing ahead) merits the name 
ol niNstical death. 

The first corollary of meditation 
is, for St. Paul of the Cross also, the 
making of a "spiritual nosegay" 
which will facilitate the prolongation 
of mental prayer throughout the 
day."' This (the "spiritual nosegay") 
is an important step toward introver- 
sion properly contemplative, but it is 
necessary to determine well the char- 
acteristics which distinguish it from 
the latter. 

Usually the "spiritual nosegay" is 
understood as St. Francis de Sales 
describes it in the httrodiictioti to a 
Devout Life: 

Spirituality of St. Paul 

A October 1, 1957 


". . . you must gather a little nose- 
gay of devotion. One who has been 
walking in a beautiful garden, de- 
parts not willingly without gathering 
a few flowers to smell during the 
remainder of the day; thus ought we, 
when our soul has been entertain- 
ing itself by meditating on some mys- 
tery, to select one, or two or three of 
those points in which we have found 
most relish, and which are most prop- 
er for our advancement, to think fre- 
quently on them, and smell them as 
it were spiritually during the course 
of the day."'^^ 

St. Paul of the Cross apparently 
used this method in instructing be- 
ginners,'^* but the character of medi- 
tation on the Passion which he in- 
culcated, does it in such a way that 
the substance of the memory of the 
meditation notably changes the as- 

"Make yourself a nosegay of the 
pains of Jesus and hold them in the 
bosom of your soul, as I have al- 
ready said. Sometimes if you cannot 
make a sorrowful and loving remem- 
brance, speaking gently to the Sa- 
viour, say: Oh, dear Jesus! How I 
see your livid, swollen, spittle-filled 
face! Oh my love! how I contem- 
plate all those wounds! Oh, my sweet- 
ness! How I see Thy bones stripped 
of their flesh! Ah, how many pains! 
Alas, how many anxieties! Alas, how 
many insults! Ah, my most sweet 
Love, You are one total Wound! Ah, 
blessed pains! Blessed Wounds! I 
wish to keep you always in my heart. 
Oh, Eternal Father, behold my Jesus 
covered with wounds! Behold Your 
dear Son in so many sufferings. I 
offer Him to You for the remission 
of my sins and for those of the whole 
world, in thanksgiving for your bene- 
fits, etc. 

"I have given this as an example: 
I leave you then in holy liberty to 
act as the Holy Spirit inspires you 
to do."^^ 

THE POINT of meditation which is 
evolved in the preceding is quite 
secondary; that which he always re- 
turns to is the remembrance of the 
Word in His suffering nature and 
in His actual Presence in the soul. 
The desire of always keeping His 
sufferings in the heart leads the soul 
to multiply acts of Faith and Char- 


ity, but still more— acts of "contact" 
with God present there: those acts 
which the Saint will often afterwards 
call "loving attention."^® 

It was a question then of a true 
and predisposed passage to contem- 
plation, and certainly the thought of 
our Saint vvas precisely that which St. 
Francis de Sales expresses in another 
part, and which is linked with the 
contemplative and sapiential tradi- 
tion of St. Bernard. ^''^ 

In the Treatise on the Love of 
God, St. Francis de Sales explains 
the difference between meditation 
and contemplation, saying that 
"meditation considers in detail, 
marks and distinguishes each par- 
ticular part of an object; whereas 
contemplation embraces the whole, 
by one simple view, which unites 
every part without distinguishing 
any individually. This general and 
indistinct view of the mind is more 
efficacious in inflaming and animat- 
ing the will."''^^ And he gives an ex- 

"This was the custom of St. Ber- 
nard. After having meditated on the 
principal circumstances of the Pas- 
sion separately, he united them all, 
and formed of them a mystical nose- 
gay of love and sorrow, which he 
placed on his heart, and thus 
changing his meditation into con- 
templation, he exclaimed, "a bundle 
of myrrh is my Beloved to me!'"'^^ 

It is this type of nosegay which 
St. Paul certainly invites one to make 
the center of reference of one's own 
interior attention,— also referring ex- 
plicitly to the passage cited from the. 
Canticle.^" In order to attain to this, 
meditation, brief but assiduous, can 
be sufficient. In fact the remem"- 
brance is not an effort or forcing of 
the particular memory as to the con- 
tent, but only an infinitely varied 
repetition of the theme which con- 
centrates in itself the essential of 
meditation: You, my God, crucified 
for me."®^ 

"I recommend the presence of God 
to you, but do not tire your head; do 
it with a spirit of tranquillity, gen- 
tly re-enkindling your faith. Live all 
on fire for the love of Jesus. May His 
Most Holy Wounds be your delights; 

Father Costante Brovetto, C.P., is a mem- 
ber of Immaculate Heart Province, Italy, 
and Editor of Fonti Vive. 

accompany Him into the Garden, 
gather up those flowers of His sad- 
ness. His agony. His afflictions. His 
sufferings. His sighs. His tears. Oh, 
Tears of Jesus! make of them a nose- 
gay to carry with you always in the 
bosom of your soul, smelling them 
with love and sorrow."^^ 

"Carry such a Mystery all day 
long in the interior sanctuary of your 
heart and also frequently in the 
midst of your occupations in the in- 
terior of your oratory contemplate 
with the eye of your soul the Sweet 
Jesus in that mystery which you have 
meditated upon, and do thus every 
day. In such glances of the soul and 
of faith in the interior sanctuary, 
affections of love of God break forth. 
For example: A God sweating blood 
for me! O Love, O Infinite Charity! 
A God scourged for me! O ardent 
charity! When will I burn entirely 
with holy love? etc. These affections 
enrich the soul with treasures of life 
and grace."^^ 

The Saint takes special care to rec- 
ommend that every fixation be avoid- 
ed. We should quietly accustom our- 
selves to these interior glances at the 
mystery wherein all perfection is con- 

"Make such affections with a 
peaceful spirit, without the least 
strain of the head or heart, without 
drawing attention to oneself. Remain 
hidden from men and open to God, 
that you may live more securely."^* 

For simple souls and souls of good 
will the gradual unification of their 
days in the simple and deeply theo- 
logical gaze on the Passion was a 
powerful and at the same time hid- 
den disposition for true contempla- 
tion. At the same time the soul 
comes to have an inexhaustible re- 
serve of the presence of the spirit 
throughout all the difficulties im- 
posed on one by life. Thus he writes 
to a father of a family: 

"I rejoice in the Lord that you are 
making the prayer of Faith in the 
interior tabernacle, letting fears and 
anxieties disappear in the fire of holy 
love. Carry with you then the most 
holy sufferings of Jesus Christ — a 
thing which can be done minute by 
minute. Our Most Sweet Saviour 
will teach you if you will be very 
humble of heart."^^ 

The Passionist 

THIS recollection, however habit- 
ual, eas\' and loving it be, is not 
\ct the richest contemplation which 
St. Paul desires for generous souls. 
Certainly he affirms that the loving 
memory of the Passion is also pleas- 
ing to the Lord: 

". . . Just as our Most Sweet Lord 
had tested what He spoke of in the 
Mysteries of Mis Most Holy Passion 
so in the interior sacred sanctuary, 
keep up such holy soliloquies, but 
do it like children, who often rest 
on their mother's breast and express 
their innocent love by sweet glances 
toward the face of the mother . . . 
glances of faith and love."^*' 

He enables us to understand clear- 
ly that this exercise is only a prep- 
aration to receive the grace which 
will completely immerse the soul in 
the reality of those sufferings which 
it now compassionates. And for this 
it is necessary to think. 

". . . Carrying always in your heart 
the sweet nosegay of the most bitter 
sufferings of Jesus . . . entirely per- 
meated with these, glory in nothing 
else save in the Cross of Jesus Christ, 
and with the exercise of heroic vir- 
tues, be his true imitator. . . ."'*" 

The faithful soul begins thus to 
perceive itself approaching a point 
from which it will refuse to with- 
draw: the first steps are reached 
when the periodic remembrance of 
the Passion, now habitual by con- 
stant exercise, is accompanied by 
impressions, insights. . . . 

"One of the greatest graces which 
C»od gives to the soul is that fre- 
(|uent effect of 1 lis Most Holy Pas- 
sion which I le produces in the soul 
in naked faith. Be therefore obedient 
to the Sovereign Divine Majesty; 
profit by His most Holy teachings."**** 

The Saint prepares souls by in- 
structing them to await this grace 
which he does not know how to ex- 
plain and which cannot be ac- 
quired by us. 

"I thank the Divine Mercy that 
I le ne\cr withdraws the memory of 
the sufferings of the heavenly Spouse 
from your spirit. I wish that you 
would be entirely filled with the 
love by which I le has suffered; the 
short road is to become entirely lost 
in the sea of these sufferings, for, 
as the Projihet says, the Passion of 
Jesus is a sea of love and of sorrow. 

October 1, 1957 

"Ah, daughter! this is a great se- 
cret known only to the humble of 
heart. In this great sea, the soul 
fishes for the pearls of virtues, and 
makes its own the sufferings of its 
Beloved. I have great confidence that 
the Spouse will teach you this di- 
vine fishing, and you will be taught 
by staying in interior solitude, re- 
mo\'ing all images, far from every 
earthly affection, inattentive to every 
created thing in pure faith and holy 
love. . . ."^*' 

It is a clear allusion to mystical 
death to created things, and to a new 
knowledge which the Interior Mas- 
ter will teach the soul, communicat- 
ing a new life to it. One now be- 
gins to understand what this idea 
means: to be penetrated by the same 
love with which Jesus suffered. It is 
this new depth at which one must 
arrive, by which the sufferings of 
the Beloved will be made one's own 
even at their deepest root, to arrive 
at the love which has inspired them. 
Thus far, love for the Passion has 
been a timorous love, a grateful 
love,*"* a love of complacency: now 
it is a question of going further. We 
are close to pure, naked, radically 
holy love, to a love interiorly and 
experimentally activated by the Spirit 
of Jesus. A deeper humility and ab- 
negation will be the most certain 
means disposing the soul for mys- 
tical grace. 

"Affective prayer then, in pure 
faith, namely, the prayer of deep 
interior recollection or infused prayer 
is not something which can be ac- 
quired on one's own, by force of 
arms, as it were, since it is a gratui- 
tous gift of God. But the whole con- 
cern of the Master ought to be to 
cultivate in (the young novices) a 
deep habit of true humility of heart, 
of knowledge of one's own nothing- 
ness and of despising of self. . . . 
These are the fundamental virtues 
for the spiritual edifice and for ob- 
taining the gift of holy prayer and 
union with Cod. Otherwise it is built 
on sand.""' 

THE SOUL is now accustomed to 
the "human" mode of meditat- 
ing, frequently returning to the more 
or less confused images of Christ 
Crucified. Our Saint thinks then that 
it is now time to come to the realitv, 

and to enter into that solitude in 
which the soul is found alone with 
Ciod: into the very sanctuary of the 
soul, the most simple origin of intel- 
lect and will, which ought to be con- 
figured to Jesus Christ. "A soul and 
a God: alone, alone, alone."^- 

"Diligently endeavor to remain 
alone in that holy interior desert, 
closing the door to every created 
thing, and in this desert rest your 
spirit on the Divine Bosom of the 
heavenly Father in the sacred silence 
of faith and of holy love. Here be re- 
born in the Divine Word Jesus 
Christ to a new life of love, a deified 
life, a holy life."^"* 

The first phase of this introversion 
leads to perfect poverty of spirit, and 
to a taste for crucified prayer. It is 
the first way in which mystical death 
and mystical nativity are verified, un- 
der the aspect of purest intention 
and complete abnegation. 

"For you are dead, and your life 
is hidden with Christ in God. Con- 
sequently, being dead to everything 
which is not God, keep yourself in 
deepest detachment from e\'ery cre- 
ated thing, in true poverty and na- 
kedness of spirit, with the greatest 
detachment from every sensible con- 
solation, in which our spoiled nature 
gets too entangled and becomes a rob- 
ber of the gifts of God, a thing which 
is very dangerous and pernicious. 
With the most holy grace of Jesus 
Christ, exert all your care to remain 
continually within yourself, in true 
interior solitude, in order to become 
true adorers of the Highest Good in 
spirit and in truth. 

"Each one of you— examine your- 
selves well,— and see if there lives 
within you something which is not 
pureK' God. Learn to know this by 
examining yourself to see if you have 
the purest intention in all of your 
actions, and if you arc trying e\'ery- 
day to make your intention more 
Godlike, entirely Divine, endeavor- 
ing to perform all your actions in 
God and for His Kne alone, uniting 
your works with those of Jesus Christ 
Our Lord, Who is our Wav, Truth 
and Life.""^ 

It is a question of an intention 
which already can and ought to be 
considered in itself mystical, deiform, 
divine, even though the experimen- 
tal perception of its own passivity be 


lacking or rather weak. Tauler ex- 
pressly notes both the difference from 
ordinary purity of intention, by 
which every bad end is excluded 
from one's activity, and also the con- 
temporaneously active and fruitive 
character— and therefore not entirely 
passive— which differentiates it psy- 
chologically from the superior mys- 
tical states.®^ 

Still more than Tauler, St. Paul 
of the Cross accentuates the substan- 
tially mystical character of such an 
intention,— basing himself on the sub- 
lime concept of hiding one's own 
life in Christ. Experiencing that "if 
one died for all, therefore all died,""^ 
the soul operates in a new way, in 
the expressly intentional union of its 
own actions with those of Christ, the 
Way, Truth and Life, and by detach- 
ing itself from all complacency in 
the gifts of prayer, in order to think 
only of the privilege of suffering with 

"Its entire repose is in God and 
not in His gifts. Take great care and 
be most faithful in remaining in in- 
terior solitude, letting this drop of 
one's spirit disappear (thus would I 
say) into the immense sea of the 
Divinity. But this flight of faith and 
of love ought to be made in Christ 
Jesus,— always united in spirit, but 
without images, to His Most Holy 
Passion. God will teach you every 
thing, and remaining always in the 
Bosom of God you will always be re- 
born to a new life of love in the Di- 
vine Word Jesus Christ."^'' 

The soul gives proof of this— its 
own superior vitality, which tears it 
away from its customary course, es- 
pecially when prayer is richer and 
obviously fruitful. 

IT HAS been said correctly how se- 
verely our Saint looked upon 
every kind of prayer which even re- 
motely involved sensible feelings or 

On this question he expressly ap- 
pealed to the doctrine of St. John of 
the Cross, as to the practical reason 
why it is always necessary to work 
against illuminations or feelings that 
are too distinct, however good they 
might appear. 

"In relation to those visions which 
you had, and which from the effects 
produced in your soul, do not seem 


to be false . . . anyway, I am going 
to tell you the doctrine of St. John 
of the Cross, the great master of the 
spirit. He teaches that visions, locu- 
tions, revelations, especially when 
they are frequent, ought always to 
be driven away, in order to free one- 
self from any possible deception. For 
if (says the Saint) they are from 
God, even though you drive them 
away, their good effect and divine 
impression will always remain in the 
spirit; and if they are from the en- 
emy, the soul will be freed from de- 
ception by driving them away."^^ 

We will not dwell upon the ques- 
tion of prudence (never sufficient in 
a matter so dangerous,— especially in 
his times)— which counselled all pos- 
sible severity and strictness. On this 
point our Saint does not differ from 
St. Alphonsus Liguori^"° and from 
others still more strict. 

But in his own doctrine the deep- 
est reason for prudence and purifica- 
tion is that the only image from 
which the divine light will shine 
forth, in time, is already materially 
present to the spirit. But the soul 
does not yet entirely perceive the 
meaning of contemplating the Pas- 
sion in spirit and truth within the 
soul, into which images do not en- 
ter, but only spiritual "ideals" and 
spiritual "affections." 

The abundance of consolations is 
therefore the first means of perceiv- 
ing whether there already exists in 
the secret of one's soul the ideal of 
not "losing sight of the great God of 
consolations."^*'^ For while the soul 
does not feel itself ready for this men- 
tal renunciation, it can be certain 
that its own ideal is not yet moulded 
and operative. 

But if, on the other hand, this 
purity of intention is found to be 
present, then this poor nothing, de- 
spoiled of every consolation, can al- 
ready rejoice over being, at the apex 
of the spirit, in God. 

"Sometimes ... I said . . . that to 
be holy means an N and a T. Who- 
ever walks in a more interior spirit, 
understands the meaning, but one 
who has not yet entered into true 
deep solitude, does not know how to 
grasp the meaning. The N means 
that you are a horrible nothing; the 
T is God Who is the Infinite All by 
His Essence. Therefore let the N of 

your nothingness disappear in the 
Infinite All, Who is the Most High 
God, and here lose all in the abyss 
of the immense Divinity. Oh, what 
a noble work this is!"^°^ 

THE more spiritual graces do not 
even depart from this rule. St. 
Paul used to refer to those more spir- 
itual and supernatural graces which 
it pleased the Lord to send to more 
spiritually advanced souls as "divine 
mercies."^ "'^ Such for example, was 
the easy and relishing communion 
With God which he describes,— bor- 
rowing from Saint Theresa the meta- 
phor of watering the garden, no 
longer done with instruments, but by 
heavenly rain.^^* Owing to these 
graces, the criterion of prudence is 
naturally not of much use; these 
graces are sheer impulsions to good, 
to virtue.^"'' In fact the Saint begs 
a penitent "to take great account of 
that grace of keeping the heart con- 
trite and humble,"^ °^ and to another 
advanced soul, with reference to "the 
operations which God effects in his 
soul," he repeats: 

"Receive everything with the sim- 
plicity of a child, and the more ig- 
norant you will be in not understand- 
ing the Divine operations, so much 
the more will you receive the Gift of 
Wisdom and the science of the 
saints, without knowing it, without 
understanding it."^"^ 

But even here the meaning of 
these graces is beyond doubt: the 
Divine Crucified One Who illumines 
the contemplation in question, is 
their final object. 

"When some rather deep consola- 
tions of the spirit come, it is a sign 
that God wishes to strengthen the 
soul, in order that we might prepare 
ourselves to suffer more for His love. 
My daughter, believe me, crosses will 
not be lacking, and the more your 
suffering increases, the more you will 
make progress in the service of God. 
This is the life of Christ, this is the 
life of the servants of the Lord. Em- 
brace the Holy Cross therefore with 
a good heart. "^'*^ 

Following the doctrine of the 
Saint, the soul now knows how to 
take any event whatsoever immedi- 
ately from God, as a kind favor from 
His hand. Knowing then the Divine 
intention, the soul cannot make a 

The Passionist 

mistake. It is put in a state of com- 
plete nakedness of spirit, but the 
stripping is most pleasant, like a com- 
munion of spirit between lovers. Ma- 
terially the gift is still the means, but 
already the tiny mind of the creature 
meets the Paternal Mind in a clear 
intuition: a true experience of mys- 
tical vitality, even though it is naked 
faith which gives it. 

"I bless and give thanks to the 
Divine Goodness for His mercies 
which He continues to pour forth 
upon your soul, and indeed the ex- 
traordinary grace of contrition ... is 
one of the greatest mercies that His 
Divine Majesty has given to you up 
to now. . . . This demands a great 
cooperation with and fidelity to the 
Blessed God . . . abasing yourself 
always more and more in your own 
true nothingness and letting your 
nothingness disappear in the Infinite 
All . . . returning every gift to the 
Divine Source from which it sprang, 
not trusting in sensible things, but 
remaining on the Bosom of God in 
pure and naked faith, accepting with- 
out concern whatever the Highest 
Good bestows, without becoming lost 
in the gift, but rather using the gift 
of grace in order to lose oneself more 
in the abyss of the Divinity in Jesus 
Christ Our Lord. With the greatest 
fidelity, remain alone in the interior 
temple, in order to be reborn more 
every minute to a Deiform life in the 
Divine Word, Christ Our Lord. This 
section of the letter is to be read and 
re-read, and, what is more important, 
put into practice. 


TiuiE contemplation and union 
with (lod is not therefore perfect- 
ed in the interior touch but in the 
spiritual vitality of the soul, which is 
united to God in full knowledge by 
an operating grace of true charity. 
The Saint is entirely correct in insist- 
ing on this point which clearly and 
unequivocally transfers the mystical 
passi\ity of the soul from the psy- 
chological plane to the theological, 
giving both the joy of wisdom which 
contemplates and the security of not 
loving anvthing immediately save 

The Passion thus begins to become 
one's life, in the interior worship 
which makes use of the gifts of pray- 
er as incense, by taking as the true 

October 1, 1957 

grace of imion precisely this repose 
in pure faith in the Bosom of the 
Father, while even one's own being, 
along with the consolations, are sac- 
rificed to Him. 

"I recommend to you an ever-in- 
creasing holy, interior solitude, con- 
tinuing in it day and night in all 
your occupations, in all places, with 
great detachment and mystical death 
to everything which is not God. Take 
great care to separate the precious 
from that of small account. . . . 
When such a separation of our noth- 
ingness from the most holy gifts of 
the Most High has been made, you 
must make of these an incense to His 
Divine Majest\' in the same holo- 
caustal sacrifices which the soul 
makes of itself to God in the fire of 
His Divine Charity, which ought al- 
ways to remain enkindled in the 
small bundle of myrrh and of the 
sweet-smelling wood of the sufferings 
of Jesus and of the sorrows of Most 
Holy Mary,— which is done without 
images, nay, which is exercised in a 
moment in great detachment, since 
love teaches everything . . . rest in 
naked faith and pure love in the 
bosom of God, all clothed with Jesus 

Indeed from this point, the mys- 
tical reposes are not conceded by the 
Saint unless as a result of a personal 
act of pure love, which loves God as 
He wishes to be loved, with full lib- 
erty, in religious and filial worship, 
with the wise foolishness"^ of the 
stripping which brings to nought 
every created thing, even the high- 
est, so as not to find anything in 
the spirit save the Source of every 

"The brooks are good, because 
they spring from the fountain, but 
the living fountain is better. Abase 
yourself and lose yoinsclf always 
more and more in God with a love 
that is pure, spotless and unposses- 
sivc. Do not look for sensible con- 
solations, which one should sacrifice 
to the Lord, but put such favors in 
the thurible of the heart and in the 
fire of a most pure, holy love, and 
otter incense to the Most High with 
gratitude, remaining in true naked- 
ness of spirit, stripped and detached 
from everything which is not God, 
etc. "- 

"Accept from God what He gives, 

but do not become lost in or attached 
to the gifts, lest you lose sight of the 
Sovereign Giver, and remain in per- 
fect poverty and nakedness of spirit 
and in a true mystical death.""^ 

THIS meaning of mystical death is 
the oldest in use"'* and the most 
frequent. It enables one to teach that 
this mystical prayer can be experi- 
enced in every place and in every 
action.""' Detachment and aloofness 
from the world are thus seen in their 
proper light, not as an impossible 
separation, nor as a flight which is 
not always possible, but as an inces- 
sant offering of every created thing 
to God, to glorify Him, blessing Him 
for having thus given to a poor noth- 
ing, that which is alone proper to 
the Son, namely, the possibility of 
remaining in a state of continual per- 
sonal donation of all one's being to 
the Father, sustained by "the loving 
breeze of the Holy Spirit.^ ^® 

"If your prayer is fruitful, espe- 
cially your present prayer, you ought 
to keep yourself in a state of mys- 
tical death to all that is not God, 
with the greatest detachment from 
every created thing, which is the 
same . . . (in order to) seek and 
deal with God in pure and naked 
faith in the holy interior desert, 
w^here that Divine Mystical Nativity 
is celebrated, by which the soul is 
reborn in the Divine Word."^" 

The first mystical death, effected 
by total detachment from all crea- 
tures, still has the character of a dis- 
position, as St. Paul of the Cross- 
following Tauler"^ — clearly indi- 

"Prayer must be made in a mode 
which is not our own, but that of 
the Holy Spirit, Who is the true 
So\'ereign Master. The most proxi- 
mate dispositions for this heavenly 
jirayer are the following: Total de- 
tachment, cmuplete nakedness of 
spirit, self-possessioit and unity of the 
interior man. ... If you wish to be 
safe, enter into this divine solitude 
through the door which is Jesus 
Christ and His Most Holy Passion, 
but without images, in pure faith. 
... 1 he 1 loly Spirit u ill teach you 
everything. . . .""" 

The soul thus proceeds toward an 
ever deeper configuration of its own 
(Continued on page 370) 


Our Proper Again 


IT WAS a great encouragement to receive such a large number of 
complimentary letters from the brethren in both provinces who 
wholeheartedly approved of the article "Toward Simplifying the 
Passionists Proper," in The Passionist for Sept.-Oct., 1956 (Vol. 
IX, No. 5). Complete agreement however, was not the subject 
matter of every letter. Some few held that our Proper could be 
simplified far beyond the suggestions offered. Another few would 
preserve one or other feast which the article excluded. Among the 
latter might be classified the letter of Fr. Roger Mercurio, appear- 
ing in The Passionist for Feb. 1957 (Vol. X, No. 1, pp. 60-61). 
Because the publication of this letter gave me no opportunity 
to answer it immediately, I engaged in private correspondence 
with Fr. Roger. At his request, and to stimulate further discussion 
of a subject which affects all of us, this reply to his letter is being 

In seeking to justify the feasts of Sts. Gemma Galgani and 
Maria Goretti in our Proper, Fr. Roger says: "These two Saints, 
whether we like it or not, are historically closely associated with 
our Congregation." Many disagree with this statement. No one 
will deny that it is essential to formulate General Norms govern- 
ing our Proper, and to my mind, the first of these should be, to 
accept only those feasts which have some intimate connection with 
the entire Congregation, and not, norms which appeal only to a 
particular house, province, or country. Otherwise, the caotic con- 
dition which now exists, can be repeated endlessly in the future. 

It is only by an inf-ensive study and 

a frank discussion of different points of view 

that a Passionist Proper will emerge 

of which we con be justly proud. 

The Passionist 

To show that these two Saints are not 
historically connected with the entire 
Congregation, let us take an imagi- 
nary, hut parallel case. Suppose a 
young woman, deeply devoted to the 
Passion, asked For admission to the 
Passionist Nuns in Pittsburgh. She is 
refused, but has one of the monks 
there as her confessor and spiritual 
director. After her death she is can- 
onized, and her body is buried in the 
convent chapel. Would anyone be so 
naive as to suggest that this hypothe- 
tical person is historically connected 
with the Passionist Congregation? 
Would it not be more proper to say 
that she was associated with the small 
branch in Pittsburgh? Would anyone 
honestly think that the feast of such 
a Saint would, or should, be cele- 
brated by the Passionists in Australia, 
Japan, and Italy, to mention only a 
few countries of our international 
Congregation? Or, suppose a girl is 
murdered in Chicago while defend- 
ing her chastity, and is buried in our 
church there. Would she, by diat 
fact, be closely associated with the 
world-wide Passionists, or, more accu- 
rately, with the Chicago monastery. 
In adopting General Norms for our 
Proper, they must not be so elastic 
as to include almost everyone who is 
a contemporary of the Passionist Con- 
gregation. The historical connection 
which these two Saints have with the 
Congregation since their deaths, 
largely consists of the fact that they 
are in our Proper. Any Saint who is 
annually commemorated in every 
Passionist monastery, would, in time, 
become historically closely associated 
with us. The whole question is, 
should they be in our Proper in the 
first place I do not intend to mini- 
mize the hohness of these Saints, nor 
the personal devotion ol some of the 
monks to them, but the fact that one 
had a Passionist spiritual director, 
and the other is buried in one of our 
monastery churches, is not, to my 
mind, a sudicient reason for holding 
that they are historically closely asso- 
ciated with the Passionist Congrega- 
tion, or should have a place in our 
Proper. How can we logically ex- 
clude .Anna Maria Taigi if she is 
canonized, as a spiritual daughter of 
St. Vincent, when we accept St. 
Cemma, as a spiritual daughter of Fr. 

October 1, 1957 

FH. Roger would retain the feast 
of St. Leonard, "not merely be- 
cause of his association with our holy 
Founder, but precisely because he is 
the official patron of home mission- 
aries." As is well known, St. Leonard 
was included in our Proper long be- 
fore he was declared the patron of 
home missionaries, so this cannot be 
the reason why he is there. If the 
reason for his feast among us be his 
association with our holy Founder, 
shall we accept any Saint canonized 
in the future, for the meagre reason 
that he knew St. Paul during life? 
When this Saint was declared the 
patron of home missionaries, did the 
Jesuits abandon St. Ignatius as the 
patron of their missionaries, the 
Dominicans, St. Dominic; or the Re- 
demptorists, their missionary Found- 
er, St. Alphonsus, and petition for 
the feast of St. Leonard in their 
Projiers? We need not go outside the 
Congregation for a patron and ex- 
emplar, for our holy Founder should 
be the special patron of every Pas- 
sionist missionary, at home or abroad. 
To my mind, then, St. Leonard does 
not merit a place in our Proper be- 
cause he is the patron of home mis- 
sionaries, even as he is not found in 
the Proper of other missionary Orders 
or Congregations, for that reason. 

CONCERNING the Passion Offices, 
Fr. Roger writes: "The weekly 
celebration of these Passion Offices 
during Lent seems to me to be in 
little conformity with the spirit and 
even the legislation of the recent 
Decretum Generale." Such a state- 
ment is false. With one stroke of the 
pen, the legislator could have sup- 
pressed the feast days in Lent, and 
made the ferial office obligatory for 
all. Instead, the decree reads: "When 
any feast other than one of the first 
or second class occurs on the ferial 
days of Lent or Passiontide, from Ash 
Wednesday until the day before 
Palm Sunday, both the office (in pri- 
vate recitation) and the Mass of 
either the ferial dav or the feast may 
be said" (Tit. 11,'d., No. 22). For 
us to say the Mass and office of the 
Passion feasts in Lent, is then, in per- 

Father Ronald Murray. C.P.. is a member 
of St. Paul of the Cross Province. Father 
received his doctorate in theology in 
Rome and then was a lector for several 

feet conformity with the legislation 
of the Decretum Generale. Everyone 
agrees that the new Decree stresses 
the temporal cycle during Lent, but 
neither the letter nor the spirit 
stresses the temporal cycle to the ex- 
clusion of feasts. Indeed, on the Pas- 
sion feasts, the Church insists that 
the public recitation of the office be 
of the feast, while the ferial office 
may be recited privately. We must 
always be careful not to let our per- 
sonal preferences masquerade under 
the guise of the 'spirit' of any par- 
ticular legislation. Since the Church 
allows us to keep these feasts during 
Lent, 1, for one, would not want to 
see them changed to another time. 

The protest that, "there is no litur- 
gical foundation" for the suggestion 
to use common psalms already in the 
breviary with proper antiphons, was 
answered, I believe, in the objection 
which was raised, and answered, in 
the original article. Briefly, it was 
this: the antiphons, being an intro- 
duction to the psalms, are sometimes 
paired off with appropriate psalms. 
But, when one considers the amazing 
versatility of the psalms of Sunday 
Lauds, which are used wdth a great 
variety of proper antiphons, there 
should be no great objection to do- 
ing the same at Matins. Now, it 
might be objected that 'what is sauce 
for the goose,' is not always sauce for 
the gander, and that the liturgical 
foundation for Lauds greatly differs 
from that of Matins. So, let us look at 
some examples from Matins. Six of 
the nine psalms for Matins of a Con- 
fessor-Pontiff, and the feast of the 
Crown of Thorns, are the same. A 
similar situation is had lor the feast 
of the Lance and Nails. If antiphons 
as various as those for a Confessor- 
Pontiff, the Crown of Thorns, and 
the Lance and Nails, can introduce 
some of the common Matins psalms, 
then the suggestion does not lack a 
liturgical foundation. To expand it 
a bit further and include all the 
psalms of iMatins, should cause the 
liturgical foundation no undue stress 
or strain. 

IN IRVING to pair ofT projx^r anti- 
phons with appropriate psalms, 
we should not forget that while there 
are hundreds of proix'r antiphons, 
(Continued on page 372) 


The good of that which is measured 
or ruled consists in its conformity 
with its rule. This principle finds a 
variety of applications under the pen 
of the Angelic Doctor. Here Q-II, q. 
64, a. 1; cf. ll-Il, q. 17, a. 1) he is dis- 
cussing the rule of reason as the mean 
of virtue. He invokes the principle 
again in his search for a fitting defini- 
tion of sin CI-ll, q. 71, a. 6). Finally, 
his inquiry into the texture of human 
law leads him to rephrase it thus: 
Everything that is ruled and m.eas- 
ured must have a form proportionate 
to its rule and m.eas%ire (III, a. 95, 
a. 3). 

Not much reflection is required to 
enable the Passionist to conclude that 
all his perfection consists in conform- 
ity with the prescriptions of the Holy 
Rule. He recalls "that they are held 
to be most powerful means and well- 
suited for attaining to Christian per- 
fection. . . " (H.R. 320). He recalls 
too, St. Paul's unwearied solicitude 
for its detailed observance. "Above all 
things, observe the Holy Rules exact- 
ly, making account of every point, 
even the smallest" (Circular Letter 
of 1751, Lett. IV, 231). "Finally we 
inculcate on all our religious the 
punctual and exact observance of the 
Holy Rules. . . " (Circular Letter of 
1755, Lett. IV, p. 253). 

WHAT, then, are we to think and 
say about the proposed revision 
of these Rules? Perhaps there are 
some who would wish to maintain an 
attitude of unswerving loyalty to the 
legislation of our Holy Founder. 
They have convinced themselves that 
they can never be the kind of Pass- 
ionist envisaged by St. Paul of the 
Cross unless they reproduce in its 
tiniest detail the portrait that he con- 
ceived and sketched. We may won- 
der, however, whether such a con- 
viction does not betray a cult of de- 
tail that is both undiscriminating and 
unthinking. Is our religious perfec- 
tion to be identified with a scrupu- 
lous observance of the Rule, even 
when this observance is taken largely 
in a material sense? Is there not dan- 
ger here of that perfectionism and 
phariseeism so roundly scored by Our 

It is clear, then, that the answer 
must be sought elsewhere. If mechan- 
ical legalism is no solution, shall we 


m Ru 

we Profess 


The parf-icular character like the 

singular splendor of the holiness that God 

expects of us, should be derived from 

the monastic code of our great Patriarch. 

cultivate a rather blase unconcern for 
paulacrucian legislation. After all, we 
may remind ourselves, one cannot 
legislate sanctity. We must go beyond 
the letter of the rule to the life-giv- 
ing spirit— which will sometimes im- 
ply going contrary to the letter as 
well. Conformity to Christ Crucified 
is something more than perfect ful- 
fillment of law. 

IF WE study our Holy Rules against 
the backdrop of the thomistic con- 
cept of law, we shall be both enlight- 
ened and comforted. It wall be an 
easy matter to steer our way between 
the Scylla of mechanical legalism and 
the Charybdis of an irresponsible 

For St. Thomas the Eternal Law is 
the type of divine wisdom which 
directs all actions and motions. It is 
the idea or ideal plan of the govern- 
ment of things found in God, the 
Ruler of the universe. The Eternal 
Law, as it is plunged into time and 
imprinted on the heart of man, be- 
comes the Natural Law. The Natural 
Law, being of a universal and generic 
character, is broken up into particu- 
lar determinations devised by human 
reason to meet the recurrent contin- 

Father Barry Rankin, C.P., a member of 
Holy Cross Province, is director of stu- 
dents at Immaculate Conception Retreat, 
Chicago, 111. Father Barry received his 
doctorate in theology at the Angelicum, 

gencies of life. These are styled 
Human Laws. 

What the Doctor Communis stress- 
es over and over again is that law fol- 
lows nature. In His wisdom God has 
fashioned His creation in certain 
definite ways. Creatures enjoy vari- 
ous modes of being, and there is an 
established pattern of activity corre- 
sponding to each mode. This pattern 
of activity is not determined first. Not 
at all! It flows from and is in con- 
formity with the God-given nature of 
the being. Because God has made a 
thing to exist in a certain way, its 
activity, at least its well-ordered activ- 
ity, will be exercised in accord with 
what it is, so that it may achieve the 
fullness of being and purpose des- 
tined for it by God. 

Man is a creature of intelligence 
and free choice. His pattern of activ- 
ity, accordingly, is not characterized 
by the necessity of coercion but of 
inducement (cf. De Verit., q. 17, a. 
3). The rest of material creation con- 
forms to the natural law automatical- 
ly, but man must conform himself 
to it through deliberation and elec- 
tion. Law in man's case, however, 
concerns not so much his psychologi- 
cal liberty as his moral obligation. Be- 
cause man has a rational nature, he 
is obligated, he is "bound" to act in 
a way that befits that nature— and 
this is the natural moral law. If God 

The Passionist 

in His infinite goodness and liberality 
builds on this nature, invests man 
with a "supernaturc," there will be a 
correspondingly more exalted norm 
of activity— and this we know as the 
divine positive law of the Old and 
New Testaments. 

"In the same way as the baptismal 
vows are the initial point of our 
supernatural holiness," declares Ab- 
bot Marmion, "so monastic profession 
is the first impulsion towards our 
Benedictine perfection" (^Christ, the 
Ideal of the Monk, p. 116). This con- 
cept of profession as a second bap- 
tism is classic in the history of mon- 
asticism. Just as baptism engenders 
the new Christian nature and en- 
graves in its inmost depths the law 
of charity, so religious profession im- 
parts a new refinement and orienta- 
tion to this supernature. While it 
makes the goal of Christian perfec- 
tion more precise, more particular- 
ized, it affords at the same time addi- 
tional norms and guidance that are 
meant to channel one's efforts and 
make them effective. For a new 
nature or more exactly, for a new 
mode of supernature, there must be 
a new pattern of supernatural activ- 
ity if the person is to acquire the full- 
ness of being that is only initially be- 
stowed in religious profession. 

This seems to be the fundamental 
reason why Marmion goes on to in- 
sist: "It is not, in fact, either a Do- 
minican perfection, nor a Carthusian 
perfection which is to arise from our 
profession: it is a Benedictine per- 
fection; for our vows have in view 
the practice of the Rule of St. Bene- 
dict and of the Constitutions which 
govern us" (ibid.). 

In another place he enlarges on the 
underlying theological reasons, in a 
passage that is as appropriate as it is 
beautiful. "Besides the means of sanc- 
tification that are common to all the 
members of Christ's Mystical Body, 
such as the Sacraments, there exists, 
so to speak, in each Order, a special 
means corresponding to this institu- 
tion and to which souls belonging to 
this Order ought preferably to be at- 
tached, so as to arrive at perfection. 
Upon Christian predestination, God 
has enf^rafted for us the Benedictine 
predestination; we must not think in- 
deed that God has left our monastic 
vocation to chance; every religious 

October 1, 1957 

vocation, constituting a special grace, 
is the fruit of the infinite and priv- 
ileged love which Christ Jesus bears 
to a soul: 'Intuitus eum dilexit eum' 
(Mk 10, 21); and it is only by an act 
of His sovereign and Divine will that 
the Word gives us this immense 
grace. We definitely responded to 
this call on the day of our profession; 
but do not let us lose sight of the fact 
that we have made profession 'secun- 
dum Regulam S.P.N. Benedict; The 
partictdar character like the singidar 
splendour of the holiness that God 
expects of us, should he derived from 
the monastic code of our great Patri- 
arch. It is not in following the Rule 
of St. Augustine or the institutions of 
the Carthusians, however, great and 
lofty they be, that we shall arrive at 
the perfection that Christ demands 
of us. To a particular vocation, a 
special perfection, or rather a special 
form of holiness, ought to respond" 
Cid., pp. 311-312; italics added). 

AT HIS religious profession the 
Passionist is clothed with 
Christ Crucified. But as a being is, so 
does it act. All his activity, therefore, 
is redolent of one who has died with 
Christ to live only for God and in 
God. Just as a man has no choice 
but to live as a man, according to the 
laws of physical and psychic health, 
for instance, so the Passionist has no 
choice but to live as a Passionist, i.e., 
according to that divinely sanctioned 
norm of activity, the Holy Rule. The 
life of a Passionist demands by its 
very constitution and inner cohesion 
prayer and poverty, solitude and pen- 
ance. A Passionist can no more neg- 
lect these essential expressions of his 
nature and still retain his identity, 
than a man can forego nourishment 
and still remain a man. It is the law 
of his nature. Passionist law spells out 
the kind of relationship existing be- 
tween end and means: conformity 
with Christ Crucified and Passionist 
religious activity. 

We should note in passing that 
nothing can supply for the lack of an 
essential element of Passionist life. If 
a Passionist culpably or inculpably is 
deprived of prayer or jwverty, soli- 
tude or penance, he can never attain 
Passionist perfection. If he cannot or 
will not observe an essential point of 
paulacrucian legislation, a specifically 

Passionist holiness will never be 
realized in his life. He may be obey- 
ing God's will, he may be sanctifying 
his soul, but he will not become per- 
fect with that Passionist perfection 
to which God evidently predestined 
him. This may come as a hard saying 
to many. 

On the other hand, a Passionist can 
find no greater peace and joy than in 
the observance of his Rule. And the 
reason for this is that every being 
finds its connatural activity sweet and 
pleasant. The Passionist has a divine 
guarantee that he will find happiness 
in being poor and mortified, living 
retired from the world and in com- 
munion with God. 

From all that has been said, it 
should be quite evident how errone- 
ous it is to think of our Passionist 
Rule as a restraining force on our 
lives, a barrier limiting our activities, 
an expression of something akin to 
tyranny to be evaded whenever pos- 
sible. It is almost as erroneous, and 
certainly perilous, to divorce the Rule 
from the interior spirit of charity. As 
we have seen, our Rule is nothing 
but the charity of Christ Crucified 
working itself out in the concrete sit- 
uations of our Passionist life. 

By now, most of us are familiar 
with these words of Pope Pius XII: 
"All members of the states of religi- 
ous and evangelical perfection must 
ever bear in mind and frequently re- 
call in God's presence, that it is not 
enough for the fulfillment of their 
bounden duty that they avoid mortal 
sin and, with God's help, even venial 
sin, nor that they fulfill in a purely 
mechanical way the commands of 
their superiors, their vows which 
bind in conscience, or even the Rule 
of their Community. 

"The Church herself in her sacred 
canons bids: 'omnes et singuli relig- 
iosi, Superiores aeqiie ac sithditi, de- 
hent . . . vitam comfronere atque ita 
ad perfectiotievi sui status contendere 
(can. 593) in accordance with these 
same holy Rules. For they must do 
all these things wholeheartedly and 
with burning love for G(k1, not mere- 
ly from compulsion hut also for con- 
science' sake (Rom 13, 5). In order 
to ascend to the heights of holiness, 
and to make ourselves living foun- 
tains of charity for all men, they must 
(Continued on page 359) 


His Passion 


ONE of the most characteristic 
and tender elements in the 
spirituahty of Saint Paul of 
the Cross is his constant, 
grateful remembrance of Christ's Sa- 
cred Passion. He would have his re- 
ligious "often recall to mind devout- 
ly the sacred Mysteries of the Pas- 
sion." On Fridays this loving mem- 
ory is to be kept in a more special 
way, for it was on this day of history 
that Christ died for us Ci^oly Rules, 
299, 127, 305). Yet that death is not 
simply a long-ago tragedy, as might 
be Socrates' death, or that of Caesar. 
In Paul's vision of faith Christ is dy- 
ing now; the power of His sufferings 
is a present, throbbing reality that 
might at any moment reach out and 
transform a man. The Passion of 
Christ, he insists, is "life-giving," and 
from this vital mystery "all religious 
perfection and sanctity take their in- 
crease" Q^id, 127, 170). Indeed, this 
two-fold consideration of the Passion 
—as historically past, yet ever opera- 
tive—is not peculiar to Paul of the 
Cross; it is the common viewq)oint of 
all Christian tradition. In the full- 
ness of time God sent His Son . . . 
who suffered under Pontius Pilate 
... on the preparation day for the 
Passover, about the sixth hour. Yet 
this word of the Cross is the power 
of God for them that are saved, even 
for us! No temptation is overcome, 
no sin repented, no grace bestowed, 
no perfection achieved, except by the 

supernatural power that goes forth 
from the wounds of Christ. His Pas- 
sion, accomplished long ago in his- 
tory, remains today a true efficient 
cause of our salvation. All Christian- 
ity proclaims this truth when it 
breathes the prayer: "Passio Christi, 
conforta me." 

Difficulty seems to confront us, 
though, as we try to reconcile this 
double point-of-view. The principles 
of sound philosophy demand that an 
efficient cause should be in contact 
with the effect it is producing. Such 
contact can be bodily— as when 
Christ placed His strong hands on 
the money-changer's table and sent 
it toppling over. Or it can be the con- 
tact of spiritual power, like Our 
Lord's cure of the centurion's ser- 
vant, who was lying sick miles away. 
Now, neither of these two kinds of 
contact seems to be in evidence when 
it is a question of Christ's Passion, 
an historical event some twenty cen- 
turies old, producing effects in our 
souls today. For here the gap of dis- 
tance between cause and effect is not 
merely one of space, which could be 
spanned by spiritual power. It is a 
gap of time. Or more precisely, one 
of existence. The historical Passion 
of Christ no longer exists: "Christ, 
having risen from the dead, dies now 
no more" (Rom. 6, 9). Yet we say 
that the effects of that Passion, the 
workings of grace in our souls, are 
being produced today. As though a 


In Paul's vision of Faith, Christ is 
dying now: the power of his sufferings 
is a present, throbbing reality that 
might at any moment reach out and 
transform a man. 


The Passionist 

man might swing a hammer tomor- 
row, and twenty centuries from now 
—when hammer had turned to dust— 
a nail should suddenly go plunging 
into wood. Such a thing is manifest- 
ly impossible: that a non-existent 
cause should produce real effects. In 
some way, then, Christ's Passion, 
since it is a true effecient cause of 
our salvation, must span that gap of 
time. In some way the power of His 
sufferings must reach across the cen- 
turies, to exist simultaneously with 
the effects of that power today. For 
every efficient cause must be in con- 
tact with the effect it is producing. 

ST. Thomas, in the Third Part of 
his Siuymia Theologica, has, I 
believe, provided the theological solu- 
tion to our problem. For he, too, con- 
sidered it a problem, when he took 
up the question of the efficient caus- 
ality of Christ's Passion and Resur- 
rection. We may fairly summarize his 
thought in the following brief para- 

"An efficient cause (he objects) 
acts only through contact, either spir- 
itual or corporeal. Now Christ's Pas- 
sion could not contact all mankind 
. . . owing to distance of time and 
place. Therefore it could not efficient- 
ly bring about the salvation of all 

His reply is as succinct and closely 
reasoned as was the objection: 

"Since Christ's humanity is the in- 
strument of the Codhead, therefore, 
all Christ's actions and sufferings op- 
erate instrumentally in the power of 
His Godhead. And the power of the 
Godhead reaches by its presence all 
places and all times. Consequently 
Christ's Passion does accomplish 
men's salvation as an efficient cause " 
(III, 48, 6 and 56, 1). 

So succinct, in fact, is this explana 
tion, that we can profitably analyze 
and ponder it at some greater length. 
The key to our difficulty, the Angelic 
Doctor would seem to say, is that we 
have been considering the Passion of 
Christ insofar as it was the suffering 
of His human nature merely as such. 
Shall we forget that this humanity is 
an instrument personally conjoined 
to the Ciodhead? 

Any instrument shares the capacity 
of the one who uses it, and in his 
hands can do things ever so much bc- 

OCTOBER 1, 1957 

yond its own unaided ability. A 
brush, for example, simple tuft of 
camel's hair fastened to the end of a 
stick, can produce a Sistine Madon- 
na when wielded by a Raphael. And 
so with every instrument: the things 
it does in the hands of someone bet- 
ter than itself are utterly beyond its 
own native power. They are equal 
to the higher power of the one who 
wields the instrument. 

And the sufferings of Christ are 
the instrument of God. As such, the 
power of those sufferings will be able 
to reach as far as God Himself can 
reach. Now, Divine power embraces 
in an eternal now-moment all points 
of time. Therefore, the humanity of 
Christ, once swept up through per- 
sonal union into the realm of Divine 
activity, participates in the eternal 
character of that activity. All His hu- 
man actions and sufferings, accom- 
plished in successive moments of 
time as they are— and from this his- 
torical viewpoint now over and done 
—can yet, in the hands of Divinity, 
surpass the limited efficacy that 
would ordinarily be theirs. They can 
reach out to operate perpetually in 
the souls of men. This is true of all 
Christ's activity; it is pre-eminently 
true of the central Mystery which 
governed His life— the sacrifice of the 
Cross. Precisely as a divine instru- 
ment, Christ's historic Passion can 
operate effectively in all times sub- 
sequent to its occurrence. In this true 
sense His Passion is today. ^ 

Not that the painful sufferings of 
Christ, and His bloody death, are 
repeated in our day: "Christ dies 
now no more. " Indeed, there is no 
need of this. "Once for all, at the 
end of the ages. He has appeared for 
the destruction of sin by the sacrifice 
of Himself." It suffices that this "of- 
fering of the body of Jesus Christ 
once for all' be placed as an instru- 
ment in the hands of the Godhead, 
whose Almighty Power swallows up 
all time. In fact, it is for this very 
reason that Christ's sufferings could 
be "once for all.' II He had been 
mere man, I le, like every other 
merely human high-priest, would 
have had to "stand daily ministering, 
and repeatedly offering the same sac- 

Confrater Vincent Giegerich, C.P., is a 
member of Holy Cross Province and study- 
ing theoloey at Sacred Heart Retreat, 
Louisville, Ky. 

rifices. . . . He would have had to 
suffer often since the beginning of 
the world" (Cf. Heb., 9, 26; 10, 10- 
11). But because He suffered and 
died as instrument of the Divine 
Word, His single historical sacrifice 
transcends time in its life-giving pow- 
er. It could truly be once and for all.- 

IN TRYING to explain St. Thomas' 
solution we have repeatedly used 
the two phrases "historical sufferings" 
and "efficient cause of our salvation." 
Perhaps the meaning of our thesis 
will stand out more forcibly, if we 
now indicate in detail what we in- 
clude, and what we do not include, 
in those two phrases. First, the phrase 
"efficient cause of our salvation." Let 
us carefully distinguish this efficient, 
causal contact, which Christ in the 
Passion has with all His members of 
future ages, from His psychological 
contact of knowledge and love with 
those members. Both types of contact 
transcend time, but for different rea- 
sons and in different modes. Christ 
on the Cross was, as mere man, that 
is, as a principal agent, capable of 
psychological contact with all the 
members of His Mystical Body. This 
was by reason of the Beatific Vision, 
which He even then enjoyed. For 
in the Beatific Vision there is no be- 
fore and after of time. The beatified 
man sees in a single, immediate, and 
unchangeable vision both the Un- 
created God and all those created 
things, past, present, and future, in 
which man would have some in- 
terest. Hence it was that Christ "in 
the Crib, on the Cross . . . had all 
the members of the Church present 
before Him . . . and embraced them 
with His redeeming love" (Encyc, 
Mystici Corporis, Paulist Press edi- 
tion, 83).^ All this Christ had as 
man— as beatified man, it is true, but 
still as man. Such psychological con- 
tact is not at all opposed to, rather it 
harmonizes perfectly with the physi- 
cal, causal contact of which we 
speak: the Christ who knows and 
loves so tenderly is the very Christ 
who operates intimately in our souls. 
The point we wish to make here is 
simply this: the Beatific Vision did 
not of itself give Christ the physical 
power to work in the souls of His 
members. 1 his elficient power was 
(Continued on page 371) 


Unless we priests and teachers know our faith in an experi- 
mental way, we will never understand divine wisdom nor 
ever be capable of teaching others. 

K^ ALVATiON is from the jews" (Jn 
4,22). These words of Our Lord to 
the Samaritan woman of Sichar right- 
ly deserve a place at the beginning of 
every work of Biblical Theology. God 
has revealed himself to the world 
through Jewish minds and hearts. If 
we ignore this Jewish origin of sah'a- 
tion, we lay ouselves open to the 
charge: "You worship what you do 
no* know." 

First of all, it was through a Jew- 
ish maiden, the holiest and loviest 
woman ever to live, that the Son of 
God became man in the fulness of 
time. As mother of the Saviour she 
gave him her Jewish language, phy- 
sical features and ways of thought. 


by Carroll Stuhlmuelier, C.P. 

No son was ever so much his 
mother's son as Christ who had no 
human father. But there are other 
reasons whv "salvation is from the 
Jews." Saintly Jewish men and wom- 
en were the "heralds of (this) good 
news" of salvation, for God had sum- 
moned them with the command: "In 
the wilderness (of sin) clear you the 
way of the Lord; make straight in the 
desert a highway for our God. Let 
every valley (of human weakness) 
be raised up, and every mountain (of 
stubborn pride) be brought low" (Is 


40,3-4.9). This highway along which 
God gradually approached the 
human race lay through Jewish lands 
and history. Jewish writers related 
the story of this divine Advent. Just 
as Our Lord's physical features and 
interior characteristics of soul were 
cast in the mould of his Semitic an- 
cestry, so also his approach through 
the ages was through the transform- 
ing medium of Jewish history and 
geography, minds and hearts. 

To grasp the full significance of 
such a statement we must make a 
comparison with Christian preaching 
today. The truths of our faith have 
been revealed by God and are re- 
affirmed in every century by the Holy 
Spirit living in the church. Never- 
theless, the gospel message is some- 
how modified in various ways by the 
different priests and teachers who 
transmit it to the people: by their 
nationality, family background, edu- 
cation, talents, sanctity, and even 
their lack of holiness. In our modern 
world, salvation comes only through 
the church— through her divinely es- 
tablished and canonically organized 
hierarchy, through her ancient lit- 
urgy, and through scholastic terms 
and thought-patterns. As difficult as 
this might be at times for a convert, 
there is no other way to Christ. 

The same is true of God's revela- 
tion through the ages of the Old 
Testament. This divine message of 
salvation came through the Jews, and 
we are obliged to adapt ourselves to 
their Semitic mentality. If we fail 
to do this, we would be like a 
nearsighted person who, without his 
glasses, can only surmise about the 
vague and indistinct things at a dis- 
tance. We run the risk of seeing in 
scriptures only the mirages of wishful 
thinking. We will worship what we 
do not know. Since God's message 
comes to us through the genius of 
Jewish writers, there is no other way 
to look into the mind of God except 

The Passionist 


through their eyes or from their point 
of view. Each sacred writer, in the 
words of our Holy Father, was "the 
hving and reasonable instrument of 
the Holy Spirit . . . (and God so 
used) his faculties and powers, that 
from the book composed by him all 
may easily infer 'the special character 
of each one and, as it were, his per- 
sonal traits'. Let the interpreter, then, 
with all care and without neglecting 
any light derived from recent re- 
search, endeavor to determine the 
peculiar character and circumstances 
of the sacred writer (as well as) the 
age in which he lived. . . . There is 
no one indeed but knows that the 
supreme rule of interpretation is to 
discover and define what the writer 
intended to express."^ Biblical ex- 
egesis, therefore, demands an appre- 
cition of Jewish psychology, outlook, 
civilization, culture, aspirations and 
literary rules.- 

IN THIS article we are seeking a 
clearer understanding of the attri- 
bute of Divine Wisdom by looking at 
it from a biblical point of view. It is 
hoped that such a study will be espe- 
cially rewarding for us Passionists, 
because it will throw light upon the 
Old Testament origin of St. Paul's 
words (which have since become our 
own motto) : "We for our part preach 
a crucified Christ, . . . the power of 
God and the wisdom of God" (1 Cor. 
l,23ff). These are the words of a 
man who gloried in being "of the 
race of Israel, ... a Hebrew of 
Hebrews" (Phil. 3,5). Only to the 
extent that we think with the beat 
and rhythm of the Jewish "Heart of 
Paul," as St. John Chrysostom greatly 
desired for himself, will we realize 
the full force of his words. There are 
other reasons for undertaking this 
study of divine wisdom. Such an in- 
vestigation will strengthen our con- 
viction that religious truths are really 
understood only when they are per- 
sonnlly lived. St. Paul admitted that 
no one understands the wisdom of 
God expressed in Christ Crucified, 
unless he first has shared in "the 
fellowship of his sufferings (and) be- 
come like to him in death" (Phil. 
3,10). This experimental knowledge 
of CkkI's wisdom will leave its effect 
upon our preaching. Our words will 
be "spirit and life"; as God declared 

October 1, 1957 

through Isaias, "my word shall not 
return to me fruitless, without . . . 
accomplishing the purpose for which 
I sent it" (Is. 55,11). In our preach- 
ing we will not be inclined to em- 
phasize incidental details in the mes- 
sianic plan of salvation but rather 
the large ideas which mould char- 
acters into the likeness of Christ. As 
a result, the act of faith, by which we 
live and give life to others, will never 
be a theoretical acceptance of some 
words on paper but a living, active 
surrender of our whole person to 
Christ, whose "love impels us' to 
great deeds of holiness. These are 
some of the practical reasons moti- 
vating this article. 

For the sake of clarity we will fol- 
low a deductive method, by first for- 
mulating Biblical definition of divine 
wisdom and then setting about the 
task of proving it to be true. After 
that, we will trace the development 
of this basic notion through the var- 
ious stages of Jewish history. 

TVTiSDOM, in so far as the Bible 
W uses it as an attribute of God, 
is the recognition and fulftlhnent of 
the divine plan of salvation.^ Such a 
definition combines a theoretical ele- 
ment of knowledge together with a 
dynamic power of fulfillment. As the 
redemptive plan of God, it must 
never be considered a static blue- 
print of salvation that existed in 
God's mind from all eternity, separ- 
ated by long periods of time from its 
actual accomplishment. Neither is 
it a blind, uncontrollable power, im- 
pulsively surging ahead. Uniting the 
speculative and the practical in one 
idea, the Bible always speaks of wis- 
dom as a plan in the very act of be- 
ing achieved. Like the grammatical 
laws of their language, the Jewish 
people seldom thought in terms of 
the past, present and future. They 
were primarily concerned with know- 
ing whether an action was already 
accomi^lished or still in the process 
of fulfillment. Even their so called 
"stative" verbs denoted an object 
existiiio under a certain modalitv. 

Father Carroll Stuhlmueller. C.P., is a 
member of Holy Cross Province and Lec- 
tor of Sacred Scripture, Immaculate Con- 
ception Retreat, Chicago, 111. Father Car- 
roll received his licentiate in theology at 
the Catholic University of America and In 
Sacred Scripture at the Pontifical Biblical 
Institute, Rome. 

The Jews were existentialists in the 
true sense of the word. When they 
thought of divine wisdom, they did 
not separate the theoretical from the 
practical but fused them together like 
body and soul into a plan actually 
being fulfilled. 

Neither did the Semitic mind dis- 
sect this plan into composit parts of 
power, mercy, fidelit)', reward, pun- 
ishment, goodness, etc. Rather, for 
them it was an act of the total being 
of God, as He elhcaciously seeks the 
salvation of the human race. Divine 
wisdom unfolded itself in the same 
way that God's glory passed before 
Moses on Mt. Sinai; each new his- 
torical manifestation of the divine 
plan "proclaimed his name: 'The 
Lord, a merciful and gracious God, 
slow to anger and rich in kindness 
and fidelity' " (Ex. 34,5f). Lest such 
infinite goodness be frustrated, it was 
accompanied at every step by omni- 
potent power. God was truly "my 
rock of refuge, my shield, the 
strength of my salvation, my strong- 
hold!" (Ps. 17,3). The same omi- 
potent wisdom that comes upon the 
wicked "amid furious anger and 
flames of devouring fire," softly enters 
the lives of the humble and contrite, 
"accompanied by the strain of timbel 
and harp" (Is. 30, 30-32). There is a 
sureness and steadiness in the ad- 
\'ance of God's wisdom; "not one of 
all the promises the Lord, your God, 
made to you has remained unfulfill- 
ed" (Jos.. 23, 14). It can stoop to 
man's littleness and lift him to his 
feet when he stumbles; for God is 
"continuing his kindness for a thou- 
sand generations and forgiving wick- 
edness and crime and sin " (Ex. 34, 
7). This wisdom "reaches from end 
to end mightily and governs all 
things well" (Wis. 8, 1), energetical- 
ly adapting the best means to its all- 
hol\- purpose. 

WISDOM participates in the in- 
finite fulness of Gods divine 
being, and emphasizes God's deter- 
mination to sa\e the human race. It 
is God s whole hci)ii!^, achicviiiii his 
glory thrmigh the redemption of the 
huma)i race. This is another way of 
stating what was previously defined as 
"the recognition and fulfillment of 
the di\ine plan of saKation. ' To jus- 
tify this existential notion of divine 


wisdom, we must not only go back to 
the various uses of the word "wis- 
dom" in the Bible but even enter, as 
far as that is possible, into the mind 
of the sacred writers and their Semitic 

It is a man's thought that sets the 
pattern for his words and actions. 
"Thought is the parent of the deed." 
The Jews did not divide the human 
person into component parts. Rather, 
they looked upon each man as a unit, 
from a "total" point of view. This 
thought-pattern was forced upon 
them by their ignorance of rational 
psychology. With the exception of 
the Book of Wisdom, written around 
the year 50 B.C. in the land of Egypt 
where the impact of Greek Philo- 
sophy was felt. Biblical writers never 
distinguished between intellect and 
will, and only vaguely (if at all) be- 
tween body and soul. The most that 
the Jew would concede is that the 
soul is the totality of man modified to 
a certain extent by peculiar character- 
istics. His way was like that of a child 
who knows nothing of the philoso- 
phical concept of "personality" but 
rather distinguishes the neighbors as 
kind, mean, busy, or lazy. 

Like primitive people generally, 
the Jews looked upon each person as 
a compact unit. Man's mental pro- 
cesses were not analyzed into suc- 
cessive parts but were viewed as one 
act in which his whole being was 
brought to bear upon the work at 
hand. The process of thinking natu- 
rally took a very practical turn; it was 
never involved in academic theoriz- 
ing. Its chief elements were: investi- 
gating, appropriating and proceeding 
to action. It was the movement of 
the whole person in the direction of 

This Semitic habit of "totality- 
thinking" naturally produced a lan- 
guage in which the words "to know," 
"to understand," "to be wise," etc., 
had a consistent elan towards action. 
Knowledge was more than an intel- 
lectual act; i( was man's contact with 
another object on all levels at once. 
When the Bible states that a man 
knows his wife, it is employing an 
euphonism for sexual intercourse. 
This expression at once raises the act 
above the merely physical act. Love 
becomes a surrender of the whole per- 
son, each totally giving himself to the 


other. To know God is to experience 
His love or punishment, depending 
upon one's moral condition. Moses 
was commissioned by God to say to 
the Israelites: "I will free you from 
the forced labor of the Egyptians and 
will deliver you from their slavery. 
I will rescue you by my outstretched 
arm and with mighty acts of judg- 
ment. I will take you as my own peo- 
ple, and you shall have me as your 
God. You will know that I, the Lord, 
am your God, when I free you from 
the labor of the Egyptians and bring 
you into the land which I swore to 
give to Abraham. ... I, the Lord!" 
(Ex. 6, 6-8). 

IN A PASSAGE, which is one of the 
gems of the Bible (Jer. Ch. 32), 
we read that true knowledge of God 
consists in sorrow over sin and the 
charity that prompted such grief. 
Once again, man knows God by 
throwing open the doors of his heart 
and surrendering his whole being to 
the influence of God's loving pres- 
ence. "I will put my law within them 
and will write it on their hearts; and 
I will be their God, and they shall be 
my people. And they shall teach no 
more everyone his neighbor, and 
everyone his brother, saying 'Know 
the Word'; for all of them shall know 
me, from the least of them to the 
greatest of them, is the oracle of the 
Lord; for I will pardon their guilt, 
and their sin will I remember no 
more." In these words, Jeremias is by 
no means repudiating the role of 
priests and teachers, but emphasizing 
the interior experience of God by the 

We have delayed over the prac- 
tical nature of Hebrew wisdom, not 
only because it is novel to our mod- 
ern, American mentality but also be- 
cause it is the only way to understand 
the Biblical teaching on divine wis- 
dom. To approach the subject from 
the scholastic definitions of divine 
self-knowledge, or of the divine 
awareness of future contingents and 
human secrets, would be a true grasp 
of God's wisdom but not the Biblical 
expression of it. An accurate penetra- 
tion of biblical thought-patterns will 
not only enrich scholastic reasoning 
but will also make it more intelligible 
to a modern "existential" world. 

If human wisdom is "skill in the 

management of one's life and 
affairs,"" then divine wisdom is the 
strong power of God which lovingly 
imparts that skill. It is, as we have 
said, the recognition and fulfillment 
of the divine plan of salvation which 
directs all things to man's happiness 
and God's glory. It would be wrong 
to isolate its intellectual or volitional 
parts; we must combine these in a 
totality of view. Watching the devel- 
opment of this idea through the cen- 
turies of Jewish history, we will see 
how wisdom came to be associated 
ever more closely with "messianism," 
the plan of happiness and glory. 
Finally, St. Paul will write: "We, 
for our part, preach a ..crucified 
Christ, . . . the wisdom of God." 

IN THE earliest books of the Bible, 
divine wisdom is considered the 
source of life. By reason of the fact 
that God knows man, he bestows life 
in all its totality: physical, intellect- 
ual and spiritual. If man ever cuts 
himself off^ from the influence of 
God's knowledge and seeks to deter- 
mine for himself what is good or evil, 
at once the disintegrating process of 
death sets in. "For the very day that 
you eat of it (the tree of knowledge 
of good and evil), you shall surely 
die" (Gen. 2, 17). The wisdom of 
God infuses a fulness of life; its de- 
parture leaves man open to the rav- 
ages of death. 

By his knowledge, God not only 
bestows life, but like the warm rays 
of the sun, attracts that life towards 
Himself. This divine, life-giving 
knowledge is at once light, power and 
warmth. Around the year 1850 B.C. 
it pierced the dark clouds of sin over- 
hanging the city of Ur in lower Mes- 
opotamia. The moment that this 
divine wisdom fell upon the soul of 
Abraham with its message of salva- 
tion, it stirred up a violent change in 
his life. This divine message to "leave 
your country, your kinsfolk and your 
father's house" not only imparted 
light to know but also power to ac- 
complish. "Abraham went away as the 
Lord had commanded him " upon the 
pathway of heroic obedience (Gen. 
12, Iff^). This divine wisdom envel- 
oped Abraham with its warm rays of 
loving friendship, for it shared with 
him what is most intimate in the per- 
sonal life of God, His divine thoughts 

The Passionist 

and desires. "Can I keep from Abra- 
ham what I am about to do"? (Gen. 
18. 17). This divine soliloquy echoes 
again in the words of St. John: "1 
have called you friends, because all 
things that 1 have heard from my Fa- 
ther I have made known to you" (Jn. 
15, 15). And even to this day, Abra- 
ham is called El Khalit, the friend of 
God by the Arabs. 

This power of divine wisdom, 
which not only produces life, but a 
life with a direction or vocation, is 
again at work in the history of Moses. 
The words of God, spoken from the 
midst of a burning bush, transformed 
Moses from a diffident, desert nomad 
into a strong, humble, deliverer of 
the Jewish people (Ex. 3; 6, 1-10). 
When Moses first returned to his 
people in Egypt, he found them to 
be a soul-less, idolatrous mass of 
slave-laborers scattered throughout 
the delta region of the Nile. But once 
they experienced divine wisdom in 
God's mighty acts of power, they 
were forged into an independent na- 
tion that has not lost its identity even 
to this day. "You shall know that it 
is I, the Lord your God, who shall 
free you from the burdens of the 
Egyptians" (Ex. 6, 7). 

DIVINE wisdom accompanied and 
directed the chosen nation in its 
, subsequent history. The Jews could 
never escape this power of God 
which both imparted a fulness of life 
and directed that life towards the 
realization of the promises made to 
Abraham and Moses. When Josue 
succeeded Moses as leader of the peo- 
ple, God filled him with "the spirit 
of wisdom ' (Deut. 34, 9). Two cen- 
turies later (ca 1000 B.C.), the 
prophet Nathan appeared before 
King David to reveal the plan of 
divine wisdom. As David heard the 
jiromise of an eternal dynasty, for 
Christ would be his son, he threw 
open the doors of his heart to let the 
light and power of God's knowledge 
flow in. He cried out: "And what 
shall Da\id say more to thee, for 
thou knowest thy serx'ant, O my 
Lord God? For thy word's sake and 
according to thine own heart hast 
thou wrought all this greatness" (2 
Sam. 7, 20-21). This same divine 
wisdom set Jcremias upon his pro- 
phetic ministry: "Before you were 

October 1, 1957 

formed in the womb I knew you, and 
before you were born I consecrated 
you for my service" (Jer. 1,5). Later 
in his life, when he complained that 
God's will had been "like a treach- 
erous brook (and) like waters that 
are not sure," dashing him against 
rocks of destruction, he found com- 
fort in the loving, life-giving knowl- 
edge of God. "Thou knowest, O 
Lord! Think of me and visit me" 
(Jer. 15, 15-18). 

As God's spokesman, Amos said to 
the Jews: "Yaii only have I known 
of all the nations upon the earth" 
(3, 2). God certainly knew every 
nation of the earth from the way the 
European or American mind looks at 
things, but not according to the 
Jewish idea of wisdom. God's wisdom 
necessarily achieved the practical 
effect of bringing the nation or in- 
dividual more closely into his plan of 
salvation. Only the Jews were known 
in such wise. 

During the first thousand years 
after Abraham (1850-800 B.C.) di- 
vine wisdom was the source of life 
and blessings. Through the revela- 
tion of his word to great religious 
leaders, God fulfilled the promises 
made to Abraham and the patriarchs. 
Since this word throbbed with the 
power of God's divine being, it was 
something more than an intellectual 
message. It was the cause of a new 
"spirit and life." But in the next pe- 
riod dominated by the prophets (ca 
760-400 B.C.) a change or develop- 
ment took place in the Jewish under- 
standing of divine wisdom. As the 
nation began to crumble and collapse 
the prophets realized ever more clear- 
ly that divine wisdom was not so 
much the source of life but the only 
power that saves from total extinc- 
tion. Seeing that there was little or 
no hope for the present generation, 
the prophets associated God's wisdom 
with the future messianic salvation. 

BY THE year 760 B.C. the Davidic 
kings had deteriorated into 
scheming irreligious puppets, con- 
stantly tempting God (cf Is. 7, 13). 
The temple-priests, whom Sophonias 
contemptuously tagged "priestlings" 
(1, 4), were feeding on the sins of 
the people, exchanging their glorv for 
shame (cf Os. 4, 7-8). We hear God 
lamenting through his prophet Osce: 

"It has become 'like people, like 
priest.' My people are destroyed for 
want of knowledge, because you, 
(O Priests), have rejected knowl- 
edge" (4, 6.9). Rejecting divine wis- 
dom and eating the forbidden fruit 
of human knowledge, the sentence of 
death was immediately felt. 

Jeremias, like Osee, gave the rea- 
son for the collapse of the nation. In 
words drenched with tears, he cried 

Oh, that my head were waters. 

And my eyes a fountain of tears. . . . 

They (my people) go from crime to 
crime. . . . 

And me they know not. (Jer. 9,1.3) 

Failing to know God's wisdom, 
they had cut themselves off from the 
source of life. 

The inevitable sentence of doom 
gradually sounded in the preaching 
of the prophets. Only a whirlwind of 
destruction could sweep the atmos- 
phere clean of all its moral stench. 
Jeremias announced this message of 
God: "My anger and my fury shall 
be poured out upon this place, . . . 
and it shall burn with unquenchable 
fire" (Jer. 7, 20). Hope of victory lay 
in the distant future. This induced 
the prophets to identify God's saving 
power with what we now call mes- 
sianisin, God's future plan of salva- 
tion, accomplished through a tre- 
mendous intervention in human his- 
tory. In that future day "the land will 
become full of the knoivledge of the 
Lord as the waters cover the sea " (Is. 
11, 9). The king will be established 
"upon the throne of David ... in 
justice and righteousness," and God 
will pour out upon him "the spirit of 
wisdom and understanding, the spirit 
of counsel and might, the spirit of 
knowledge and the fear of the Lord" 
(Is. 9, 7; 11, 2). "To know God" in 
this future day will be to experience 
"how I, the Lord, am he who prac- 
tices kindness, justice and righteous- 
ness upon the earth" (Jer. 9, 24). 

It is particularly in the book of 
Daniel, written between 167-164 
B.C., that a further advance is made 
in the understanding of divine wis- 
dom. The "day of the Lord, " when 
God triumphs with mighty acts of 
power over every e\ il force, just as in 
the other apocalvptic literature of this 
late period (cf Henoch 16, 3; 19. 3). 
becomes a mysterious secret, hidden 


within the depths of the Godhead 
(Dan. 2, I8ff; 12, 9-10). We read in 
the book of Daniel that "only the 
wise shall understand, for the words 
are bound up and sealed till the time 
of the end." It will consist not so much 
in some speculative truths to be be- 
lieved as in the experimental effect of 
these truths in human life. The dead 
shall rise to a newness of life (cf 
Rom. 6). "Then those who are wise 
shall shine like the brightness of the 
firmament, those who have led the 
multitude to righteousness, like the 
stars forever and ever" (Dan. 12, 2-4). 
This does not deny that messianism 
includes certain intellectual truths, 
but rather directs the spot-light of 
attention upon the experimental 
nature of Jewish wisdom. 

A FINAL advance can be detected 
in the Sapiential Books of the 
post-exilic world (after 536 B.C.). 
Wisdom is ex professo described as 
a divine attribute and given its fullest 
treatment. Job 28 and Bar 3, 9-4, 4 
show how desirable it is. This divine 
gift is God's peculiar property. In the 
book of Baruch we read that the peo- 
ple "have grown old in a strange land 
(of exile, because they) . . . have 
forsaken the spring of wisdom." Prec- 
ious and necessary as wdsdom is, man 
cannot wrench it out of God's hands 
by his own power and ingenuity. 

Who ever went up to heaven and got 

And brought her down from the 

Who ever crossed the sea and found 

And will buy her with fine gold? 

The Book of Proverbs (8, 22-36) 
develops more clearly the notion that 
wisdom (the practical, energetic plan 
of happiness and salvation) is God's 
own possession: 

The Lord formed me as the first of 

his works. . . . 
In the earhest ages was I fashioned. 
At the first, when the earth be- 
gan. . . . 

So, now, O children, listen to me; 
For happy are those who keep my 

Hear instruction and be wise. 

Wisdom presided over creation in 
order to prepare a world where man 
can glorify God in the midst of un- 
told delights. Sirach (ch 24) draws 


all creation into the salvific plans of 
God. He personifies Wisdom as a 
child who says: 

I issued from the mouth of the Most 

High. . . . 
I walked in the depth of the abyss. 
1 owned the waves of the sea and the 

whole earth 
And every people and nation. 
Among all these I sought a resting 

In whose possession should I lodge"? 

The infinite depth and eternal bil- 
lows of the sea, the endless "circuit 
of the heavens"— none of these satis- 
fied the restless desires of eternal wis- 

Then the Creator of all gave me his 

And he who created me chose the 

spot for my rest. 
And said: 'Pitch your tent in 

Jacob. . . . ' 
And so I was established in Sion." 

Once Wisdom rested with the 
Jewish people, she could be at peace. 
Through the chosen people God's 
messianic plan of salvation would be 
accomplished. "Salvation is from the 

In the exegesis of these texts from 
the Sapiential Books (the passage from 
Baruch can be classified here), divine 
wisdom emerges as the unique divine 
flan of salvation. From creation on- 
ward, it dominates all of God's activ- 
ity. Wisdom is really God in the 
totality of his being, looking towards 
mankind with irresistible power that 
creates the world and recreates it 
after the destruction wrought by sin, 
with fidelity to his freely given prom- 
ises, with love so great that we must 
accept it on faith (1 Jn. 4, 16). It is 
God's whole being, expressing and 
accomplishing his holy will in the 
sanctification of the human race. 

LET us briefly summarize the Old 
Testament teaching on divine 
wisdom before we close by pointing 
out the practical help of such a study. 
Wisdom among the Jews had to be a 
-practical plan directed towards activ- 
ity. The "totality-thinking" of the 
Semitic people demanded this. In the 
earliest writings of the Patriarchial 
and Mosaic periods, the historical 
fact is recorded that God's knowledge 
was like a burst of sunshine that scat- 
tered the darkness and directed the 
nation (or individual) along a path 

of holiness. When the prophets re- 
flected upon the corruption of their 
age, they were forced to look to the 
future for the fulfillment of God's 
plan of salvation. The Sapiential 
Books unify all of God's activity as 
the expression of his wisdom— his 
plan to be glorified by the happiness 
of a redeemed human race. 

SINCE divine wisdom was such a 
power for good in the Jewish 
nation, we naturally want to know 
the practical applications for us to- 
day in this specialized study of Old 
Testament theology. Briefly, it gives 
us a truer knowledge of Scripture 
along with the conviction that we 
never fully know something unless 
we have personally experienced it. 
As a result, messianism emerges as 
something more than a statistical 
plan of salvation. 

First of all, this biblical study of 
divine wisdom imparts a more accu- 
rate, and hence, a deeper understand- 
ing of the inspired word of God. 
Knowledge always liberates. In this 
case, it frees the pages of the Bible 
from many foreign entanglements 
that have made it vague and difficult 
for us. We will not mistinterpret 
Moses' words to the Jewish people; 
"I teach you the statutes and decrees 
as the Lord, my God, has command- 
ed me. . . . Observe them carefully, * 
for thus will you give evidence of 
your wisdom and intelligence to the 
nation, who will . . . say: 'This 
nation is truly a wise and intelligent 
people'" (Deut. 4, 4-6). Moses is not 
a gnostic heretic, equating holiness 
with the knowledge of hidden, my 
sterious truths. A man is wise when 
he clearly reflects the holiness of 
God's plan of salvation. Since the 
New Testament lay hidden in the 
Old, and the Old Testament shines 
clearly in the New, we are now in 
better position to understand the 
words of St. Paul: "We, for our part, 
preach a crucified Christ, . . . tb 
wisdom of God. For the foolishness 
of God is wiser than men and the 
weakness of God is stronger than 
men" (1 Cor. 1, 23-25). St. Paul has 
inherited all the Old Testament char- 
acteristics of divine wisdom and fused 
"them into an exceptionally rich ideali 
of religious knowledge" in Christ 
Cruicified.'^ Jesus Crucified is the ful 

The Passionist 


fillmcnt of God's plan of salvation. 
He "has become for us God-given 
wisdoDi and justice and sanctifica- 
tion and redemption " (1 Cor. 1, 30). 
As St. John wrote: "This is eternal 
life, that they may know thee, the 
only true God, and him whom thou 
hast sent" (17, 3). 

SECONDLY, the Hebrew faith in 
divine wisdom as the saving 
power of God kept their religion 
from hardening into a theoretical 
body of dead truths. The creed of the 
Jewish people, then as now, was the 
beautiful Shema prayer of Deuter- 
onomy (6, 4fT). In it, divine wisdom 
bursts upon us like the warm light 
of the sun and the strong force of the 
wind. "Hear, O Israel! The Lord is 
our God, the Lord alone! Therefore, 
you shall love the Lord, your God, 
with all your heart, and with all your 
soul, and with all your strength. Take 
to heart these words which I enjoin 
on you today. Drill them into your 
children. Speak of them at home and 
abroad, whether you are busy or at 
rest. Bind them at your wrist as a 
sign and let them be as a pendant on 
your forehead. Write them on the 
doorposts of your houses and on your 
gates." Along with the words of Lev- 
iticus (19, lb): "Thou shalt love thy 
neighbor as thyself," we have, on the 
word of Our Lord, 'the whole Law 
and the prophets" (Mt. 22, 40). 

Fr. John McKenzie, S.J., in his 
magnificent book The Two-Edged 
Sword expresses very well the prac- 
tical nature of biblical faith: "To the 
Hebrew, faith in the Lord (God) 
was never a matter of assimilating a 
body of truths. . . . Even in such 
pharases as instruction and the word 
ol the Lord, they had no notion of 
redeeming the nations from ignor- 
ance. Their prophets were not teach- 
ers. . . . The kingdom (of God) was 
not a constitution, not a legal sys- 
tem, not a civilization, not a phil- 
osophy, not a political form; it was 
the realized will of the Lord im- 
posed upon mankind, and a regener- 
ation of the cosmos and of human 
nature. ... It is another personal in- 
tervention of the Lord in history, and 
it is the greatest" (pp. 203-4). 

Right here is a lesson which every 
priest and educator must learn. Our 
faith— as the expression of divine wis- 

OCTOBER 1, 1957 

dom— is not a philosophical system 
but a way of life. The Christian mis- 
sionary and teacher must enkindle his 
words with the fire of personal con- 
viction. He must "live in the faith of 
the Son of God who loved me and 
gave himself up for me," so that "it 
is no longer I that live but Christ 
lives in me ' (Gal. 2, 20). Faith must 
transform him into the image of Jesus 
Crucified, so that he himself is the 
wisdom of God. Not until the unbe- 
lieving world can reach out and 
touch the wounds of Christ in the 
Christian preacher will it fall down 
before the cross and exclaim: "My 
Lord and my God!" 

It is true. Good example alone does 
not make a preacher. He must be 
able to give a reason for the hope 
within him (cf 1 Pet. 3, 15). But 
neither are apologetical arguments 
sufficient. We can present all the 
theoretical answers to the problem of 
human existence and never win a 
convert. Conversion, like holiness, is 
not the surrender of a man's intellect 
to a list of facts on paper but a total, 
personal adherence to God. Unless 
we priest and teachers know our faith 
in an experimental way, we will 
never understand divine widsom nor 
ever be capable of teaching others. 

SINCE divine wisdom is not a list 
of speculative truths but the 
saving power of God unfurled upon 
the cross of Calvary, there is a third 
and final consequence for us who 
preach the Passion today. We must 
get away from the "statistical" ap- 
proach that reduces the Messianic 
preparation of the Old Testament to 
a number of external details. The 
Messianic doctrine of the Bible— a 
modern phrase for "divine wisdom"— 
is not confined to such incidental 
facts as the name of the city where 
the Saviour will be born (Mich. 5, 
2), the year of his birth (Dan. 7 and 
9), his death without the breaking of 
any bones (Ex. 12, 46), etc. With- 
out denying that the "individual 
prophecies of the Old Testament 
were fulfilled in the person of 
Christ,"" we must always keep in 
mind that such texts are rare, ex- 
tremely obscure, and dillicult to 
understand. They often admit other 
possible interpretations. Such an 
apologetical approach will fail to con- 

vince a serious-minded person. In- 
stead, our preaching should empha- 
size the great practical truths which 
the prophets announced and Christ 
fulfilled. The Messianic "Day of the 
Lord" when God would intervene in 
human history to save the world was 
above all else a moral and spiritual 
renewal. Messianism was the achieve- 
ment of the saving power of God, 
the fulfillment of his divine wisdom. 
The messianic age, therefore, will be 
characterized by a "new covenant" 
which God "will write not upon 
stony tablets but upon the human 
hearts" (interior worship of Jer. 31, 
3 Iff). It will be accomplished by a 
divine power, and not by any human 
means (Is. 7, 14). As a Son of David, 
the Messias will be a kingly ruler (Is. 
9, 6ff), but he will appear in an un- 
known, hidden way (Is. 11, Iff). All 
of his followers must likewise be poor 
and lowly (Soph. 2, 3; 3, 12). This 
servant of God will triumph over 
evil (Gen. 3, 15) through expiatory 
suffering (Is. 53). All his disciples 
must suffer wtih him (Songs of Suf- 
fering Servant in Isaias; and Is. 1, 
25-26). He will be a priest (Zach. 6, 
12-13; Ps. 109) and with him all 
peoples will offer a liturgical worship 
that is acceptable to God (Mai. 1, 
llff). If this is divine wisdom, then 
it is understandable why only men 
of good will and contrite heart receive 
the Messias then and now. 

DIVINE Wisdom prepared for the 
"Day of the Lord" not by the 
statistical enumeration of facts but 
rather by a practical plan of holiness. 
This plan certainly included facts, 
but in a way that was vague and dif- 
ficult to grasp. E\'en the Dead Sea 
Covenanters at Qumran could not 
envisage their complete fulfillment in 
one Messias; they wrote of two 
Messiahs, one priestly and the other 
royal. Nevertheless, this same plan 
clearly enunciated the moral and 
spiritual characteristics of a way of 
life, which Christ lived and gave to 
others as the "way, the truth, and the 
life"(Jn. 14,6).' 

In conclusion, let us restate the 
simple truth:— the Biblical notion of 
di\ine wisdom is Gtxl s power to save 
as experienced by the upright man. 
Only such a man is truly wise and 
iCoittiuued on page 373) 





In saying the Little Office can the Pater and Aves and 
the Commemorations of the Saints he omitted? 

There is a doubt about the present status of the Little 
Office of the Blessed Virgin in view of the publication of 
the Decretum Generale of March 23, 1955, on the sim- 
plification of the rubrics. As far as I am aware there has 
been no decision by the Sacred Congregation of Rites, 
applying this decree to the Little Office. 

Nevertheless, in answering our present question we 
should keep in mind certain general facts. The L.O. was 
at one time a required addition to the Divine Office. St. 
Pius V made its recitation optional, although it con- 
tinued to be recited "in choro" in some places according 
to custom. The older breviaries contained specific rubrics 
on how it was to be joined to the hours of the Canonical 
Office (before Matins and Vespers, before the Martyrol- 
ogy of Prime, after the other hours). There is still a 
prescription in regard to the L.O. in the "Rubricae gen- 
erales Breviarii" (XXXVII), and modern Breviaries con- 
tinue to contain the L.O., as also the Office of the Dead, 
the Litanies, and the Penitential Psalms. In a small Ben- 
ziger edition of the L.O. which I use, most of the rubrics 
for the L.O. are taken either from the general rubrics of 
the canonical office or from various decrees of the S. 
Congregation of Rites. It is noteworthy that even today 
there are no rubrics in the Breviary on how the L.O. 
concludes (Benedicamus Domino, Fidelium, Pater, An- 
tiphon of Our Lady)— this conclusion as we find it in our 
small editions of the L.O. are taken bodily from the gen- 
eral rubrics of the Divine Office. 

Considering this intimate connection of the L.O. with 
the Divine Office and in view of the fact that the gen- 
eral rubrics of the Divine Office have been altered by 
the Decretum Generale, I believe that certain simplifica- 
tions of the Decretum General apply to the L.O. There- 
fore, I believe it is solidly probable on intrinsec argu- 

1) to omit the concluding Pater of each hour, the 
Antiphon of Our Lady (Salve or variant) at all hours 
except Compline, and the Pater, Ave and Credo after 


2) to omit the Sacrosancte and to gain the same indul- 
gence by the recitation of the final Antiphon of Our Lady 
(Salve or variant); 

3) to omit the opening Ave. 

In regard to the daily commemoration to be made at 
Lauds and Vespers, I am not quite so sure. I feel in- 
clined to judge that it is not precisely the same as the 
"suffragium Sanctorum" ruled out by the Decretum Gen- 
erale. Since commemorations as such are still to be made 
in the Divine Office, I incline to the view that the daily 
commemoration in the L.O. still obliges. Some may ob- 
ject that this daily commemoration in the L.O. is a votive 
commemoration, and as such no longer obliges in the Di- 
vine Office. Nevertheless I tend to agree with those who 
would still add it in the recitation of the L.O. as an 
obligatory commemoration. 

This entire question of the L.O. awaits the authorita- 
tive decision of the S. Congregation. 


During our Solemn High Masses the priests and stu- 
dents assisting in the sanctuary follow different rubrics 
than the people attending the same Mass. Would it not 
he better for uniform.ity that those in the sanctuary stand, 
sit, and kneel at the same times the lay people are accus- 
tomed to sit, stand, or kneel? 

One might make several comments on this question. 
First of all, it would be interesting to know for certain 
just what the lay people are accustomed to do at Mass. 
Some places they stand from the Pater Noster to the 
Agnus Dei, some places not. Few kneel during the ora- 
tions at a Requiem or Lenten ferial Mass. So if we were 
to follow the people, we might find it even more difficult 
to decide what position to take! Secondly, does it not 
seem fitting that priests assisting at Mass indicate their 
status as priests by following different rules than the 
laity? Really there is no confusion at the proper celebra- 
tion of a Solemn Mass by having the various groups 
assist in various ways— in fact this tends to demonstrate 
more clearly that the "holy assembly" is composed of 
varying ranks and orders— episcopal and monsignorial, 
canons, simple priests, lay people. My personal prefer- 
ence is to retain our practice of assisting at Solemn Mass 
in our own churches as canons. In this way we concretize 
the words of the Bishop on ordination day: "Let each 
one be mindful of his own condition"! 

Roger Mercuric, C.P. 


When may we omit the prayers after the last gospel 
of the Mass? 

The prayers to be recited after Mass are commonly 
called Leonine prayers because Pope Leo XIII com- 
manded that these prayers (minus the triple invocation 
to the Sacred Heart) be said throughout the world. But 
not only the name traces back to Pope Leo XIII. The 
same pontiff also notably affected the obligation involved. 

The Passionist 

The original decree of January 6, 1884 ordained that 
these prayers be said in all churches ("in omnibus . . . 
Ecclesiis," ASS, XVI, 2B9). (As reccndy as May 30, 
1934, the Holy See quotes the same limiting phrase "in 
omnibus Orbis ecclesiis," AAS, XXVI, 312.) "Church" 
has a limited meaning. It is a sacred structure devoted 
to divine worship lor the principle purpose of being 
used by all the faithful for public divine worship (canon 
1161). Since the faithful have a right to enter a public 
oratory during divine services, the Code of Canon Law 
determines that public oratories are to be governed by 
the same rules of law as church (canon 1191, 1). On 
the contrary, semipuhlic oratories are not affected by 
regulations made for churches and public oratories. It 
will be recalled that our choirs and secondary chapels 
are semi-public oratories. 

None of the later decrees or responses of the Holy See 
extended the Leonine prayers to semi-public oratoris. This 
is noted as late as 1954 by Regatillo-Zalba, Theologia 
Moralis Summa, III, n. 183. One or other authoritative 
response does broadlv refer to "cujusque Missae, sine 
cantu celebratae" (August 20, 1884, ASS, XVII, 95). 
But we realize from what has been said that this can 
only mean "any low Mass in a church or public oratory." 
Even the intriguing Reply of the Sacred Congregation 
of Rites, June 2, 1916, which refers to the oratory of a 
religious community, seems to be speaking of the com- 
munity's public oratory. (This reply is not included in 
the Decreta authentica S.R.C.). 

It is significant that the Holy See has never extended 
the Leonine prayers to semi-public oratories, even though 
various other changes have been made. In 1886 the 
prayer to Saint Michael was added; later, changes were 
made in phrasing; in 1904 Pope Pius X permitted (but 
did not prescribe) the addition of the triple invocation, 
"Most Sacred of Jesus, Have mercy on us" ^American 
Ecclesiastical Rev., CXXV, 86-87). After the Lateran 
Treaty had solved the Roman Question, Pope Pius XI 
•hanged the intention for the Leonine prayers in the 
olemn Consistory allocution of June 30, 1930. Thence- 
lorth, the prayers were to be offered for a "restoration 
to Russia's afflicted people of tranquillity and freedom 
to profess their faith" CAAS, XXII, 301). (On July 11, 
1930, the Pontifical Commission for Russia exhorted all 
non latin priests to offer prayers somewhat similar to the 
Leonine pravers proscribed for all latin priests, AAS, 
XXII, 366). ' 

As for (niiitting the Leonine prayers in churches and 
public oratories, the first thing to be noted is that Pius 
XI told all to expect some incornniodznn in adding these 
prayers after Mass ("modico sane negotio et incommodo," 
AAS, XXII, 301). At the same time it is true that the 
theological principles for excusing causes, implicitly ac- 
knowledged by the Church, are valid here. It is possible 
on certain occasions that a more weighty incomviondum 
will be accidentally connected with adding these prayers. 
Any such excusing cause must be evaluated in relation 
to the weight of this obligation which is light not grave 
(Regatillo-Zalba, Theologiae Moralis Suvivia, III, n. 183; 
Rcgatillo, )tis Sacrmuent., n. 182). 

Other causes for omitting the prayers are stated in 

October 1, 1957 

various authoritative responses of the Sacred Congrega- 
tion of Rites. 

One kind of case in which the prayers are to be 
omitted (Preces . . . omittendas) is when some sacred 
function or (seu) pious exercise follows immediately after 
Mass and provided the celebrant does not leave the sanc- 
tuary (Decreta, S.R.C., n. 4305). This can be verified 
by obsequies. Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, or 
a Motive as preached during our Missions (cf. Directory 
of Holy Cross Prov., 1954, nn. 35, 39). 

Another reason for which the prayers are to be omit- 
ted is a low Mass celebrated with some solemnity. Some 
examples recognized in this category by the S. Congre- 
gation are occasions of First Communions, General Com- 
munions, Ordinations, Weddings. These examples sug- 
gest others, like occasions of a First Mass. However, a 
sermon preached during Mass does not seem to be equiv- 
alent to an added solemnity, in light of the pro and con 
discussions occasioned by the special grant recently made 
to Cardinal Lercaro for his archdiocese (cf. Ephemerides 
Liturgicae, LXX, 41-43; Cleroy Review, XLII, 113, 192, 

Still other cases recognized by the Sacred Congrega- 
tion are Masses which enjoy privileges of solemn votive 
Masses pro re gravi et publica sitmd causa (e.g.. Votive 
Mass of the Sacred Heart on a First Friday, D., S.R.G., 
4271, II) and also Masses which take the place of a 
High Mass (e.g., funeral Mass or an ordination Mass, 
ibid., 4305). 

In conclusion, it might be remarked that this answer 
to the proposed question has no intention of being "star- 
tling." The Leonine prayers can well be said in our 
choirs and secondary oratories in supererogation and zeal 
for the conversion of Russia. However, should one wish 
to claim that this practice now obliges as a custom 
Praeter legem, he would have to verify the conditions 
laid down by canon 28, i.e., the practice must have been 
continued for forty years knowingly (with knowledge 
that no obligation already exists) and also with the inten- 
tion of creating an obligation. 

Forrest Macken, C.P. 


In what way was the brazen serpent a sotirce of health 
and pardon to the Jewish people that Otir Lord should 
call it a type or syiidyol of his own redemptive death on 
the cross? 

It is not at all surprising that we should be puzzled by 
the symbolism of the serpent. Father D. Winzen, O.S.B., 
in his excellent book Symbols of Christ (Kenedy: 1955), 
p. 41, writes: "Of all the symbols of Christ in the Old 
Testament the Brazen Serpent certainly is the most 
"shocking" one. The serpent, symbol of sin and of 
Satan (cf. Ck>n. 3, 1; Apoc 12, 9) a picture of Christ!" 
1 hroughout the Bible the serpent (or in monster-form, the 
dragon) enters human history as an unclean, loathesome 
creature (Lev. 11, 41), the originator of the first sin 
(Gen. 3, HT) and the leader of all wickedness in the 
final struggle against Christ and his Church. Archeology 



has unearthed many idols and amulets used in the ob- 
scene snake-worship of the Canaanites. Some of the evil 
qualities associated with the serpent are listed in the 
Catholic Biblical Encyclopedia, Old Testament (Wag- 
ner: 1956), p. 992. 

With deliberate care Moses chose this symbol of sin 
in order to cure the wounds of sin. The Jewish people 
had been tramping wearily through the 110-120 degree 
heat of the Sinai desert. "Disgusted with this wretched 
food (the manna)," they grumbled against God. "In 
punishment the Lord sent among the people seraph ser- 
pents," i.e., "fiery" serpents, so named because of the 
burning fever and inflammation inflicted by their bite 
(Num. 21, 4ff). The people were cured when they 
looked with faith and contrite heart upon the bronze 
serpent 'which Moses had mounted upon a pole. They 
were saved not by any superstitious trust in a bronze 
snake, but by their faith in God. Once they humbly 
admitted their guilt, symbolized in the brazen serpent, 
God could heal them. God therefore used the very pun- 

Answers to Questions 

The purpose of the Answers to Questions section is 
to provide our Readers with ready answers to questions 
that touch closely upon our Passionist way of life. Ques- 
tions on Law, Custom, Theology, Liturgy and Sacred 
Scripture that have a special interest to Possionists will 
be answered. Priests who have specialized in these sub- 
jects hove graciously consented to answer these ques- 
tions. Our Readers ore invited to send their questions to 
the Editor who will forward them to those handling this 
special subject. 

ishment of sin to cure his people. He "will smite only 
to heal" (Is. 19, 22). The Book of Wisdom explains 
that "he who turned towards it was saved, not by what 
he saw, but by you, the savior of all, ... by your all- 
healing word, O Lord" (Wis. 16, 7.12). 

Consequently, the brazen serpent is a type of Christ, 
not so much because of the material act of being lifted 
up but because of the deeper Theological fact that for 
the contrite man sin is cured by the punishment it in- 
flicts. Just as the brazen serpent was the symbol of sin, 
Christ is displayed on the cross "in the likeness of sinful 
flesh as a sin-offering" (Rom. 8, 3). To be healed we 
must look with faith, realizing that "he was pierced for 
our transgressions; he was crushed for our iniquities." We 
must unite our own sorrows with Christ's, just as the 
Jews recognized their own sins and chastisements in the 
brazen serpent. Not every Jew who looked upon the 
bronze serpent was healed; not every Christian who sees 
the cross beats his breast with the centurion. Our Lord 
declared: "As Moses lifted up the serpent in the desert, 
even so must the Son of Man be lifted up that those 
who helieve in him may have life everlasting" (Jn. 3, 
14-15). Only when we "live in the faith of the Son of 
God who loved me and gave himself up for me," onlv 
when we "become like to him in death," only then will 
we be drawn up to share in "the resurrection from the 
dead" (Gal. 2, 20; Phil. 3, 10). We can conclude with 


St. Augustine: "Now there is this difference between 
the figurative image and the real thing; the figure (bra- 
zen serpent) procured temporal life; the reality (Jesus 
Crucified) . . . procures eternal life" (12th sermon on 
Gospel of St. John). 

Carroll Stuhlmueller, C.P. 


What is the difference between the " my stico-phy steal" 
interpretation which some of the Fathers of the Church 
give to the Redemption and the so-called "realist" theory? 

In his exposition of the Apostles' Creed St. Thomas 
furnishes us with the key to the multiplicity of theories 
of Redemption when he writes: "Such is God's grace and 
love for us that He has done more for us than we can 
possibly understand." By multiplying concepts we hope 
to fall less short of the reality. 

To put the difference between these two interpretations 
in a few words we may say that the mystico-physical 
aspect stresses the divine element of incorporation while 
the realist theory stresses the human element of struggle. 
In the 4th and 5th centuries the former was sponsored 
principally by the school of Alexandria; the latter, by the 
school of Antioch. Let us look into these viewpoints a 
little more closely. 

Ever anxious to preserve the essential difference be- 
tween God the Creator and man the creature, the school 
of Antioch insisted on the twofold nature in Christ, 
which in turn led quite naturally to an emphasis on the 
human elements in the Saviour. The Antiochians were, 
moreover, keen moralists and practical realists, much 
given to logic and reflection. These traits all combined to 
lend their soteriological teaching a character of struggle 
and deliverance, culminating in the acquistion of the 
perfection of virtue. 

This conception of continuous moral effort pervades all 
aspects of Christian Redemption, both objective and sub- 
jective. Jesus Christ, the integral man, accomplishes man's 
salvation by the unparalled perfection of His life, in 
virtue of which He destroys sin and death. He has be- 
come victor and exemplar, and individual men can share 
in His victory by modeling their moral life on His (cf. 
V. Ermoni, Antioche . . . , in DTC, I, col. 1438. Also 
Sellers, The Council of Chalcedon, 158-168). 

Theodoret, the foremost champion of the Antiochian 
School, describes for us the oikonomias mysterion. 
Human nature has been brutally seized by death and 
pressed into slavery. Thereupon the Creator in His mercy 
determined to destroy death's dominion. He intended to 
destroy the power of death through a mortal nature. 
Accordingly, since He Himself possessed a nature incap- 
able of dying, He took to Himself the first-fruits of the 
subject nature, preserving it from sin. Then He permitted 
death to strike it. Because of this injustice on the part of 
death, He freed others also from its unjust tyranny. Thus, 
in restoring life to the first-fruits (Christ) that had been 
unjustly attacked, He arranged for the whole race to foi- 

The Passionist 


low him some day QErcmistes, III, PG 83, col. 243-246.) 

Such was the Redemption as effected by the Saviour. 
Now just how is it applied to all men? Theodoret replies 
that it happens in much the same way as that in which 
Adam's posterity shared in his fate after his transgression. 
Ofortet enhn convenientiam esse morhi et reniedii. Just 
as the whole race followed its leader in the condemnation, 
so it follows its Saviour when He destroys the curse. 

Obviously Theodoret fails to explain salvation in a 
really organic way— a point which the Alexandrians re- 
gard as capital. He presents the entire question in terms 
of the principal effect and penalty of sin which is death, 
rather than in terms of sin itself. There is no stress on 
the idea of intimate incorporation in the father of the 
race "in whom all have sinned," and therefore there is 
little development of the same idea in regard to Christ's 
salvation. Both Christ and Adam are more like examples. 

The explanation of the school of Alexandria with its 
emphasis on the unity of the Divine Word is quite differ- 
ent. Of course, the Alexandrian theologians speak of 
redemption in terms of a ransom from the tyranny of 
Satan, of Christ's death as a payment of man's debt and 
as a sacrifice for sin— because they found these elements 
in the Scriptures. But their fundamental conception is 
that Christ redeems us by divinizing us, and therefore the 
Incarnation takes precedence over the Cross (cf. Sellers, 
o-p. cit., 132). 

This approach is well illustrated by St. Cyril who 
undertakes to investigate the "scope of the Incarnation 
of the Only-begotten One." The true and general cause 
is to restore all things in Christ, but the more specific 
reasons of the Incarnation are, m the words of St. Paul, to 
condemn sin in the flesh and to destroy death by His 
death. Both of these modes arc included in the reason 
given by St. John: He gave them power to become sons 
of God. The restoration of the fallen human race to its 
pristine condition is achieved particularly by our regen- 
eration in the Spirit from our earthly condition CCom- 
ment in )oan. Ev. 14: 20; PG, 74, col. 274). 

How does the Only-begotten One destroy sin in the 
flesh? He is God Himself by nature, begotten of His 
substance, and so He cannot possibly fall into sin. Yet 
God makes I lim who is subjected to flesh to go down into 
sin, in order that He might transfer flesh itself which 
lie has tiiade His own, to the condition proper to Him- 
self, i.e., that He might make it free of sin. This consti- 
tutes what we might call objective Redemption. 

As for subjective Redemption, it is explained in a 
similar way. Just as we ha\e been left with death and 
all the sufferings of the flesh— and this happened to us 
in the first man both because of his transgression and the 
divine curse— so also we shall follow Christ who saves 
us in diverse ways and sanctifies the nature of the flesh 
in Himself Qihid., col. 275, italics added). 

These interpretations of the doctrine of the Redemp- 
tion should not be thought of as in opposition to one 
another; they are complementary. Together with other 
theories that developed down the Chrisian centuries, they 

October 1, 1957 

are the homage of human reason in its effort to plumb 
the depths of the wonderful works of God. 

Barry Rankin, C.P. 


(Continued from page 3>47} 

be on fire with the most intense love 
of God and neighbor and be adorned 
with every virtue" QSedes Sapientiae, 
as translated in The Pope Speaks, 
Winter, 1956-7, 293). 

The Pope is not here pointing be- 
yond mere keeping of one's Holy 
Rule, to perfection in supernatural 
love for God and neighbor. He is cer- 
tainly pointing beyond that observ- 
ance which is marked by mere com- 
pulsion. He is also pointing beyond 
that observance which is "purely me- 
chanical" and routine, even though 
letter perfect. But he is not pointing 
beyond the perfect material and for- 
mal observance of the Holy Rule. He 
is in complete accord with the pre- 
decessor of his who remarked: "Give 
me a religious who observes his Rule 
perfectly, and I will canonize him." 

To SUM UP, the Holy Rule in its 
essentials and the interior spirit 
of charity are inseparable. This is true 
in theory because for the Passionist 
one element cannot be rightly under- 
stood apart from the other. This is 
likewise true in practice because if 
the Passionist disregards the Holy 
Rule either in its material or formal 
aspect, he is simply not keeping it. 
To have little concern for its formal 
element is to risk being enmeshed 
in mechanical legalism. To slight the 
material element is to court the dan- 
ger of an irresponsible spiritualism 
that tends to blur one's identity as a 
son of St. Paul of the Cross. 

Our holy Founder himself will 
bring these brief reflections to a close. 
"The observance of the Rules must 
always be animated and accompanied 
by the interior spirit of the heart. 
Qui hanc Regulani sequuti fuerint, 
pax super illos. They will enjoy that 
deep quiet of spirit which makes 
every burden light and gi\es a fore- 
taste here below of the unchangeable 
and inexpressible peace of Paradise. 
With all our heart we pray and be- 
seech the God of peace and the 
lather of mercies that 1 le may grant 
this gift to all our religious in our 
blessed homeland" (Lett. IV, 253). 



The Victory of Father Korl, by 

Otto Pies, S.J., trans, by Sal- 
vator Attansio, Farrar, Straus 
and Cudahy, 210 pp., $3.75. 

ON December 17, 1944, at 
Dachau, Karl Leisner was or- 
dained a priest at the age of 30. He 
died the following April and was 
able to celebrate only one Mass. But 
his life is an inspiration for those 
studying for the priesthood and for 
priests young and old, active or in- 

The Victory of Father Karl is filled 
with the struggles of this young man 
to become a priest. As a youth he 
gave himself to the Catholic Youth 
Movement and here he formed that 
strong character he would later need. 
He stood up with calm courage to 
the Gestapo and the German Youth 
Movement. In his early teens he fol- 
lowed a Rule of Life that is given 
in this book and here is found the 
secret of his loyalty and enthusiasm 
for Christ and the Church. He was 
drawn to the priesthood— yet he 
wanted human love. A bitter struggle 
followed but finally his vocation won 
out. He had to serve time in a labor 
camp and here he contracted the 
disease that was to end his life. The 
seminary followed but just short of 
his final goal he had to be sent to a 
TB sanitarium. An unguarded com- 
ment about Hitler landed him in jail. 
He was taken to Dachau on Decem- 
ber 8, 1940. 

Dachau at that time held 2000 
priests. He was to spend four years 
here. The priests held him in uni- 
versal esteem. He himself was 


strongly influenced by these men. He 
watched them gather for Mass, for 
the rosary. He saw them making the 
stations daily. But, he also saw them 
brutally treated, staggering under 150 
pound loads, ridiculed. The com- 
munity life of these priests is one of 
the most fascinating parts of this 
book. But, Karl grew steadily worse. 
The priests covered up for him, did 
his work, gave him part of their 
meager food. Finally, he had to be 
sent to the hospital. His four years 

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would like to review. 

in the TB ward brought him to cer- 
tain death. All knew he would die 
and so the priests arranged for his 
ordination at the hand of a French 
bishop, a prisoner of Dachau. The 
day arrived and hundreds of shaven 
prisoners stood jammed in the prison 
chapel, dressed in rags and saw Karl 
Leisner become a priest. A week later 
he celebrated his first and last Mass. 
The final pages of the book deal 
with his liberation and his death. 

The Victory of Father Karl tells a 
student for the priesthood how this 
young man used faith and charity to 
achieve his goal. The years he spent 
at Dachau were not years of self-pity 
or idleness but of living for others. 
No one ever heard a complaint from 
his lips. Priests from all over the 
camp would come to him for a cheer- 
ful word or a ready smile. He chose 

as his motto for the priesthood the 
words of St. Ignatius: "He who has 
dedicated himself to God has no rea- 
son to be sad but reason to be joy- 
ous." And not even Dachau could 
change his conviction or sour his at- 
titude. A priest can see in Father 
Karl a great example of one who did 
the will of God. Dark moods came 
on him as a dying TB patient and 
he would secretly weep when alone. 
But no one ever saw him in these 
moods and he conquered his depres- 
sion with the Eucharist. The Blessed 
Sacrament was brought to him in a 
tin cup or envelope. He was allowed 
to have the Eucharist with him at all 
times and the strength of the Euchar- 
ist made him victorious over the suf- 
fering, despair and brutality of the 
TB ward at Dachau. The Victory of 
Father Karl proves that this is the 
victory that overcomes the world- 
even the world of despair and death, 
the world of Dachau— our fatih. 

RiAN Clancy, C.P. 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Conservation with Christ, by Pet- 
er-Thomas Rhorboch, O.C.D., 
Fides, 171 pp., $3.75. 

ARTICLE 3 of our Holy Rule states 
that "one of the chief objects of 
our Congregation is not only to de- 
vote ourselves to prayer, that we may 
be united to God by charity, but also 
to lead others to do the same, in- 
structing them in the best and easiest 
manner possible." Conversation with 
Christ by Peter-Thomas Rohrbach, 
O.C.D. can help the Passionist to 
fulfill this purpose. 

This book, which bears the sub- 
title "An Introduction to Mental 
Prayer," is a simple and very practical 
book on mental prayer especially 
adapted to the needs of a beginner 
in the way of prayer. The Carmelite 
author presents the subject according 
to the method and teaching of St. 
Teresa of Avila. As his starting point, 
he gives in the first chapter St. 
Teresa's definition of mental prayer: 
"Mental prayer is nothing else but an 
intimate friendship, a frequent heart- 
to-heart conversation with Him by 
whom we know ourselves to be 
loved" (St. Teresa, Life, ch. 8). After 
treating of the nature of meditation 
he explains the method of making a 

The Passionist 

meditation according to St. Teresas 
concept. Then comes a treatment of 
the difficulties that come from dis- 
tractions and aridities, a practical 
demonstration of how the method 
should work in action, and a discus- 
sion of the aid to meditation to be 
found in recollection, detachment 
and spiritual reading. Finally, the 
author points to the progress that a 
soul can expect to make if it is faith- 
ful to the practice of mental prayer. 

This book is not a comprehensive 
treatment of mental prayer nor was 
it intended to be. We might even 
say that we are grateful to the author 
that he did not try to make it such. 
There is an abundance of more com- 
prehensi\e works that do not and 
cannot serve the purpose that this 
bcxiks serves. 

It seems to this reviewer that Con- 
versation With Christ can help Pas- 
sionists in two principal ways: 

1) It can be very helpful to us 
personally as a kind of refresher of 
our own ideas and ideals of prayer. 
Making prayer every day as we do, 
it can become too much of a com- 
monplace and the inspiration and de- 
sire to pray can wane a bit at times. 
Reading a book such as this can 
help to refresh our understanding of 
prayer and correct defects in our ap- 
proach to it. The book is totally free 
of complications, stressing always the 
basic simplicity of prayer. 

2) This book can also help the 
Passionist priest in his guidance of 
others. Paragraph 5 of our Holy Rule 
quoted above refers to our duty to 
teach others to practice prayer. Every 
Passionist probably feels at times that 
the nature and circumstances of his 
ministry is not always ideal for at- 
taining this purpose. In sermons, in 
the confessional, etc., we can teach 
others a few fundamental notions 
about mental prayer. But occasional- 
ly, at least, we meet souls who are 
desirous of reaching beyond the 
mere fundamentals and living a more 
interior life of prayer. It can help 
greatly to recommend such a book 
as Conversation With Christ to such 
people. I he book is simple enough 
that anyone with ordinary intelli- 
gence can easily grasp its meaning. 

The objection might possible be 
raised that the author of this book 
does not sufficiently stress the part 

October 1, 1957 

of spiritual direction as an aid to 
progress in mental prayer. Tradi- 
tionally, of course, direction and 
mental prayer have always been 
closely associated and most authors 
stress the need for direction if a 
soul wishes to make progress in 
prayer. But in practice the opportun- 
ity for such direction is rather limited 
for most, even religious souls. While 
this fact may be deplored, it still must 
be faced as a fact. This book can 
help greatly to supply the lack of 
spiritual direction for those who do 
not have the opportunity to receive 

CoLUMBAN Browning, C.P. 

Des Moines, Iowa 

A Greek-English Lexicon of the 
New Testament and Other 
Early Christian Literature, by 

Walter Bauer, translated and 
adapted by William F. Arndt 
and F. Wilbur Gingrich, Uni- 
versity of Chicago Press, 1957, 

THIS BOOK is a most important con- 
tribution by American scholar- 
ship to an understanding of New 
Testament Koine. The German orig- 
inal has long been a recognized 
authority in its field, but available 
only to those scholars who are pro- 
ficient in scientific German termin- 
ology. A simple listing of the new 
English lexicon's good features will 
illustrate how valuable it is for a 
proper understanding of the New 

(1) Bauer's Introduction gives a 
concise, scholarly outline of the re- 
lationship of Classical and Koine 
Greek, along with the influence of 
papyri finds on New Testament 
scholarship since 1890. 

(2) The Bibliography is quite 
comprehensive and includes both 
Catholic and non-Catholic authori- 

(3) Under the definition of each 
word numerous sources are usually 
cited for patristic writings; further- 
more there are references to the 
periodical literature dealing with the 
word or phrase in question. When 
the non Catholic authors cited 
would cither be unsuitable or un- 
available, this periodical list could 
easily be supplemented by references 


From the Spanish of 

Most Rev. Luis M. Martinez 

A detailed, lucid exposition of the 
Gifts of the Holy Spirit; their 
fruits; when and how they are re- 
ceived; how employed. Sermon 
material for priests; supplementary 
reading for seminarians to clarify 
De Spiritu Sancto. 

332 pp., $4.00 



No other single volume offers such 
a vivid and complete Catholic view 
of the years between 350 and 814. 
"The entire work shows the au- 
thor's deep understanding of his 
subject." Homiletic and Pastoral 

592 pp., $7.50 


Carmin Mascia, T.O.R. 

An excellent book made smoothly 
usable for the student by an in- 
genious mechanical device. In fol- 
lowing the descending march of 
philosophy from the Renaissance 
to the nihilism of Sartre, the "Gold- 
en Thread of Truth" has been set 
apart by a special font of italics. 
520 pp., $5.00 

Your bookstore or 
Dept. 4-2521 


Paterson 3, N.J. 


in the Catholic Commentary on Holy 
Scripture (1953). 

(4) The scholarship is sound and 
unbiased. Professor F. W. Gingrich 
of Albright College, Reading, Pa., 
spent a full five years on the trans- 
lation under the supervision of the 
late Professor W. F. Arndt of Con- 
cordia Seminary, St. Louis, Mo. Pro- 
fessor Arndt enjoyed a well-deserved 
reputation in the field of linguistics 
during his life-time. After checking 
certain key dogmatic terms (e.g., 
Faith, Baptism, etc.) my own opinion 
is that the book does not professedly 
attack Catholic doctrine. If the fact 
that this book has been brought out 
under non - Catholic scholarship 
might cause some to hesitate in offer- 
ing it to our students, it would seem 


Entirely NEW 



Saint Andrew 
Daily Missal 

Rewritten to conform to 
Sacred Congregation of 
Rites. Epistles, Gospels, 
Psalnns in Confraternity of 
Christian Doctrine Text. 
Complete new Holy Week 
Ceremonies. NEW LARG- 

Priced at 3.75 and up 

The E. M. Lohmann Company, 

413-415 Sibley Street, 

St. Paul 1, Minn. 

permitted by Canons 1399, No. 4 
and 1400. A further point to con- 
sider is the scholarly reserve and lack 
of dogmatism which characterizes the 
spirit of the whole work. As Bauer 
remarks: "No one need fear that the 
task is almost finished and that there 
are no more parallels to be found. 
One who gives himself to the task 
with any devotion at all cannot es- 
cape the feeling thus expressed: how 
great is the ocean, and how tiny the 
shell with which we dip!" 

A rather good use this book could 
be put to by those interested in Pas- 
sion studies is the following: consult 
a key-word (e.g., stauros, "cross") for 
a concise grasp of the historical usage 
of the word in the koine as given in 
the references to the scriptural and 
patristic sources. This may be further 
supplemented by reading those arti- 
cles available from the literature cited 
in the entry (or at least the Catholic 
Commentary^. This basic technique 
may be used for a simple concept or 
a series of closely related concepts 
(e.g., life, death, resurrection, etc.), 
and the investigation may serve as 
the nucleus of a paper in a student's 
research or as the scriptural back- 
ground for a priest's sermon. 

John Francis Kobler, C.P. 

Warrenton, Missouri 

St. John's Prologue, by M. E. 

Boismard, O.P., translated by 
Carisbrooke Dominicans, New- 
man, 1957. viii and 152 pp., 

HERE IS a book that no Passionist 
can read without acquiring a 
deeper knowledge and esteem of his 
own special consecration to the suf- 
fering heart of Christ. It is not a 
book that the reader will skim 
through with full sail and little or 
no effort. He must put his hand to 
the oars and pull. Fr. Boismard 
warns: "There is nothing like wrest- 
ling with the difficulties of a text, 
to enable one to grasp its import and 
the slightest shades of meaning . . . 
(Even) the Bible is not an easy 
book to read" (pg vii). Yet, to make 
the effort is to look with St. John 
into the open side of Christ and be 
drawn by a deeper understanding 
into that mystery of divine love 


which is Christ— a love so great that 
we must helieve it to be true (1 Jn 
4,16). This book will help us renew 
this experience every morning at 
mass as we recite the Last Gospel. 

Fr. Boismard writes about the 
Prologue of St. John's gospel, which 
covers no more than eighteen verses. 
Fr. Bonsirven, S.J., and others have 
frequently remarked: the entire gos- 
pel of St. John is here rehearsed. It 
is the prelude of a symphony where 
all the great themes are gathered 
into one grand ensemble and every 
instrument of the divine orchestra 
called into play. At one moment soft 
and gentle and the next moment 
loud and majestic, the Prologue leads 
all these themes to the climax of the 
Passion, just as St. John will do at 
much greater length in the follow- 
ing chapters of his gospel. 

The first half of the book is a verse 
by verse, exegetical commentary up- 
on the prologue. Fr. Boismard ad- 
mits that "for those who might be 
put off by a study of this nature, we 
have given at the end of the First 
Part, a summary of the chief findings 
of our investigations. These readers 
may refer to this at once, and then 
go ahead with the Second Part." The 
option is given, but the reader is 
begged not to take it. Dig, for there 
is gold beneath. Among the signifi- 
cant points of exegesis we find: the 
words of V 3 ("without him nothing 
was") are linked with Jn 15,5 so 
that there is this combined meaning: 
"just as in the supernatural order, 
we must abide in Christ because 
apart from him . . . we can do noth- 
ing (and) we are no longer any- 
thing supernaturally speaking; so in 
the natural order, nothing came into 
being, save in the Word" (pg 11). 
Verse 5 is translated "and the dark- 
ness has not overcome it" (rather 
than receive or covtprehend it in the 
intellectual sense). In this struggle 
with darkness the Light, which is 
also the Life of the world and of 
men, cannot be overcome. In verse 
10, "He came into his own people" 
St. John is referring to "the Holy 
Land and the Jewash people (of Old 
Testament days when) . . . God 
dwelt in the temple and in his re- 
vealed Law." Verse 13 refers to 
Christ's birth, either in the bosom of 
the Trinity or in the virginal womb 

The Passionist 

of Mary: "He whom neither of 
flesh nor of blood but of God was 
begotten." In v 16 "grace for grace" 
is exi)lained as the grace of the 
Mosaic Law which is superceded by 
the more abundant grace of the New 
Law. Still, Boismard admits the pos- 
sibility of another explanation where- 
by Christ's grace and our own con- 
front and match each other. 

The second part is a theological 
commentary upon the main themes 
of the prologue (and entire gospel). 
Chapter 2, entitled "The Word of 
Cod and Revelation, ' insists upon 
the inherent power of the divine 
word to re\'eal God's strength and 
goodness, mysteriously present in the 
materiaF universe as well as in the 
Old and New Testaments. The Bible 
and the world of nature live of the 
life of God and bring us into con- 
tact with the creative power of God. 
Each partial revelation naturally 
tends towards the full glory of God's 
manifestation when Christ is lifted 
up upon the cross. In the remain- 
ing chapters Fr. Boismard traces the 
other Joannine themes back through 
the Old Testament literature and so 
manifests their depth of meaning. 
He points out how all of these 
master-ideas tend of their nature to 
the supreme mystery of the Passion- 
Resurrection-Ascension. The sub- 
sistent Word (1,1b) is identified 
with the Old Testament concept of 
God's practical plan of salvation. The 
Word's role as Creator (1,3) fore- 
shadows the recreation of the world 
through the manifestation of God's 
power on Calvary. The light that 
bestows warmth and purity of true 
life is Christ, who is the Messianic 
Light of the world, predicted by 
Isaias. This life makes us children 
of God. It leads us into the new 
covenant of love, prophesized by 
Jeremias and Ezechiel, and sealed 
with the blood flowing from the 
wounded I ieart of Christ. 

After reading this small book you 
will spontaneously agree with Fr. 
Boismard's conclusion: "It is now 
l^ossible to understand (so much bet- 
ter) the mission of the Incarnate 

Carroll Stuhlmueller, CP. 
Chicago, Illinois 

October 1, 1957 

The Choice of God, by Dom Hu- 
bert Van Zelier, Templegate, 
ill and 210, $2.75. 

IN AN age when many spiritual 
books paint the imitation of 
Christ as an unending romance, Van 
Zeller's books periodically appear as 
sharp reminders that Christ's life was 
a crossbearing life. Spiritual joy, 
peace of mind, are not sublimated 
goals for a hedonistic world. They 
are overflowing effects of life lived 
in unremitting conformity with this 

The Choice of God is a book that 
confronts us once again with this 
challenge. Under 46 separate head- 
ings the author weaves a closely wov- 
en work on the spiritual life. It is a 
short work packed with the fruit of 
years of serious meditation on the 
"unum necesarium. ' 

This book could be considered as 
a commentary on that basic text of 
St. Paul: "I live now, no longer I, 
but Christ lives in me." The author 
shows how the choosing of God en- 
tails a consequent death to self. The 
choice of God and all that He is 
and all that He wants is a constant 
and ever repeated decision. Mortifi- 
cation in twentieth century terms; 
renunciation and detachment are 
hard sayings treated persuasively: 
"Perhaps because of the present gen- 
erations increased nervous sensibil- 
ity, or perhaps as a reaction against 
the particular systems of mortifica- 
tion which were taught in an earlier 
age, penance is not given much of a 
hearing today. It is, however, diffi- 
cult to see how a man may get near- 
er to God if he is scornful of the de- 
tachments which have been insisted 
upon until the spiritual writers 
found excuses for evading them." 

Regarding the cross in our own 
life: "It is a pity that people are not 
told more about the particular kind 
of blindness and opposition which 
the cross arouses in the soul. So long 
as you can still see the wood of the 
cross, knowing that it was on this 
kind of a plank that Christ was cru- 
cified, you can find yourself rising 
to meet the challenge of love. But it 
is when the cross is out of sight be- 
hind you— and particularly when vou 
are being pulled this way and that 
by human beings like yourself— that 

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you begin to wonder if you are in 
the right place. You begin to look 
for a Calvary that is somewhere 

While not written principally for 
religious, there is a chapter on pro- 
fessional formalism in the life of a 
religious that makes for soul-search- 
ing. The Passion, Mass, Mary, Di- 
vine Office, and our prayer-life are 
some more of the subjects that pass 
in rapid review. All are examined by 
Van Zeller as parts of the endless 
process of trying to translate the 
Verbum into modern terms. Along 
this line of thought he writes: "The 
Passion of today is not an historical 
review, reminding us of what hap- 
pened years ago: it is actual and 
present. We do not witness it from 
a distance as we would a pageant: 
we are in it. . . . If the trouble in 
the world has been caused by a drift 
away from love, it is for those who 
are dedicated to love to come forward 
with the remedy. . . . The history of 
religion shows that when Christian 
mysticism has been at its best, its 
exponents have derived their incen- 
tive—after the primary incentive of 
wanting to give direct worship to 
God— from the desire to form Christ 
in their fellow men." 

We have all chosen God by our 
vocation. But how completely have 
we chosen Him? As Van Zeller 
writes, "When the saint says 'I 
choose God' he is really saying, "I 
am not going to choose any more: 
my happiness consists in letting God 
choose. My will is to do the will of 
Him who sent me. I live now, no 
longer I, but Christ lives in me. I 
choose, now not I, but Christ chooses 
for me. I have chosen to be identi- 
fied with the Choice of God." 

To men who are by vocation Apos- 
tles, engaged in being other Christs 
and energizing a listless world with 
the fire of Him and His love, this 
little book provides a unique in- 


Scranton, Pennsylvania 

Master Alcuin, Liturgist, by Ger- 
ald Ellard, S.J., Loyola Univer- 
sity Press, 1956, xiii and 266 
pp., $4.00. 


English in the Liturgy, A Sympo- 
sium, edited by Charles Cun- 
liffe, Templegate, Springfield, 
III., 1956, 153 pp., $2.00 pa- 

HERE are two recent works on 
the liturgy that deserve a place 
in the pages of The Passionist, for 
every Passionist should be interested 
in the liturgy of the Holy Sacrifice 
of the Mass. 

At first sight the two books appear 
to be entirely different, and yet on 
closer study one can find a real con- 
nection between them. Master Al- 
cuin, Liturgist, relates once again the 
life and work of the great liturgical 
reformer of the Carolingian period. 
English in the Liturgy is a sympo- 
sium by prominent English scholars 
on the pressing question of the ver- 
nacular. In one we read the story of 
history's achievements; in the other, 
we find history in the making. And 
it is well for the advocates of lit- 
urgical reform today to recall the 
basic principles followed by that pio- 
neer liturgical reformer. Master Al- 
cuin— veneration for tradition, loy- 
alty to the Roman See, realization 
of present needs. 

The name of Father Ellard, Jesuit, 
assures us that the first is a work of 
high scholarship. With deep insight 
and after detailed study of sources 
Father Ellard traces the life and ac- 
tivity of Alcuin during the brief ren- 
aissance period of early medieval his- 
tory. Historians and liturgists should 
be indebted to Father Ellard for this 

The nature of the second work— 
a symposium— necessitates a certain 
unevenness in literary and scholarly 
achievement. Outstanding are J. 
MacDonald' study of the theology of 
liturgical languages and Clifford 
Howell's defense of the use of the 
vernacular. A. Milner has contrib- 
uted an interesting study on the pos- 
sibilities of music in a vernacular lit- 
urgy and refers to the recent at- 
tempts in France of setting the trans- 
lated psalms to a fitting musical back- 
ground. Father John Coyne's defense 
of the traditional position on Latin 
in all the liturgy was not so cogent— 

at least it did not convince this re- 

Roger Mercurio, C.P. 

Louisville, Kentucky 

China and the Cross, A Survey 
of Missionary History, by Co- 
lumba Gary - Elwes, O.S.B., 
Kenedy, 1957, xii and 323 
pp., $3.95. 

DOM CoLUMBA has Written a 
monumental work in 300 pages. 
By so doing China and the Cross 
fills the long felt need for an Eng- 
lish-language Catholic survey of 
Christian Mission history in China. 
Nor does Dom Columba ape the 
China Mission classic written by 
Professor Kenneth Scott Latourette, 
dean of non-Catholic China Mis- 
siologists. While acknowledging in- 
debtedness to Professor Latourette 
and other, Dom Columba goes his 
own way to give the Catholic inter- 
pretation to mission development in 
China, a field so long left almost ex- ■ 
clusively to non-Catholic writers. ■ 
Some of these, however, did attempt 
a just appraisal of Catholic evangel- 
ization, among whom Professor La- 
tourette is foremost by his fairness 
and clarity of perception. However, 
even he falls short of the mark, un- 
able to interpret the intrinsic princi- 
ples of Faith behind 700 years of 
Catholic China Mission work. It is 
here Dom Columba attempts, and I 
think successfully, to fill the gap. He 
is something of a Catholic pioneer. 
At the same time he makes no effort 
to produce a work as exhaustive as 
its non-Catholic counterpart. Dom 
Columba merely highlights important 
phases of the Christian movement in 
China, both Catholic and non-Cath- 
olic. Then with a scholarly touch he 
gives a concise Catholic analysis of 
each subject treated. 

The author takes up first the pop- 
ular legend that St. Thomas the 
Apostle visited China. He analyses 
the claim and then with conclusive 
arguments rejects it for want of suf- 
ficient historical evidence. 

Many unfamiliar with China's 
Mission history will be surprised to 
discover the Nestorians were the first 
known to have evangelized the coun- 
try, coming from Syria in the seventh 
century. Traces of their work are 

The Passionist 

found in the now famous Nestorian 
Stone unearthed in 1625. Dom Co- 
lumba appends a quaint English 
translation of the Stone's lengthy text 
which makes interesting and unusual 

With his background laid, Dom 
Columba is prepared to take up the 
first Catholic Mission effort in Chi- 
na, that of Franciscan Friars in the 
thirteenth century. Actually, they 
were looking for the court of the 
great Khan and found not only this 
but the vast land mass they called 
Cathay. Their work lasted only a 
century, disappearing around 1350, 
completely swallowed up in the com- 
plex culture that is China's. 

After a two century vacuum be- 
gins what the author calls the "Jesuit 
Age," undoubtedly his most pene- 
trating chapter. With consumate 
skill and tact Dom Columba narrates 
and analyzes this Golden Age of the 
China Mission. Beginning with the 
great Father Matteo Ricci, S.J. 
around 1685, a chain of missionary 
giants did prodigious work. They 
managed to get to inhospitable Pek- 
ing and the Emperor himself. They 
penetrated Peking's dreaded Forbid- 
den City and became familiars in 
the royal court. With natural phi- 
losophy they refuted Confucianism 
to put its literati to rout. They gave 
the Chinese their first taste of west- 
ern science, all the while using these 
gains to plant the seed of Faith. At 
Ricci's death in 1610 Peking was a 
flourishing mission. Three important 
mandarins became Christians, the 
Jesuits had a church near the royal 
palace under the protection of the 
Emperor, and ninety young Chinese 
converts were preparing for the 

Had the Rites controversy not aris- 
en the whole position of the China 
Mission would have been different. 
Dom Columba gives a frank and 
delicate portrayal of this internecine 
rift which eventually brought perse- 
cution to the Church and an end to 
the glorious gains. Then came the 
coup de grace in the suppression of 
the Jesuits. What they did in the 
seventeenth century was never to be 
duplicated in the future workings of 
the Church in China. The loss was 
never retrieved. 

After the "Jesuit Age" Dom Co- 
October 1, 1957 

lumba treats the "Modern Period" 
through alternate progress and per- 
secution to the present Communist 
Captivity. Colonization and the Mis- 
sion is fairly treated, then the advent 
of Protestant Missioners who first 
came to China in the early part of 
the eighteenth centurv. This latter 
section is well handled with a sense 
of charity that does not compromise 
principle. In his epilogue Dom Co- 
lumba outlines briefly important 
facts about the Church under the 
Communist Regime in China. He 
avoids all analysis on the plea we 
are too near the scene to interpret it. 
Four appendices and a complete bib- 
liography round out his work. 

Perhaps the most important note 
of Dom Columba's book was one he 
stressed the least. Praising the Jesuit 
era, he calls it Christendom's finest 
hour in China. He ventures to add 
when a new China will emerge from 
the present capitvity the wisdom of 
Ricci and his confreres must be re- 
asserted. Christianity must again 
penetrate the culture of China at its 
highest level, as it did then, until as 
the author puts it, "the mind of 
Christ and the mind of China will 
be made one." This is the present 
challenge. Yet how few Catholic 
specialists there are in America today 
capable of spearheading such an 
apostolate; how few leaders there are 
who have as yet even blessed it. Up 
to the moment there is neither unity 
nor drive in Catholic Sinology while 
non-Catholic scholars have already 
out-paced us. Dom Columba's appeal 
could hardly be more timely. 

China and the Cross is a welcome 
contribution to Missiology. Dom Co- 
lumba in the marshalling of his ma- 
terial will have an appeal to the stu- 
dent of Mission history, while his 
thoroughlv modern style makes a 
long and complicated history read 
like the great adventure it is. 

Justin Garvey, C.P. 
Scranton, Pennsylvania 

Perfect Friend, The Life of 
Blessed Claude la Colombiere, 
SJ., by Georges Guitton, S.J., 
trans, by W. J. Young, S.J., 
Herder, xxii and 440 pp., 

IN THIS well-written biography Pas- 
sionists will find three topics of 
special interest: his fidelity to grace 
and his two chief works or missions. 

1. In handling Blessed Claude's 
interior transformation effected by 
the year of tertianship the author 
has been especially successful. The 
young Jesuit priest reads of the death 
of John Berchmans and is deeply 
touched by the great consolation it 
gave him then never to have broken 
a single rule of his institute. At first 
Colombiere is inconsolable at his own 
past infractions. Eventually it leads 
him to the resolve to vow an unre- 
served fidelity to his rule. This was 
not done rashly or without a pro- 
found knowledge of himself and his 
predominant faults, viz., human re- 
spect and too natural a love of his 
friends. Despite fears, grace tri- 
umphs spendidly, if not without 
many struggles. The Sacred Passion 
of Christ diligently meditated on be- 
comes his inspiration to face any ex- 
treme of humilation or contradiction 
or suffering. 

2. God's Providence was preparing 
this priest for two missions. The first 
was that of spiritual director and con- 
fidante of St. Margaret Mary Ala- 
coque. For the Church in modern 
times this direction was something 
unique and for souls devoted to the 
Sacred Passion of Jesus it was of sur- 
passing significance. Christ's repeat- 
ed visions and messages to this Visi- 
tandine nun recall His Sacred Suf- 
ferings. Thus on a First Friday in 
the beginning of 1674, the Heart of 
Jesus appeared to her "more radiant 
than the sun . . . surrounded by a 
crown of thorns which symbolized 
the wounds which our sins inflicted 
on it, and surmounted by a cross to 
signify that the cross was planted 
there from the first instant of His 
Incarnation." Sorrowfully Christ 
complained of the ingratitude of 
mankind and the indifference even 
of consecrated souls. St. Margaret 
having become acceptable to Jesus 
by her own devotion to Christ s Pas- 
sion, was destined to remedy this sit- 
uation by her reparation and love. 
The Saviour had told her "I am seek- 
ing a victim for My Heart who wish- 
es to oiler herself as a sacrifice of 
immolation for my purposes. ... It is 
a crucified God whom you wish to 


espouse . . . you must therefore make 
yourself like Him. . . ." Claude was 
sent by Christ to assure and aid her: 
"I will send you my faithful servant 
and perfect friend who will teach 
you to know me and to abandon 
yourself to me." Therefore St. Mar- 
garet reveals to him the treasures of 
the Sacred Heart so that he would 
make its worth and value known to 

3. The second mission of Claude 
was preacher at the court of St. 
James in London and chaplain to the 
Duchess of York. In this milieu of 
the Anglican Reformation he proved 
himself a faithful minister of Christ's 
word and bore fruit in abundance by 
helping a number of souls towards 
the religious life besides sustaining 
man in the practice of a Christian 
life. His ideal of preaching is worth 
noting. "Why is it, I ask myself, that 
100 preachers cannot do today in 
one city what a single man (St. Fran- 
cis Xavier) did in so little time in a 
whole world? Dear God, is it not the 
fault of those to whom you en- 
trusted the sacred ministry of your 
word? . . . Christians . . . would be 
carried out of themselves if someone 
told them of the Redeemer. . . ." 

Persecution first imprisons him 
then sends him back to France where 
failing health makes him a holocaust 
for God. 

John Baptist Pechulis, C.P. 
Chicago, Illinois 

Suggested List of Recent Books 



They Saw His Glory, bv Maisie 
Ward, Sheed and Ward, '$4.50. 

St. John's Prologue, by M. E. 
Boismard, O.P., Newman, $3.25. 

The Bible as History, by W. Kel- 
ler, Newman, $5.95. 


A Primer of Theology, by Regan- 

Henry-Donlan, O.P., Priory Press, 

Dubuque, 4 vols., $3.00 and $3.50 

a vol. 
Toward Marriage in Christ, by 

Donlan - Sunningham - Rock, O.P., 

Priory Press, $1.50. 
Problems in Theology, by John 

Canon McCarthy, I. Sacraments, 

Newman, $6.75. 


Mariology, II, by J. Carol, O.F.M., 

editor, Bruce, $9.50. 
Sacrifice of the Mystical Body, 

by E. Masure, Newman, $3.50. 
Holy Mass: Approaches to the 

Mystery, by A. M. Roguet, O.P., 

Liturgical Press, 90^. 
Sacraments Signs of Life (Christ 

Acts in Sacraments), Liturgical 

Press, $1.50. 
What Happens at Mass, by W. 

Barden, O.P., Newman, $1.00. 


Canon Law: Text and Commen- 
tary, by T. L. Bouscaren, S.J., 
and A. C. Ellis, S.J., 3rd revised 
edition, 1957, Bruce, $10.00. 

Problems in Canon Law, by W. 
Conway, Newman, $5.50. 


The Worship of the Church, by 
W. J. O'Shea, S.S., Newman, 

Hymns of the Roman Liturgy, 
by J. Connelly, Newman, $5.00. 


Roman Catacombs and Their 
Martyrs, by L. Hertling, S.J., 
and E. Kirschbaum, S.J., Bruce, 

The Great Crisis in American 
Catholic History, by Thomas 
McEvoy, C.S.C, Notre Dame, 


The Pope Speaks, by Michael Chi- 
nigo. Pantheon Books, $4.50. 


Communism and Christianity, by 
M. D'Arcy, S.J., Penguin, 65f 

Mind and Heart of Love, by M. 
D'Arcy, S.J., Meridian, $1.35. 

The Papacy, by J. A. Corbett, An- 
vil, $1.25. 

Aquinas, by F. C. Copleston, S.J., 
Pelican, 80f 

The Desert Fathers, by H. Wad- 
dell, Ann Arbor, $1.25. 

Age of Belief, by A. Freemantle, 
Mentor, 50f 

Papal Encyclicals, by A. Freman- 
tle. Mentor, 50f 

The Public Philosophy, by W. 
Lippmann, Mentor, 35^. 

My Life for My Sheep, A Biog- 
phy of St. Thomas a Becket, by 
Alfred Duggan, Doubleday, 90^. 

The Manner Is Ordinary, Auto- 
biography of John LaFarge, S.J., 
Doubleday, 95^. 

Autobiography of St. Therese of 
LisiEux, by John Beevers, Dou- 
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The Church and the Reconstruc- 
tion OF THE Modern World, So- 
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bleday, $1.25. 

The Greatest Bible Stories, A 
Catholic Anthology from World 
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The Passionist 



Dear Editor: 

I do not entirely agree with Father 
Eugene Kennan's article "Other Forms of 
the Apostolate" in the August 1st issue 
of The Passionist. 

Certainly the 18th century had just as 
much need, perhaps even more, of these 
other forms of the apostolate as does the 
20th centur>'. But, St. Paul saw that these 
forms of the apostolate, necessary as they 
were, were not compatible with the con- 
templative life that he wanted his religious 
to live. If we begin to multiply forms of 
the apsotolate, the day will come when we 
are so taken up with these other forms 
of the apostolate that our monastic obser- 
vance with have to be put aside. 

I believe that we should stick to our 
own form of the apostolate handed dov\n 
by our Floly Founder, missions and re- 
treats, and try to improve it and make it 
more effective. Those who for some reason 
or other are not able to take part in the 
apostolate of the word are not a "poten- 
tial power in the province unharnessed 
which could be used for the good of souls 
in many ways." By their faithfulness to 
the mcmastic observance of prayer, pen- 
ance and solitude, they are able to draw 
down God's blessings on our special form 
of the Apostolate— missions and retreats. 

A Passionist Father 


Dear Editor: 

Recent issues of The Passionist have 
carried rather stimulating discussions on 
the problem of mission attendance and 
preaching technitiues. At present our mis- 
sionaries are doing a heroic work in pro- 
moting the proper work of our Congre- 
gation. Any suggested innovations must 
of course be very prudently incorporated 
by our Superiors lest we lose the great 
good already lieing accomplished by our 
present methods. 

The "problem," however, seems to be: 
can we accomplish an even greater good? 

Can we promote greater attendance than 

we at present have; can we produce more 
effective preaching technique? 

While we recognize the pastor's ob- 
ligation to promote mission attendance, it 
appears that it is something which cannot 
be habitually relied on. Of course, the 
zealous pastor will do his utmost to pro- 
mote the mission, but other things beside 
lack of zeal militate against a pastor's suc- 

Deadline foi' December 1st Issue 

All news items, notices and letters to 
the Editor to be printed in the December 
1st issue of The Passionist should be 
in the hands of the Editor by November 
1st. Articles, Book Reviews and Questions 
to be Answered should be sent in by 
October 15th. 

cess in this regard. For example, lack of 
time, lack of knowing what to do, and 
especially inexperience in conducting an 
effective program of promoting attendance. 
When it comes to the matter of financ- 
ing diocesan projects today, local Ordina- 
ries no longer tend to rely on the "hit-and- 

Letters to the Editor 

Our readers ore invited to send tetters 
to the Editor, giving their comments and 
opinions on articles and letters appearing 
in The Passionist. Letters on other sub- 
jects that will be of interest to our Read- 
ers will also be printed. If requested, the 
name of the sender will not be printed. 

miss" techniques of former days. One 
might reasonably argue, perhaps, that em- 
ploying professional fund-raisers is not the 
traditional way of the Church; nonetheless 
it is becoming a commonplace due to the 
exigencies of expanding diocesan facilities. 
Perhaps we could learn a few promotion 
techniijues from such fund-raising organi- 

riie basic principle these companies go 
on is that the typical Catholic parish 
lacks both the knowledge and systematic 
organization of how to raise funds. The 
company tries to make funil-raising as 
pleasant as possible without it being in- 
elFective. Consequently t h e company 

October 1, 1957 

works (Jiroiig^ the parish, not in place of 
it. A trained representative of the com- 
pany will discuss with the pastor both the 
needs of the parish and its potentialities 
after some sort of reliable analysis of the 
parish. Once some tentative goal is set, 
then the company's representative works 
in conjunction with the pastor to explain 
fund-raising techniques to the parish group 
chosen to put the campaign across. Lastly, 
this trained organizer aids them to make 
their efforts more successful. 

A program of this sort would seem to 
hold a great deal of benefit, particularly 
in the larger city parishes. It would, how- 
ever, have to be carried on intelligently 
and with dignity. Thus it follows that 
whoever would be the Congregation's 
"contact man" would have to be adequate- 
ly trained for the job. With this point in 
mind perhaps it would be well for us to 
make a methodical study of the various 
promotion techniques used by different 
fund-raising organizations in an effort to 
find out which ones we could possibly use 
to promote greater mission attendance. 
Once this knowledge has been gained, the 
program could be carried out on an experi- 
mental basis in select parishes to see if it 
w(juld be a success. 

Without going into any lengthy discus- 
sion of the possible merits of such a pro- 
gram we may enumerate a few possible 
benefits. A mission jiromoter would be able 
to organize parish societies more effective- 
ly, would be able to take an unwanted 
amount of work off a busy pastor, would 
have simple promotional literature to offer, 
would know what sources to contact for 
necessary publicity, and would have per- 
tinent suggestions for the parish groups 
about follow-up activities after the mission. 

The objection may be offered that no 
pastor or parish would be interested in 
having an outsider come in to organize 
their mission. Possibly so, but such per- 
sons seem to be ver>' much interested in 
having an effective money-drive. If they 
employ professional fund-raisers to put 
across such a program, why should we not 
use men of professional competency in 
our own Congregation to win the much 
more valuable souls of men Will our 
missionaries be effective if their audience 
has been "pressured" or morally coerced 
into coming? Probably much more effec- 
tive than if the people never came there 
at all. 

Interested C.P. 


Dear Editor, 

It is a joy to express my deep-felt satis- 
factii)n with both the form and the con- 
tents of The Passionist. St. Paul the 
Apostle as well as Our Holy Founder 
would, I feel, congratulate you wannly 
on your labors because they are manifest- 
ly a great help "to preserve the unity of 
the Spirit in the bond of peace." 

What gives me particular reason for 
writing is the sustained excellence of the 


continued articles on "The Spirituality of 
St. Paul of the Cross." Assuredly they 
do not make the easiest reading through- 
out, but they richly repay the effort. One 
is reminded of our Lord's expression to 
Nicodemus— "that which is born of the 
Spirit is spirit." 

My admiration and thanks go out to 
Fr. Costante and his translators. There is, 
of course, a vast difference between Sa- 
cred Scripture and Commentaries on the 
Scriptures; but we do not cease to treasure 
the latter as an aid to the former. It is 
the same with Our Holy Founder and 
those who correctly treat of him. Although 
one can read the letters and sermons and 
life of St. Paul of the Cross, still there 
is something added when they are consid- 
ered in a study like this by a learned the- 
ologian well-versed in the things of the 
spirit. Take, for example, an insight like 
this: "When souls will make progress . . . 
God is made visible through the wounds 
of the infinitely loveable charity of Jesus." 

In conclusion might I express the hope 
that The Passionist will continue to 
carry a feature appearing earlier but omit- 
ted of late, viz., some poetry on the Sa- 
cred Passion from the pens of those who 
"look always on Jesus and sorrow over 

John Baptist Pechulis, C.P. 
Chicago, 111. 


ON June 28 of this year the 
Sacred Congregation of Rites 
approved a new proper calendar or 
proprium for our Congregation. This 
is simplification of our former pro- 
prium, omitting some feasts, reducing 
the rank of others. However, in no 
way has there been a change in the 
actual texts (as found in our present 
printed proprium) of the feasts to be 
observed by us. 

We now celebrate as doubles of 
the first class the following feasts: 

Tuesday after Sexagesima Sunday 
—Solemn Commemoration of the 

April 28-St. Paul of the Cross. 

Sept 4— Dedication of All Our 
Churches (in consecrated Churches) 

Sept. 14— Exaltation of the Holy 

Sept. 15— Seven Dolors of the 
Blessed Virgin. 

Nov. 21— Presentation of the 
Blessed Virgin 

As can be noted, there has been 
no change in this rank of feasts. 

Among our doubles of the second 



class we find but two: 
Feb. 27-St. Gabriel 
Sept. 25-St. Vincent Mary 
In this way we restrict to doubles 
of the second class the feasts of Pas- 
sionist Saints. The former insertion 
of St. Mary Goretti in this class was 
something of a rubrical anomoly. It 
was difficult to understand why she 
received this high rank. Her feast is 
now reduced to its more proper status 
as a double major. 

In the list of double majors we 
find besides St. Mary Goretti on July 

May 14— St. Gemma Galgani 
June 9— Our Lady under the title 
of Holy Hope 

Oct. 17— The Transference of St. 
Paul's relics 

Fridays of Sexagesima week and 
of Lent— Passion Feasts. 

Besides the Passion Feasts omitted 
(of which we shall speak in a mo- 
ment) we should note that two dou- 
ble majors are dropped: Dec. 10— 
Holy House of Loretto; and July 4— 
Holy Roman Pontiffs. Also we might 
note that on October 17 a commem- 
oration is to be made of St. Margaret 
Mary— this feast no longer being an- 
ticipated by us to the preceding day. 

THE Passion Feasts are now re- 
stricted in number so as to in- 
clude only those which commemorate 
some mystery or instrument of the 
Sacred Passion. Moreover, our obser- 
vance of these feasts begins after the 
feast of the Solemn Commemoration 
and coincides with the period of 
Lent. The Prayer of Our Lord in the 
Garden is observed on Friday in Sex- 
agesima week and the other Passion 
feasts on the Fridays of Lent. We 
now omit the feast of the Title of the 
Cross (formerly on Friday after the 
Second Sunday of Lent) as well as 

those other feasts which were some- 
times associated with our Passion 
Feasts: e.g. The Flight into Egypt, 
the Finding of the Christ Child, the 
Holy Sepulchre, and the Holy Re- 

As a double minor we now have 
but one feasts, that of St. Leonard 
on November 26. The other feasts 
of double rank have either been re- 
duced to commemorations (cf. next 
paragraph) or else omitted entirely 
(as Aug. 18-St. Helen; Dec. 17- 
St. Lazarus; Relics in our Churches 
-Nov. 5). 

We now have a new category of 
feasts— those of the Saints of the Pas- 
sion which are now to be observed 
with a simfle com-mem-oration. They 

March 15— St. Longinus 

March 20— St. Joseph of Arima- 

March 26-The Good Thief 

March 29— St. Nicodemus 

April 9-St. Mary Cleophas 

October 22— St. Mary Salome. 

As simple commemorations they 
are to be commemorated at Lauds 
and Mass, while the office and Mass 
for the day is "De Ea" or of the Feria. 
Outside of Lent the festive Mass of 
the commemorated Saint with Gloria 
and commemoration of the feria may 
be said. 

In accord with this new Proprium 
we have now dropped eleven feasts 
entirely, and have reduced one from 
a double of the second class to a 
double major, and six others from 
double rank to that of a simple com- 
memoration. As can be seen, this is 
indeed a simplification of our Pro- 
prium— one that will be surely wel- 
comed by all the Brethren. 

Roger Mercuric, C.P. 

The Passionist 


Is our Passionist apostolate a neces- 
sary one? Does our message carry any 
impact in the modern world? And 
just how timely is the preaching oF 
Christ's Sacred Passion? We, oF 
course, can give the answer to such 
questions. But perhaps it would stim- 
ulate our zeal For holiness, and raise 
our esteem oF the vocation God has 
given us, iF we realize what men 
think oF our Congregation. The Fol- 
lowing quotations have been gather- 
ed at random. They are the reaction 
oF widely different persons to us and 
our work, and indicate what they ex- 
pect to find in the man who wears a 
Passionist Sign. 

Historian: "St. Paul oF the Cross is 
primarily a great mystic, a man oF 
incredible penance and oF ceaseless 
prayer , whose v\hole liFe is marked by 
visions and special revelations that 
centre around devotion to the Passion 
oF Our Lord. It is a liFe which is the 
very antithesis oF Jansenism. . . . The 
order he Founded had For its object 
the preaching oF the meaning oF the 
Passion. The Passionist gave himselF 
to a union with Christ suffering, and 
in this spirit preached his mission, 
and wherever he preached he was 
vowed to preach on the Passion" 
(Philip Hughes, A Popular History 
of the Catholic Church, p. 222). 

HousewiFe: "I want to tell you a 
story which is probably repetitious to 
you, but one that makes us very joy- 
ous. It concerns a member oF our 
family who hadn't been to Mass or 
the Sacraments For some twenty 
years. When we heard oF the mission 
we suggested he attend with us. . . . 
In his words he said he learned more 
about our religion in that one week 
than he knew his whole liFe. The last 
night oF the mission he had tears in 
his eyes as he told us this was the 
happiest week oF his liFe, and he had 
never known such peace within him- 
selF" (Letter to a Missi(mary Father). 

Condemned Criminal. "A Passion- 
ist is coming to visit me next week. I 
know he will be as worthy as a 
human being can be" (Father M. 
Raymond, O.C.S.O., Cod Coes to 
Murderer's Roir). 

Saint: "In these latter days it seems 
October 1, 1957 

that God has committed more pow- 
erFul graces to this mystery oF the 
Passion, and that the more Faith and 
love languish, and persecution and 
wickedness abound, the more does 
He seem desirous oF increasing de- 
votion to I lis sufferings. For there 
has risen in Italy an Order dedicated 
to the Passion, in which all the mem- 
bers wear upon their habit the Sign 
oF the Passion, and they meditate 
continually on this mystery, preach- 
ing Jesus Crucified everywhere. And 
this new Order has already produced 
saints, so efficacious is the Blood oF 
Jesus in the souls who nourish them- 
selves on meditation on the sufferings 
oF Christ" (Letter oF St. Madeline 
Sophie Barat). 


{Continued from page 338) 

great piety like the son oF Doctor 
Guglielmini Found therein an excel- 
lent spiritual preparation For mar- 
riage."'' Marquis Espejo y Vera Found 
peace oF soul in Frequent retreats at 
St. Angelo."'"* What makes us par- 
ticularly believe in their FruitFulness 
is a report oF the Bishop oF Ferentino 
to the Holy See during the time oF 
great opposition to the Foundation at 
Ceccano. "The Passionists oF Cec- 
cano," says the Prelate, "assist admir- 
ably in the reForm oF these Ecclesias- 
tics—something most necessary. More- 
o\'er they are bound to have ac- 
commodations and to be always ready 
to receive those oF the Clergy and 
jieoplc who wish to stay with them, 
even For a long period. God grant 
that we might have one oF these 
Foundations in every diocese, so that 
Clergy and people might be quickly 
sanctified; especially in those dioceses 
which are in poor spiritual condition 
because the poor Bishops are not able 
to ha\e Priests oF great learning, zeal, 
and spirit to lead souls to jxirFection. 
lOo oFten these days do we see Re- 
ligious Orders shy away From allow- 
ing outsiders to stay a while with 
them. One is hard put to find a 
Monastery that will take For a Few 
days oF retreat e\en those about to 
receixe I loly Orders."'''' The report 
oF June 15, 1749 returns to this point 
stressing both the assistance given at 
Irosinone to those condemned to 

death, and to the prisoners and 
bailiffs at Ceccano, and the great 
Fruit oF the retreats preached to the 
ordinands and others oF the clergy.''^ 
Doubtless many other Facts can be 
Found in the early records oF the 
Congregation on a subject oF such 
\'ital importance For our apostolate. 
But these are the ones that I have 
come across, almost by chance, while 
doing research on other subjects. May 
they help to conserve and renew 
among us the Fullness oF our Holy 
Founder's Spirit, and preserve us 
against the dissipation oF his ideals 
by wordly influences. 


Horariunt of St. Paul of the Cross 
for Retreatants 
"The Retreat will begin on the 
evening oF February 4th. 

5:30 Rise. 

6:00- 7:00 First Meditation. 

7:00-7:30 Mass. 

7:30- 8:00 The Retreatants may 
go warm themselves, but in silence. 

8:00- 9:00 Spiritual reading in 
their rooms. 

9:00- 9:30 Walk outside in silence, 
each by himselF. 

9:30-10:00 Examination oF con- 
science in their rooms as a prepar- 
ation For conFession on the third 
day oF the retreat. 
10:00-10:30 Devout recitation oF a 

third part oF the Rosary. 
10:30-11:00 Second Meditation. 
11:00-12:00 The last Mass; another 
fixe decades oF the Rosary during 
12:00- 1:00 Dinner. 

1:00- 1:45 Recreation in common. 

1:45- 2:30 Rest in their rooms. 
They should rest rather than spend 
the time in meditation or reading. 

2:45- 3:15 General examen. 

3:15- 4:00 Spiritual reading in 
their rooms. 

4:00- 4:30 Walk outside For the 
Fresh air and to reliexe the mind, 
hut in silence. 

4:30- 5:00 A third part oF the 

5:00- 6:00 The General Meditar 

6:00- 7:15 Supper and Recreation, 

7:15- 7:45 Rosarv. 

7:45 Retire. 


The Retreatants should keep strict 
silence and not speak among them- 
selves except at the common recrea- 
tion. However they are at liberty to 
speak with the Spiritual Director, 
who shall visit them in their rooms 
each morning." 

(The original manuscript is pre- 
served at Isola.) 


1 PAR, f. 661. 

2 Ibid., f. 2281. 

3 Ibid., f. 2543. 
4POVetr, f. 398. 

5 FOR, f. 2308. 

6 Ibid., f. 2424. 
'POOrb, f. 581. 
SPOR, f. 222. 
SPOA, f. 231, 282. 

10 Nov. 16, 1729. 

11 Nov. 20, 1729. 

12 Dec. 6, 1724; Archiv. Segreto Vat.; 
Vescovi, vol. 153, f. 447, 458; vol. 141, 
f. 673. 

ispOOrb, f. 116. 

14 Ibid., f. 148; cfr., f. 138. 

15 Ibid., f. 309. 
lepOR, f. 1487. 
i^PACorn, f. 390. 

IS Lettere, vol. I, p. 356. 

19 Ibid., p. 359; April 9, 1732. 

20 Ibid., p. 371; August 15, 1737. 

21 Ibid., p. 378; March 31, 1732. 

22 Ibid., p. 734; Cfr., Vol. II, p. 8-9, 

23 Ibid., vol. Ill, p. 438. 

24 Ibid., Vol. IV, p. 213 

25 Cfr., Ibid., vol. II, p. 345. 
26POC, f. 624. 

27 Chapter 2. 

28 Ibid. 

29 Vol. II, p. 654, 659. 

30 Ibid., p. 659. 

31 Ibid., vol. Ill, p. 419ff. 

32 Gen. Chap. I, n. 9, and II, n. 11. 
Bollettino, 1923, 19. 

33 Ch. XXIII. 

34 n. 168. 

35 Archiv. Gen. C.P., Vita del gran 
Servo di Dio P. Giov. Battista di S. Vin- 
cenzo Ferreri, by P. Filippo della SS. 
Concezione, P. IV, n. 14, p. 298. 

36 Archiv. Gen. C.P., mss. 

37 PAR, f. 1246. 

38 Lettere, vol. IV, p. 93ff. 

39 1776. Ibid., vol. Ill, p. 406. 

40 Cfr., Ibid., vol. II, p. 837. 

42 Cfr., POVetr, f. 547. 

43 Ibid., f. 576. 

44 Ibid., f. 595; PAV, f. 404. 

45 PAR, f. 1096. 
4« POVetr, f. 1189. 

4' Archiv. Gen. C.P., Vita del Servo di 
Dio, mss., p. 44. 

48 Lettere, vol. Ill, p. 547. 
49POR, f. 307. 

50 Lettere, vol. Ill, p. 741. 

51 Ibid., p. 783. 
52POR, f. 690. 

53 Lettere, vol. IV, p. 91. 


54 Ibid., vol. Ill, p. 642; PAV, f. 492. 

55 March 21, 1748. Bibl. Comunale di 
Velltri, mss. n. 30. Memorie di Ferentino, 
by Mons. Fabrizio Borgia. 

56 Ibid. 


(Continued from page 343) 

personal life to that of the Crucified. 
Another sign of it is the advice which 
our Saint often gives, namely, that 
the soul, after having entered into 
interior solitude and therefore already 
reborn spiritually in holy love and 
pure faith, ought to make the suf- 
ferings of Jesus its own.^^" The pure- 
ly interior sacrifice is still imperfect: 
later on it will come to the point of 
immersing itself in the Mystery of 
the "Blessed Passion,"^^^ by means 
of a real change in the victim sacri- 
ficed. As Scheeben rightly affirms: 
"In proportion as this alteration, and 
the withdrawal of the object from hu- 
man use effected by the change, and 
the occupying of it by God, are more 
real and perfect, the sacrificial ideal 

is more effectively and fully real- 


69 On the transition from discursive 
prayer to that contemplative prayer, see 
Gaetan, Doctrine, pp. 33-43. 

70 Many times the Saint had to explain 
that if he gave exalted counsels to souls 
who were not yet very far advanced, it 
was because he perceived that they were 
drawn by God on the way of holy love. 
Cfr., e.g., Letters, I, 108-109; III, 191; 
368; 483; II. 472. 

'^^ Letters, I, 107 (March 17, 1734- 
to Agnes Grazi); Cfr., Ivi, I, 175; 662; 
253; 445. 

72 On the spiritual nosegay in general 
cfr. the Article, "Bouquet spiritual," in 
Dictionnaire de Spiritualite, I, 1898-1901. 
Relative to St. Paul of the Cross, Gaetan 
speaks about it briefly in Doctrine, p. 48. 

73 Introduction to a Devout Life, Part 
II, c. 7. 

74 Cfr., POR, 1017, 1725 v; 1847 v; S, 
I, 215, 272; 189; 158. 

75 Letters, I, 108 (March 17, 1734-to 
Agnes Grazi). 

76 Cfr., e.g.. Letters, I, 753; III, 169; 
367; 376; I, 103; Gaetan, Doctrine, p. 

77 St. Bernard speaks about the spiritual 
nosegay when he is commenting on the 
verse of the Canticle: "A bundle of myrrh 
is my beloved to me" (I, 12), in Serm., 
XLIII, 3-4. In this place he summarizes 
all the sufferings of the Lord, from His 
infancy. His preaching. His journeys, etc. 

78 Treatise on the Love of God, Book 
VI, chapter 5. 

79 Ihid., Note that also in Tauler a spir- 
itual nosegay is spoken of with reference 
to the same place in St. Bernard (Semi. 
in Sahh, Sancto, Ediz. Surio, p. 191, a dis- 
course attributed to John Ruysbroeck by 
the same editor). The contemplative func- 
tion of the nosegay is noted by Hugueny, 
in Sermons . . . vol. I, p. 123. 

80 The explicit citation from the Can- 
ticle is referred to by Father Guiseppe di 
S. Maria in POR, 1514: "He taught it to 
us and more than once did he recommend 
to me in particular this bundle of myrrh 
with all the pains, all the torments 
scourges, thorns, nails and the cross of 
Jesus, repeating to me that passage from 
the Canticle: "A bundle of myrrh is my 
beloved to me, he shall abide between my 
breasts." (Cfr., S. 1, 161-162, 260; and 
the Letters, II, 19). The explicit reference 
to St. Bernard is also found: "Follow his 
loving repose in God in peace, in sacred 
silence. St. Bernard made a nosegay of 
the sufferings of Jesus and bore them in 
the bosom of his soul. Have no doubt, 
God will teach it all to you." (Letters, I, 
401; June 26, 1736-to the Prince Ap- 
piani.) Cfr., also POR, 929 v. 

81 Besides the places cited, references to 
the spiritual nosegay according to St. Paul 
of the Cross can be found in Letters, I, 
99; 141; 351; 437; 564; 597; II, 258; 
734; III, 59; 385; 405; 518; IV, 42; POV, 
578 v; 1096; 422 v; POR, 827 v, 929 v. 

82 Letters, I, 124 (July 25, 1735-to 
Agnes Grazi). 

83 Letters, IV, 136 (March 25, 1770)- 
to Signora Agata Frattini). cfr., Ihid., Ill, 

S't Letters, I, 597 (October 6, 1750:- 
to Thomas Fossi). The reference to the 
spiritual nosegay is explicit, in the imme- 
diate context of our citation. 

85 Letters, I, 699 (October 27, 1758- 
to Thomas Fossi). 

86 Letters, I, 612-613 (March 13, 1752 
—to Thomas Fossi). 

87 Letters, I, 483 (February 19, 1742- , 
to Sister M. Cherubine Bresciani). 

88 Ifoid., Ill, 459 (January 18, 1757- 
to Sister M. Chiara, Capp.). The Saint 
had taken the metaphor of the sea from 
Scripture, in order to indicate the Passion. 
In another letter also he tells a soul "to 
immerse herself entirely in the sea of the 
Most Holy Passion, called precisely a sea | 
... by a Prophet. . . ." (Ill, 336-to Sis- 
ter M. Madd, Anselmi, June 21, 1755). It 
is certainly a case of reference to Lamen- 
tations, II, 13, "for great as the sea is thy j 
destruction." Very beautiful enlargements 
of this metaphor will be found in Letters, 
I, 267; 280; II, 96; 717; 725; etc.; PO, 

90 POV 771. In this sense he gave 
many examples, cfr., Strambi, Spirito, p. 
205. In these expressions he attained the , 
purest theology: "He said these words! 
many times: if you find another who is] 
your first principle and last end, and su- 
preme happiness who has prepared an im- 
mense and eternal glory for you— as God j 
has prepared for us, love him as . . . but j 

The PassionistJ 

know that in God alone is rest and hap- 
piness found. . . . Always remain in the 
immense sea which is God, since He con- 
tinually says to your heart: "I have loved 
you with an everlasting love; therefore 
have I drawn you, taking pity on you." 
POV, 992 v.; S. 1, 341, 185. The role 
which gratitude plays, as a disposition for 
charity, is illustrated by St. Thomas in 
Siininia Theolo^iae, II-II, 27, 3 c. 

'" Letters, III, 439 (October 24, 1764- 
to P. Pietro di S. Giovanni, the same Fa- 
ther Master to whom he will send the 
manuscript of the "Mystical Death" in 
the following year. Cfr., Letters, III, 442). 

'■''■^Letters, II, 510 (May 26, 1750-to 
Sister Colomba G. Gandolfi). 

^^i Letters, IV, 4 (April 18, 1767-to 
Agnes Sagneri). Similar testimony will be 
found in Letters, II, 299 (December 2, 
1764-to A.M.M. Crocifissa). ". . . . Keep 
yourself entirely alone in the most inti- 
mate part of your spirit, remain in the 
sacred silence of faith and of holy love 
in the Bosom of the Divine Father so, 
that you might be reborn to a new life of 
holy love in Christ Jesus His Son." 

^>^ Letters, IV, 225 sq (May 24, 1750- 
to His Religious). The two fragments in 
the original succeed each other in the con- 
trary direction. 

"•'' "And whatsoever man makes all the 
objects of his activity heavenly and divine, 
turning his back resolutely on all transi- 
tory things, that man makes the life and 
activity of his soul wholly divine. The 
glorious soul of our Lord Jesus Christ was 
ever turned towards the Godhead, as far 
as His higher faculties were concerned. 
This was always so from the first moment 
of His incarnation, just as much as it is 
now in the bliss of Heaven. ... So must 
we be, if we will imitate Him: we must 
keep God deep and peaceful in our heart, 
while in our ordinary occupations we are 
engaged with many different things .. . 
man's likeness to God is in his power of 
combining interior restful joy with exte- 
rior activity; and that means the interior 
man's unalterable adherence to God in his 
deepest consciousness, pure and perfect. 
This is a state quite different from the 
outward methods of serving God, as dif- 
ferent as running and sitting down. The 
interior state is a perception of God's pres- 
ence, joined to the happiness of His pos- 
session. . . ." (Tauler, Serm. in Dom. V 
post Trin.) 

»«// Corinlhiam, 5, 14. 

^''Letters, II, 522 (To Sister Colomba 
Geltrude Gandolfi; no date is given, but 
from the context, it can be deduced that 
it was written in the summer of 1755). 
The mystical nativity is also linked with 
the "total detachment from every created 
thing" in the Letters, II, 43 (December 
27, 1765-to A. M. CJiov. Grazi). The 
Saint used the evidently mystical analogy 
of the drop cast into the sea, to describe 
the mode, suggested by him, of purifying 
the intention. "Two things," said the 
Servant of God, "and he repeated it to 
me many other times, were constantly 
practiced by him. The first was to con- 
sider God continually present; the second 

October 1, 1957 

was to subject to God, Whom He con- 
sidered present to him, his every inten- 
tion. . . . Once he explained it by this 
analogy. God is infinitely holy, just and 
right; 1 picture myself standing at the 
shore of the sea, and here on the surf, I 
see a drop of muddy water, and this is 
cast into that immensity of water, and 
then losing all muddiness, it becomes 
limpid like the rest of the water. . . ." 
POR, 260 V (Can. Gaetano Suscioli). 

!'« Cfr., Pourrat, v. IV, p. 502; Gaetan, 
Doctrine, pp. 169-187. 

'■>'■' Letters, III, 540 (September 25, 
1758-to Sister M. Maddalena Carm.). 
The Saint refers to the Ascent of Mount 
Carmel, II, Chap. 10, n. 4). 

' "" Cfr., Keusch, La dottrine spirituale 
... pp. 397-403. 

""Cfr., e.g.. Letters, I, 535 (March 
29, 1736— to Thomas Fossi). 

'"^Lefters, III, 747 (March 11, 1766- 
to Marianna Girelli). 

'"^^Cfr., e.g.. Letters, II, 508; I. 346; 
642; 50; 243, etc. 

'"^Cfr., Letters, III, 347; St. Theresa 
gives this description in her LIFE, c. 11, 
7; c. 14, 1; Interior Castle, Mansion, IV, 
c. 2, 3. 

'"•'"'Cfr., e.g.. Letters, II, 508; I, 539: 
"The true consolations and lights of God 
are always accompanied by the deepest 
humility, by such knowledge of self and 
of the Divine majesty, that the soul is so 
humiliated that it would cast itself under 
the feet of all . . . they likewise produce 
an angelic understanding, although not at 
all times, but peace, joy, love, the exer- 
cise of virtue and love of suffering. . . ." 
(October 19, 1736— to Thomas Fossi.) 

""' ". . . receiving in a passive way the 
Divine impressions with great abandon- 
ment to God, let His Divine Majesty do 
His divine work in the depth of the spirit, 
in which the Divine Nativity takes place. 
Here we could speak great paradoxes, but 
we . . . begging yon to take serious ac- 
count of that great grace of keeping the 
heart contrite and humble. . . ." Letters, 
III, 160 (June 25, 1757-to P. Gian. M. 
di S. Ignatius). (The underlined words 
are added, and the date changed— accord- 
ing to the comparison made with the 
original, kept in the General Archives of 
the Passionists in Rome, and discovered 
after the publication of this Letter.) 

^'>' Letters, IV, 96 (June 16, 1770-to 
Sister M. Crocrifissa). 

i"«7fc;H., I, 110-111 (April 17, 1734- 
to Agnes Grazi). The same doctrine is 
recorded in POC, 220 v. 

'""Leffers, I, 783 (October 6, 1768- 
to Thomas Cfr., Ihul, III, 464, 
where he insinuates that "these detach- 
ments can be made by way of particular 

"•'LcfJer.s 11, 461-462 (July 23, 1754 
—to Sister Colomba G. Ciandolfi). Other 
similar and very beautiful texts can be 
found, //;;■</., II.'289, 313. 513, 830; 811; 
I, 782, 795, etc. 

' ' ' Gifts by the very fact that they 
were appropriated by the soul, would lose 
their splendor: "Always remain in pov- 
erty of spirit; detach yourself from all 

gifts since they remain soiled, and make 
a sacrifice of praise, of honor, of benedic- 
tion to the Most High, remaining in your 
nakedness. . . ." (Letters, III, 459— Janu- 
ary 18, 1757-to Sister M. Chiara di S. 
Fiiippo). Cfr., also Ibid., Ill, 160; II, 522. 

H2 Letters, II, 830 (January 8, 1760- 
to D. Giovanni A. Lucattini). Cfr., Ibid., 
II, 717. 

^^■■nhid., Ill, 812 (August 2, 1768-to 
Anna M. Calcagnini). 

11* Note in passing that this concept of 
death to the world as a truly mystical and 
contemplative state is the classic one of 
ancient Christian tradition; Cfr., Stolz, 
Teologia della Mistica, pp. 113 sq. 

11 "'Cfr., e.g.. Letters, 111, 374: "That 
sacred recollection of love in which the 
soul is enriched with every good . . . carry 
it with you in everything, working, walk- 
ing, in your room, and wherever you are. 
Oh, what a priceless gift this is." (March 
9, 1790-to Teresa Palozzi.) Cfr., Ibid., 
in, 371; 375; 385. 

116 Cfr., Ibid., I, 205, 278, 283, 307, 
461, 539, 716, etc. 

11' Letters, II, 722 (March 25, 1751). 
To Lucia Burlini; IV, 59 (December 19, 
1769— to Sister Anna Teresa). 

11** "Children, the men who rightly 
comprehend this preparation, and who un- 
derstand the noblest manner of receiving 
the Holy Ghost, are those who cut off all 
things but God, who are made entirely 
empty, and thus attain to the interior life 
and Divine unity; these are rightly pre- 
pared for the Holy Ghost." (Tauler, In 
festo Pentec.) 

11" Letters, II, 808 (May 25, 1752-to 
D. G. A. Lucattini). 

1-1 "If in such solitude, where you are 
reborn to a new Deiform, i.e., holy life, 
the Divine Spouse carries you to fish in 
the sea of His Most Holy Passion, fish 
then, little daughter, and let yourself be- 
come entirely penetrated with love and 
sorrow, and make the sufferings of Jesus 
vour own." (Letters, II, 725 (August 17, 
'l751-to Lucia Burlini); cfr., Ihid., I, 279- 
280; BoUeitiuo, 1927, p. 323). 

1-1 In the Canon of the Roman Mass 
the priest makes a memento of the 
"Blessed Passion" of Christ immediately 
after the Consecration. 

1'-'- Scheeben, The Mysteries of Chris- 
tianity, p. 433. 

(Continued from page 349) 

^ixcn to His sacred humaniU' only 
h\ reason of its hcino instrument of 
the Godhead, personally conjoined to 
the Divine Word. For it is Divinity 
alone that can physically contact all 
points ol time in the sinijle embrace 
of Eternity. Participating instrumcn- 
tally in the eternal character of this 
Divine causality, the human nature 
ol Christ on the Cross is able to s]i;Mi 
the gap of time between CaKary and 


us. The power of His sufferings can 
reach across the centuries, to exist 
simultaneously with the effects of 
that power today. 

SECONDLY, the phrase "historical 
sufferings." When we say that 
Christ's Passion is the cause of pres- 
ent-day effects, what precisely do we 
mean? Many theologians explain this 
thesis by stating that the glorified hu- 
manity of Christ, which once suf- 
fered, and which retains in Heaven 
the transfigured wounds and the lov- 
ing obedience of the Passion, is to- 
day being instrumentalized by the 
Godhead to work in our souls.* All 
this is true. The humanity of Christ 
in glory is still the conjoined instru- 
ment of the Word, and as such is pro- 
ducing effects in our souls now. This 
explanation is certainly based upon 
an exalted and inspiring theological 
doctrine. But it does not seem to ex- 
haust St. Thomas' meaning, when 
he says that the Passion of Christ is 
efficient cause of our salvation. For 
the loving obedience of Christ, 
though it motivated His sufferings, 
cannot be said to have constituted 
those sufferings. So that, though the 
sacrificial will of Christ lives on, 
the sacrifice itself of the Passion does 
not formally and actually exist in 
His glorified humanity today. And 
if it does not actually exist, neither 
can it be actually operative. 

A second explanation, offered by 
Father P. M. Matthijs, O.P.,^ pro- 
fessor of theology at the Angelicum, 
places emphasis on the historical 
sufferings of Christ. The Sacred 
Passion, he explains, was being in- 
strumentalized by Divine Power at 
the very moment of its occurence 
in time. That Passion reaches effec- 
tively across the Centuries to us. But 
not precisely because the humanity 
of Christ, which then suffered, still 
exists today. Rather, the formal rea- 
son for this effective contact is that 
the Divine Power was, at the very 
historical moment of the Passion, in 
presential contact with men of all 
future ages. 

We do not think the two explan- 
ations are necessarily contradictory. 
Both are expressive of grand theo- 
logical truths. But the first would 
seem rather to explain how Christ's 
glorious humanity remains a divine 


instrument today. While the second 
goes more to the heart of our present 
problem, and explains how the his- 
torical Passion of Christ, formally 
speaking, can be producing effects 
today. We think the second explan- 
ation the more complete. It would 
seem to adhere closely to St. Thomas' 
thought in the passages we have 
quoted. At the same time it preserves 
the traditional, double point-of-view : 
Christ's Passion an historically past 
event, yet that same Passion effective 
and operative today. 

OF COURSE, we have not really 
solved the problem. By our 
theological reasoning we have only 
pushed it back a step— plunged it 
into the deeper mystery of the Hypo- 
static Union. Here, indeed, Our 
Holy Founder, seems to have mysti- 
cally intued the very truth which St. 
Thomas expresses in more speculative 
terms: "He Who is crucified, is the 
Divine Word, and He is then in- 
timately present to each one," (Bro- 
vetto, Costante, C.P., Spirituality of 
St. Paul of the Cross, The Passion- 
iST, X,n.3, p. 241). Calvary is indeed 
a tragic story, worth all our grateful 
remembrance. But much more than 
a story, it is a dynamic fact, vital, 
pulsing fountain-source of all our 
good. For on the Cross a God suffered 
in the mortal flesh He had called His 
own. He, the Eternal God, has made 
those three fleeting hours of agony 
the tool with which He is at work 
in our souls even until now. Well 
might Christ have cried out, as He 
hung from His throne of wood and 
iron, "All power in heaven and on 
earth has been given to me . . . and 
behold, I am with you all days, even 
unto the consummation of the 
world." (Mt 28,18,20) For His suf- 
ferings and death, caught up in the 
grasp of Eternal, Vital Power, would 
in all truth be forever. 


1 We say "subsequent to its occurrence" 
and not before. Because the historical 
event of Christ's Passion, while truly 
caught up in the principal causahty of 
Divine Power, maintains at the same time 
its existential relationship to other his- 
torical events. And the Divine Power it- 
self, while in itself eternal, acts upon men 
only in time. Even this Divine Power can- 
not use in time an instrument that does 

not yet actually exist. But once it does 
exist, the Passion shares forever in a pow- 
er higher than itself, and by virtue of 
this Divine Power can reach all times sub- 
sequent to its coming into existence. 

2 The Mass and the Sacraments do not 
perpetuate the power of Christ's Passion, 
in the sense that this power could not or 
would not be perpetuated without them. 
Rather it would seem that the already per- 
petual power of the Passion makes possi- 
ble the Mass and the Sacraments. 

3 The Holy Father would seem to be 
making this very distinction between psy- 
chological and efficient contact, when he 
proceeds to say, in the next paragraph of 
the encyclical here cited: "Christ is in us 
through His Spirit, whom He gives to us, 
and through whom He acts within us, in 
such a way that all divine activity of the 
Holy Spirit within our souls must also be 
attributed to Christ" Qhid, 84). The 
Holy Spirit, here spoken of by appropria- 
tion, works in our souls as principal cause 
what Christ works as instrumental cause. 
As always, the effect must be attributed 
to both causes, though in diverse fashion. 

* Fathers Garrigou - Lagrange, Synave, 
Hugon, Barden, O.P. These authors all 
accept the Thomistic principles of instru- 
mental causality, and allow that the Sa- 
cred Passion was accomplished by the hu- 
manity of Christ as instrument of the 
Word. Only on the further question of 
the way in which that instrumental caus- 
ality reaches us today do they stress the 
present glorified existence of the "human- 
itas Christi quae passa est." The explana- 
tion of Father Matthijs, O.P., which at 
first seems to contradict these authors, is 
in reality, we think, merely a develop- 
ment and extension of their basic princi- 

5 Matthijs, P. M., O.P., De Humani- 
tate Christi Operativa Divinitati Conjuncta 
(Angelicum, 1952) and De Aeternitate 
Sacerdotii Christi (Angelicum, 1954-55). 


(Continued from page 345) 

there are only one hundred and fifty 
psalms. As a result, in many cases, 
the connection between the antiphon 
and psalm will be tenuous indeed. 
This is an objection against the pro- 
posed "Commune Passionis." Truly, 
this suggestion would be simpler than 
our present arrangement, but it too, 
has obvious difficulties. The sacred 
author certainly did not have the var- 
ious antiphons of the Passion offices 
in mind, when he wrote the psalms. 
Even if he did, he would have had an 
extraordinary task in trying to com- 
pose a psalm which would fit in with 
the various proper antiphons to be 
recited with it. Even if new anti- 

The Passionist 

phons were written for each Passion 
feast, they would have to be so gen- 
eric, that they would have little or no 
connection with the feast. As a prac- 
tical example, take the psalm 'Beatus 
vir.' It is easy to see how it is appro- 
priate to the antiphon 'Erit tamqum' 
with the Crown of Thorns. Again, 
can anyone honestly hold that the 
same psalm 'Beatus vir' was chosen 
because it is appropriate to the anti- 
phon 'Ad Jesum autem' for the feast 
of the Lance and Nails? In this case, 
the antiphon is connected with the 
feast, and not with the psalm which 
it introduces. A studied reading of 
the antiphons and psalms of the Pas- 
sion offices is enough to convince any- 
one that many of the psalms were 
chosen at random, and not because 
they were particularly appropriate for 
the proper antiphons. It would take 
a yet unwritten psalm to be appro- 
priate for the various antiphons 
which must be recited with it, for all 
the Passion feasts. 

A further practical difficulty con- 
nected with the proposed "Commune 
Passionis" is that if the new version 
of the psalms were used, it would be 
as useless for the greater part of the 
Congregation as the present edition 
is. Since the whole tenor of the 
article was to simplify the Proper, it 
is surprising that no one offered the 
more radical, but far simpler solution 
of reciting the ferial antiphons and 
psalms for Matins, and the proper 
antiphons only at Lauds and Vespers. 
This would eliminate all present in- 
conveniences, and at the same time, 
preserve the delicate flavor of the Pas- 
sion feasts which have come down to 
us from the time of our holy 

Nor Ai.i, the arguments used in 
the original article were intend- 
ed to be from "a liturgical point of 
view," as was clear from the context. 
So it is unfortunate that the one Fr. 
Roger selected, of the Passionist cele- 
brating Mass outside the monastery 
on Oct. 17th, as a "rather weak" ex- 
ample, is, in fact, based on an in- 
contestable liturgical principle. This 
principle was stated under Ceneral 
Norms, and reads: "When a proper 
Mass and office are substituted for a 
feast of the universal Church, the lat- 

ter shall not be transferred, but re- 
ceive only a commemoration. This 
rule does not seek to abrogate the 
rubrical norms for the concurrence of 
feasts, but rather seeks to apply them, 
in particular cases." This is practical- 
ly repeating the words of the 'Addi- 
tiones et Variationes' of the Missal, 
Tit. V, No. 1 : "Festa ritus duplicis 
sive majoris sive minoris aut semi- 
duplicis universalis Ecclesiae, sive 
fixa sive mobilia, sicubi perpetuo im- 
pediatur, non reponuntur, sed die 
sua, commemorantur vel omittuntur." 
If the feast of the Transfer of St. 
Paul's relics remains in the new 
Proper, then, according to the gen- 
eral rubrics, the feast of St. Mar- 
garet Mary should receive a com- 
memoration on that day. As is evi- 
dent, the argument "from the phys- 
ical bulk of our Proper, or the 
chanced inconvenience arising in 
provinces which still use the old 
Psalter," were not intended to be lit- 
urgical, but rather, practical reasons. 
And even in the Liturgy, practical 
difficulties are taken into account. 
Witness the well known exemption 
from having the tabernacle veiled in 
New Guinea, because of practical 
difficulties (S.R.C. Decree 3456). 

The length of this paper might 
suggest that there are many divergent 
opinions regarding the simplification 
of our Proper. Actually, such is not 
the case. That our Proper should be 
simplified radically, is almost a uni- 
versal conviction, especially since the 
publication of the Decretum Gen- 
erale. How it will be done should be 
the subject matter of much study and 
discussion. For, it is only by an in- 
tensive study and a frank discussion 
of different points of view, that a 
Passionist Proper will emerge of 
which we can be justi\ j^nnid. 


(Coiilimu'cl Iroiii paiic .iSS) 

only he can imparl this wisdom to 
others. Little wonder that the Holy 
Father lays down these norms for the 
preacher ot the word ol Ciod: "Let 
llievi pray that they may understand; 
let them labor to penetrate ever more 
deejily the secrets of the Sacred 

Pages; let them teach and preach, in 
order to open to others also the treas- 
ures of the word of God. "'" 


1 Divino Afflante Spiritu, n 33-34; 
NCWC tr. 

- see excellent article of Fr. Roderick 
A. F. MacKenzie, S.J. in Proceedings of 
Catholic Theological Society, 1955, p. 

•^ see Catholic Biblical Quarterly 19 
(Apr. 56) 129. 

^ see Catholic Biblical Quarterly 19 
(1956) 315-323, "Semitic totality Think- 
ing" by Bernard J. LFrois, S.V.D. 

■''J. Pedersen, Israel III, 99-181, upon 
which the above depends. 

t" It is abundantly clear in the Bible 
that this experience of God is never direct 
but through some effect of the divine pres- 
ence, cf Ex 33-34. 

"> John McKenzie, S.J., Two Edged 
Sivord, 222. 

"^ J. F. Forestell, "Christian Perfection 
and Gnosis," in Catholic Biblical Quarter- 
ly 18 (1956) 128-129. 

9 Roland E. Murphy, O.Carm., "Old 
Testament Messianism and Apologetics" 
in Catholic Biblical Quarterly 19 (Jan. 
1957) 5-15. 

'^'^ Divine Afflante Spirilit, 60. 

October 1, 1957 



For the following Years: 

1944, 1945, 1946, 1947, 1948, 

1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 

1954, 1955, 1956, 1957 

Order from: 


5700 North Harlem Ave. 

Chicago 31, Illinois 

$5.00 per bound volume. 





Students Record for Hospital 

The theological students at Im- 
maculate Conception Retreat recent- 
ly made tape recordings of short talks 
for broadcast to the patients of Resur- 
rection Hospital, located a short dis- 
tance from the monastery. The talks 
covered various topics, such as 
"Prayer to Christ Crucified," "Sancti- 
fication of Suffering," "Presence of 
God," and various other related sub- 
jects which would be useful to the 

This was a sequel to the project 
begun a year ago when the students 
made recordings of a morning prayer, 
evening prayer and rosary programs 
(Cfr. The Passionist, Vol. IX, No. 
2, p. 154). These first recordings 
were sold to Dahlberg, manufacturer 
and owner of the hospital's bedside- 
radio system. Dahlberg then present- 
ed a free copy of the programs to 
each Catholic hospital using its radio 
system. Since the patients of a hos- 
pital form an every-changing audi- 
ence, the programs can be repeated 
over again at about two-week inter- 
vals. At present some of the students 
are preparing a further series of in- 
formal commentaries on episodes 
from the Gospels. 

Institute of Spirituality 

Five Fathers from Holy Cross 
Province attended the Institute of 
Spirituality at the Dominican House 
of Studies, River Forest, 111., from 
July 8 to August 1. Those who at- 


tended were Fathers Damian Cragen, 
Jerome G. Stowell, Emmet Linden, 
Luke Connolly, and Rian Clancy. 
Fathers Emmet and Rian graduated 
this year, having attended the course 
during the two previous summers. 

Retreat News 

Warrenton, Mo. Since the clergy 
have been making their annual re- 
treat at our new retreat house at 
Warrenton, the following dioceses 
have been represented: St. Louis, 
Kansas City, Jefferson City and 
Springfield-Cape Girardeau. Bishop 
Brynes made the first clergy retreat 
in February. Bishop Glennon FlaVin 
made his pre-consecration retreat pri- 
vately in May. Bishops Marling and 
Helmsing made theirs with their 
priests. All the priests and Bishops 
making their retreat there were high- 
ly complimentary and enthusiastic. 


Confrater Timothy Joseph O'Con- 
nor made his temporary profession, 
August 2. Confrater Timothy's ves- 
tition was later than the rest of his 
class because of his father's death. 
He is now with his class in Des 
Moines, Iowa, studying philosophy. 

Brother Candidate School 

This September saw the beginning 
of a new candidate school for Pas- 
sionist brothers at our new prepara- 
tory seminary, Warrenton, Mo. It re- 
ceived candidates at the first year 
high school level. Present plans are 

to add a class each year until it 
reaches a four year course. 

The candidates will take full ac- 
credited high school courses, but will 
also be given a series of supervised 
courses in the general work of our 
Passionist brothers. For the present 
the program will be under the direc- 
tion of the director and vice-director 
of the high school seminarians. The 
whole program will be toned to pre- 
pare the candidates more adequately 
for entrance into the novitiate. 

Works on Revision of 
Marriage Course 

Father Forrest Macken, C.P., lec- 
tor of moral theology, canon law and 
pastoral theology at Sacred Heart Re- 
treat, Louisville, Ky., is among the 
small number of scholars from across 
the nation chosen to rewrite the wide- 
ly used folder entitled, Toward Holi- 
ness and Happiness in Marriage. 

This course for engaged couples 
put out by the National Catholic 
Welfare Conference and officially 
adopted in a number of dioceses has 
been almost exhausted by the wide- 
spread demand. Since it is being 
printed again, it is being revised and 
rewritten. Requests have also been 
made to translate it into various other 

Brother Gabriel Redmon, C.P. 

After 45 years of devoted service 
as a Passionist brother. Brother Gab- 
riel Redmon, C.P., died on Friday 
morning, July 19, 1957, in St. 
Joseph's Infirmary, Louisville, Ky. 
Brother Gabriel had entered the hos- 
pital the previous Monday for treat- 
ment of a bronchial cough of some 
months standing. On Thursday eve- 
ning Brother took a turn for the 
worse and received the Last Sacra- 
ments. As the Last Rites were ad- 
ministered. Brother Gabriel followed 
the ceremonies and prayers most de- 
voutly. The following Friday morn- 
ing at 8:55, Brother Gabriel died. 

Brother Gabriel was born in 
Hodgenville, Kentucky on April 19, 
1889. He was the fifth of eight chil- 
dren. Upon the completion of his 
schooling. Brother took employment 
with the firm of Bray Clothing Com- 
pany. A few years later at the age 
of 22, in the year 1911, he entered 

The Passionist 

f t "■' f f ♦' t « 'f' t 

/^ #w 


i dfT ik . #< (flh ^ ^ * '^& ^ ^ ^ ^ 

STUDtNTS OF HOLY CROSS PROVINCE with their Directors and some of the brothers during their four weeks' vacation together 
ot the new Preparatory Seminary, Warrenton, Mo. First row, left to right: Confraters Jerome Brooks, Nicholas Kliora, Ambrose M. 
Devaney, Xavier Albert, Fr. Columban Browning, Fr. Borry Rankin, Fr. Firmian Parenza, Confrs. Kenneth O'Malley, Francis Cusack, 
Augustine Wilhelmy, Alfred Pooler, Andre Auw. Second row, left to right: Alphonse Engler, Leonard Kosatka, Stephen Balog, Ga- 
briel Duffy, Francis Martin Keenan. Third row, left to right: Hugh Pates, Bonaventure Timlin, Theodore Deshaw, Blaise Czaja, An- 
drew M. Gardiner, Casimir Gralewski, Potrick E. O'Malley, Philip Schaefer, Owen Duffield, Vincent Giegerich, Terence M. O'Toole, 
Bro. Christopher Zeko, Confrs. Martin Thommes, Aloysius M. Hoolahan, Bro. Joachim Saunders. Top row, left to right: Morris 
Cahill, Joseph Van Leuwen, Mel Joseph Spehn, Fabian M. Hollcraft, Bro. Michael Wilson, Confrs. Sebastian MacDonald Mark 
Tomasic, Damian McHale, Bro. Vincent Haag, Confrs. Joseph M. Connolly, Gerald Appiarlus, Raphael Domzall, Christopher M. 

Sobczak, Benedict Olson, Kevin Kenney. 

the Novitiate in Louisville and was 
clothed in the Passionist Habit. 

The next 45 years of Brother 
Gabriel's life were spent in the vari- 
ous monasteries of the province, occu- 
pied with the duties of a Passionist 

Sixteen years prior to his death, 
Brother suffered a coronary occulsion 
that necessitated a curtailment of his 
activities. His principal duties over 
the past years were those of infirmar- 
ian and porter. During this same pe- 
riod he took a most active part in the 
work of the Confraternity of the Pas- 
sion, assisting the director in the ma- 
terial aspects of this work. He v\'as 
most zealous to increase its member- 
ship and took every opportunity to 
dispense the devotional literature 
proper to the members. 

The Passionist Nuns, in their 
foundation in Owensboro, Ky., were 
likewise the beneficiary of his zeal in 
the i^roniotion of devotion to the 
Sacred Passion. So deeply to heart 
did he take their work, that with the 
appnnal oi his superiors, he sponsor- 
ed various benefits as lund raising 
means to hasten the day when a 

October 1, 1957 

proper chapel could be added to the 
convent and retreat house. He was 
also most active in promoting the 
work of the retreats in the Louisville 

The funeral Mass was sung in St. 
Agnes Church on July 22, by Very 
Rev. Fr. Neil Parsons, provincial. 
Verv Rev. Fr. Conell Dowd, rector 
of Sacred Heart Retreat, was deacon. 
Rev. Fr. Thaddeus Tamm, vicar, was 
subdcacon. Brother Gabriel was 
buried in the monastery cemetery. 


Fr. Donald Ryan from Chicago, 
111. to assistant retreat director, De- 
troit, Michigan. Fr. Terence Powers 
from Dcs Moines, Iowa, to St. Paul, 
Kan. Fr. Norbert McGovern from 
Sierra Madre, Calif., to Citrus 
1 leights, Calif., as vicar. 

Fr. Emmet Linden from St. Paul, 
Kan. to assistant pastor, Chicago, 111. 
Fr. Benet Keiran from Chicago, 111., 
to assistant pastor, Louisville, Ky. Fr. 
Quinten Reneau from Louisville, 
Ky., to Des Moines, Iowa. Fr. Caspar 
Watts frt)m Des Moines, Iowa to 
Citrus Heights, Calif. 

Brother Leonard Paschali from 
Chicago, 111., to Warrenton, Mo. 
Brother Christopher Zeko from Des 
Moines, Iowa to Chicago, 111. Brother 
Michael Wilson from St. Paul, Kan. 
to Des Moines, I o w a. Brother 
Charles Archuletta from Detroit, 
Mich., to Warrenton, Mo. Brother 
Philip Frank from Warrenton, Mo., 
to Detroit, Mich. 

Brother Romuald Reuber, C.P. 

On Monday evening, September 
9, Brother Romuald Reuber, C.P., 
died at Mercy Hospital. Des Moines, 
Iowa. Brother Romuald was the old- 
est brother in profession of Holy 
Cross Pro\ince. He spent 56 years 
of faithful service as a Passionist 

Monday afternoon, -August 19, 
Brother Romuald suffered a stroke 
at St. Gabriel's Monastery, Des 
Moines, Iowa. I le was immediately 
anointed and taken to Mercy Hos- 
pital. The doctor said that there was 
no hope of his reco\ery. Brother 
Romauld's sisters were notified at 
once and one ol them. Sister Agnes 
Marie, a Sister of Charity, arrived 


by plane from Pittsburgh. His other 
sister is a Passionist nun in the same 

Brother Romuald was born August 
2, 1879. He entered the Passionist 
Novitiate at Pittsburgh, Pa., and 
made his religious profession on Feb- 
ruary 20, 1901. During his 56 years 
as a Passionist he served in all the 
offices of a brother. His life can be 
summed up in one sentence. He was 
a good Passionist brother. He was al- 
ways on the job and faithful to the 
regular observance. The younger 
brothers can always look up to 
Brother Romuald and find in him 
an example of fidelity to prayer and 

The funeral Mass was sung in the 
Chapel at Mother of Good Counsel 
Seminary, Warrenton, Mo., by Very 
Rev. Fr. Clarence Vowels, C.P., pro- 
vincial counsultor. Very Rev. Fr. 
Ignatius Bechtold, C.P., rector of St. 
Gabriel's Monastery, Des Moines, 
Iowa, was deacon. Rev. Fr. Michael 
Brosnahan, C.P., vicar at the sem- 
inary was subdeacon. Father Na- 
thanel Kriscunas, C.P. was master of 
ceremonies and Father Robert Bor- 
ger, C.P., preached the sermon. 
Brother Romuald was buried in the 
cemetery at Mother of Good Coun- 
sel Seminary. 

Missionaries Depart for Japan 

On the Feast of the Assumption 
two more Passionist Missionaries 
from Holy Cross Province left from 
Chicago for Japan. The new mission- 
aries are Fathers Ward Biddle and 
Denis McGowan. They sailed from 
San Francisco for Japan aboard the 
Topa Topa. The Fathers are head- 
ed for the Retreat of the Immaculate 
Heart of Mary, Hibarigaoka, Japan. 
With the Fathers there also sailed 
four Passionist Nuns from Pittsburg 
who are planning on making a new 
foundation in Japan near the mon- 
astery of the Fathers. 

After their arrival in Japan, Fath- 
ers Ward and Denis will spend about 
two years at a language school in 
Tokyo. Then they will take up the 
customary duties of our Congrega 
tion, preaching missions and retreats. 
The news of the appointment of the 
new missionaries was announced or 
July 3. 

Prior to their appointments to 


Fr. Denis McGowan, C.P., recently ap- 
pointed for the Japanese Missions. 

Japan, Father Ward was director of 
students at Immaculate Conception 
Monastery, Chicago, 111., and Father 
Denis was vice-master at the noviti- 
ate, St. Francis Jerome Monastery, 
St. Paul, Kansas. Father Ward was 
replaced as director of students by 
Father Barry Rankin, and Father 
Luke Connolly replaced Father 
Denis as vice-master. 

News in Brief 

Relatives of the following religious 
of the Province died during the last 
two months. Father of Fr. Flannon 
Gannon; Sister of Fr. Edwin Ronan; 
Stepfather of Fr. Caspar Watts; 
Father of Fr. Kent Pieper; Father of 
Brother Regis Ryan. . . . Mother of 
Father Emmanuel Sprigler. . . . 

While on the west coast at our 

Fr. Ward Biddle, C.P., recently appointed 
for the Japanese Missions. 

monastery in Sierra Madre, Father 
Daniel Maher, suffered a heart at- 
tack. He returned to St. Paul of the 
Cross Monastery on July 4, and went 
to Mt. Carmel Hospital for a stay of 
nearly a month. Father is now back 
in the monastery. . . . Father Cam- 
pion Clifford, former lector of history 
at the Prep, is doing research work 
on the early Passionist missions in the 
west, around the I850's and 1860's. 
The results of this study will be sent 
to the General Curia Archives in 
Rome. . . . 

Father Paul Francis Ratterman, 
Pastor of Immaculate Conception 
parish, Chicago, 111., returned home 
from Resurrection hospital the first 
week of July. Father had spent about 
three weeks in head traction, due to a 
slipped neck disc. Fortunately the 
doctors were able to avoid surgery 
which would have entailed a long 
period of recovery. 


To Study in Rome 

Four priests from St. Paul of the 
Cross Province left New York on 
Friday, September 13, aboard the SS. 
Vulcania for graduate studies in 

They are Fathers Timothy Fitz- 
gerald, C.P., Philadelphia, Pa; Pat- 
rick McDonough, C.P., Dorchester, 
Mass.; Damian Towey, C.P., 
Newark, N. J., and Norbert Dorsey, 
C.P. Sprinfield, Mass. All were or- 
dained priests April 28, 1956 at St. 
Michael's Monastery by the Most 
Rev. Cuthbery O'Gara, C.P., and 
have since been studying sacred elo- 
quence at Our Lady of Sorrows Pas- 
sionist Monastery in Springfield, 

Fathers Timothy and Patrick will 
study theology and philosophy re- 
spectively at the Angelicum College; 
Father Damaian will study missi- 
ology at the Lateran College, and 
Father Norbert will study Gregorian 
Chant at the Pontifical Institute of 
Sacred Music. 

Leave for Jamaica, 
B.W.I. Missions 

Three priests from St. Paul of the 
Cross Province, including two "Old 
China Hands" left Monday, Septem- 

The Passionist 

ber 9th, for the Passionist Missions in 
Jamaica, British West Indies. 

1 hcv are Father Basil Bauer, C.P., 
ol Sharon, Pa., lormer China mis- 
sioner for 28 \ears who was released 
by the Chinese Reds in 1952; Father 
Ernan Johnston, C.P. of Beaver Falls, 
Pa., whose lelease from Red China 
was obtained through the Ceneva 
Conference, and Father Angelo laeo- 
vone, C.P., of New York City, Voca- 
tion Director at St. Cabriel's Pas- 
sionist Monastery, Brighton, Mass. 

Passionist Sisters 

During September the Passionist 
Sisters opened a con\ent and religi- 
ous instruction center at Seaford, 
Long Island. This brings the number 
of convents of Passionist Sisters in 
the province of Our Lady of Dolors 
to eight. Their houses are in the 
Archdioceses of New York, Hartford, 
Providence, a n d n o w Rockville 

By a singular coincidence the Pas- 
sionist Fathers conducted their first 
parish mission on Long Island just 
100 years ago this fall. The secular 
l^ess of that time featured excerpts 
from the fiery preaching of Father 
daudentius Rossi, C.P., at St. 
Joseph's in Flushing. 

Mother Maria Concepta, C.P., has 
been appointed the first Superior at 
St. James in Seaford. Mother Con- 
cepta v\as no\ice mistress for 18 years 
at the novitiate at Bristol, R. I., and 
is now provincial consultor. 

On August 28, Sister M. de Mont- 
fort of the Sacred Fleart, made her 
temporary \'ows at Mount Saint 
Joseph, Bristol, the novitiate house of 
the Passionist Sisters. At the same 
time three received the Passionist 
habit. They were: Sister M. Cecilia, 
Sister Mary Jude, and Sister Eliza- 
beth. The sermon for the occasion 
was preached by Rev. Fr. Leo 
Cerrity, C.P. of Springfield. 


"Madonna and Child" by Giovanni Bel- 
lini, of the Italian School (Venice), about 
1430-1516. Giovanni wns a pupil of his 
father, Jacopo Bellini, and his brother 
Gentile. He is one of the great masters 
of his period who developed the pictorial 
style of Venetian paintiri] foreshadowing 
Giorgione and Titian. This painting now 
hongs in the Detroit Institute of Arts. 

October 1, 1957 



University Students 

During the school year 1956-1957 
there were 24 university students at 
Sts. John and Paul. Three of them 
received the doctorate. Father 
Eugene Peterman, Holy Cross Prov- 
ince, defended the thesis "The The- 
ology of Mystical Suffering according 
to Louis Chardon, O.P. in La Croix 
de Jesus" for the doctorate in Theo- 
logy. Fr. Marianus Moreno, C.P., 
Precious Blood Province, Spain, de- 
fended the thesis "Conocimiento 
humano e intencionalidad en Santo 
Tomas" for the doctorate in Philosa- 
phy. Father Sofronio Sofranov, C.P., 
Our Lady of Holy FIopc Province, 
Holland, for his doctorate in History 
defended the thesis "Le mouvement 
bulgare vers I'Eglise catholique au 
XIX Siecle." 

Twelve fathers received the licen- 
tiate. The provinces represented dur- 
ing the past school year were as fol- 
lows: Pieta Province, Italy, two in 
history and philosophy. St. Joseph 
Province, England, two in theology 
and Sacred Scripture. Sacred Heart 
Province, Spain two in canon law. 
Immaculate Heart of Mary Province, 
Italy, fi\e in eccleciastical music, mis- 
siology, philosophy, canon law, 
theology. Side of Christ Province, 
Italy ,one in philosophy. Holy Fam- 
ily Province, Spain one in canon 
law. I loly Cross Province, four in 
Sacred Scrijiture, theology, history, 
canon law. Si. Ciabriel Province, Bel- 
gium, one in canon law. Precious 
Blooil Pn)vince, Spain, two in philo- 
sojihy. historx . Our Lady of I loly 
1 lo|K- Province, Flolland, two in 

canon law and history. Calvary Prov- 
ince, Brazil, two in Sacred Scripture 
and canon law. 


Passionist Sisters 

On June 25, the Passionist Sisters 
of St. Paul of the Cross of Province 
inaugurated a new chaple and a 
new wing for their orphan asylum, 
Guardian Angel, at Faltona di Talla 
(Arezzo). The Sisters take care of 
about 50 orphan boys, orphans of 
Italian workers. On the day of the 
dedication 15 of the boys received 
their First Holy Communion Ironi 
the Coadjutor Bishop of Arezzo. 
Many government and labor officials 
were present for the ceremony. 


Professed Students 
Vacation Together 

For the first time all the professed 
students of Mieres, Spain, Precious 
Blood Province, spent three weeks of 
their summer vacation together at 
their preparatory seminary in Pena- 
fiel while the prep students were 
home for their vacation. 

Commissions for 
Studies Appointed 

I he Provincial Moderator of FIolv 
Family Prcnince, Spain, Rev. Fr. 
Felix, upon receipt of the Question- 
naire sent out by the General Prefec- 
ture ol Studies, a|ipointed various 
commissions to study carefully each 
ol its points. Their object was to con- 
sider how the province could put into 




'® *# *t J«/ ' ^ ' ' 


Religious of Holy Family Province, Spain, who took part in the Convention for studying 
the questionnaire on studies sent out by the General Curio. 

practice in their totality the norms 
given by the Sedes Sapientiae and 
the General Statutes of the Sacred 
Congregation fo Religious. 

After long and careful preparation, 
the various commissions presented 
their WTitten reports to a gathering 
of all the professors, directors and the 
master of novices. This meeting was 
held in Zaragosa from July 9 to 12. 
The Provincial, Very Rev. Fr. 
Paulino presided with Rev. Fr. Felix 
moderating the discussions. 

At the present time all the reports 
are being collected in a single volume 
which will be sent to the General 
Prefecture of Studies. The reports of 
the commissions as well as the discus- 
sions of the general meeting were 
considered highly profitable. 

Provincial Chapter 

The seventeenth provincial chapter 
of Holy Family Province was held in 
Zaragosa from the 5 th to 12th of 
August. Very Rev. Fr. Paulino was 
reelected provincial. Very Rev. Fr. 
Teofilo was elected first consultor. 
Father Teofilo had been superior of 
Daimel and prior to that had been 
director of the Preparatory Seminary 
for many years. Very Rev. Fr. Gon- 
zalo, the former superior in Havana, 
was elected second consultor. The 
president of the chapter was Very 
Rev. Fr. Ignatius, the first general 



Passionist Brother 
Ends Schism 

The following interesting item was 
sent in by our correspondent in 
Poland. Brother Francis Uzarowski, 
C.P., was appointed from the very 
first days of the Polish Vice-Province 
to go on the quest. During his free 
time he would read Sacred Scrip- 
tures, learning many texts by heart. 
Among the Brethren he is called the 
walking concordance. He also read 
catechetical and ascetical works and 
was prepared to meet the questions 
that were put to him by the laity on 
his trips. 

In 1932 he was on the quest in 
Lublin and one day went to the near- 
by village of Piaski and asked for per- 
mission to beg there. The Pastor glad- 
ly gave his consent. While talking to 
Brother, the Pastor expressed his sor- 
row over the fact that half of his 
parish was in schism, and belonged to 
the Polish National Church, which 
was founded in 1897 by Hodur. 
Brother Francis asked if it would be 
all right if he visited the schismatics. 
The Pastor gave his permission. The 
result of the visit was that a few days 
later, the schismatic "priest" called 
his flock together, gave them an ap- 
propriate sermon and then all went in 
procession to the Catholic Church to 
be absolved from their schism by the 


Newly Ordained Priest 

Sunday, June 2, was a First Class 
Feast for the town of Schwarzenfeld. 
The whole town was out to receive 
the newly ordained priest, in his 
native town of Schwarzenfeld. Father 
Anthony Ziereis, C.P., celebrated his 
First Solemn High Mass as a Pas- 
sionist priest. The houses were decor- 
ated as though it were the Feast of 
Corpus Christi. The band escorted 
him from the station to the mon- 

Father Anthony was ordained in 
Mook, Holland, where he had finish- 
ed his studies at our Passionist Mon- 

Copitular Fathers who took part in the Provincial Chapter of 
Holy Family Province, Spain 

The Passionist 

astery. Since Father is German he 
will be a real asset to the Schwarzen- 
feld Community. 

The first Passionist foundation in 
Ciermany was begun in 1922. Father 
Victor Koch. C.P., was chosen supe- 
rior bv Father General. Father Victor, 
C.P./and Father Valentine, C.P., 
arrived in Munich, Bavaria, on June 
14, 1922. They were joined bv Father 
Leopold, C.P. the following January, 
1923. After difficult negotions with 
his Eminence, Cardinal Faulhaber, 
permission was granted to start a 
foundation. In 1923 they obtained 
the so-called castle of Countess 
Paulina Gatterburg at Munich, Pas- 
ing, today the Provincial House and 
Preparatory school. At Maria Schutz 

Monastery of the German-Austria vice-province, at Schwarzenfeld. 

in lower Austria a second monastery 
was acquired the first of October, 
1925. This is one of the most cherish- 
ed places of pilgrimage to our Blessed 
Mother in Austria. Last year at Maria 
Schutz they had 330 weddings and so 
far this vear they have had 160 wed- 
dings. The Austrians like to get mar- 
ried in our Blessed Mother's Church. 
A third monastery which serves as a 
Novitiate was built at Schwarzen- 
feld in 1935. 

The German foundation met with 
cxtraordinarv difliculties. Not until 
1935 were the first German Passionist 
priests ordained. National Socialism 
almost disrupted the young founda- 
tion. The American fathers who v\erc 
still active in the Province were for- 
bidden by the Gestapo to preach or 
hear confessions. The Theological 

October 1, 1957 

Fr. Anthony Ziereis, C.P. (center) In his native town of Schwarzenfeld for his first 
solemn Moss. Fr. Franz Kugelmann, C.P. (right), Rector of Schwarzenfeld. 

Students were sent to Rome to con- 
tinue their studies. In Rome they 
were drafted for German military 
service. The remaining American 
fathers had to leave Germany in 
1941. Then the German priests and 
brothers were drafted for military 
service. The young foundation was 
almost disrupted. Five theologians 
and one brother were killed in the 
war. One of the theologians, a dea- 
con, was a classmate of Father 
Franz, C.P., Rector of Schwarzen- 

A new beginning had to be made 
after the war. They still had the three 
monasteries, but with the few priests 
left, the real work of the Congrega- 
tion, giving missions and retreats, 
could not be resumed. Flowever, one 
priest, Father John, C.P., a Swiss, 

The bond ond whole town of Schwarzenfeld turned out to meet Fr. Anthony Ziereis, 
C.P., on his return home after ordinotion. 


was almost constantly engaged in 
preaching missions and retreats. 
Since the end of the war only four 
priests have been ordained. Last year 
two Americans, Fathers Anthony 
and Ronald, from St. Paul of the 
Cross Province, and Father Conrad, 
C.P., from the Irish Province joined 
the German vice-Province of the 
Five Wounds. 


Convert Work 

Instruction classes for prospective 
converts were started at St. Joseph's 
retreat, Highgate, London, in July, 
1956 by Father Paschal, C.P., under 
the auspices of a special Conversion 
Praesidium of the Legion of Mary. 
They publish and distribute leaflets 
and posters, attend the classes and 
mix with the prospective converts to 
make them "feel at home," obtain de- 
tails of names and addresses, etc., 
from any new ones who come. 

So far there have been three full 
courses of instructions and from these 
31 converts have been received into 
the Church. Many other non-Catho- 
lics although they have not as yet 
entered the Church, have had preju- 
dices removed. The present course 
began in September and will con- 
tinue until Christmas. 

Each course consists of about 25 
classes. A lecture is given on set sub- 
jects followed by questions both 
written and oral. Some of the advant- 
ages of this group method are that it 
relieves the heavy pressure of taking 
so many converts individually; it 
gives the prospective converts Cath- 
olic friends from the start among the 
members of the Legion of Mary. Be- 
ing received in a body they have a 
greater sense of solidarity and are 
helped over the first few weeks of 
Catholic life by each other. The 
Catholics who attend the classes 
get a complete review of their cate- 

Receptions of converts are made 
very solmen. They take place at the 
Main Altar. A short address is de- 
livered at the opening and at the end 
of the reception. In cases where ab- 
solute Baptism is administered the 
ceremonies are explained in detail 
throughout the rite. This has brought 
many comments from Catholics and 


non-Catholics alike, who are most 
impressed. After the reception all the 
new converts together with those 
who have attended the reception go 
to the Hall for a small party. The 
converts receive their first Holy Com- 
munion together at the 9:00 a. m. 
Mass on Sunday morning. The Par- 
ishioners are most impressed by this. 


St. Paul's Retreat, Ilkley, York- 
shire, was the host to over 1,300 
Polish men, women and children 
who came on pilgrimage to mark the 
end of the Polish Marian Year. They 
came from many parts of Northern 
England, arriving in an impressive 
fleet of 30 coaches, 50 private cars 
and a number of double-decker 

heard and a sermon preached in 
Polish. A large number of people re- 
ceived Holy Communion during the 
Mass. In the grotto of Our Lady of 
Lourdes the pilgrims reassembled for 
the renewal of their baptismal vows 
and a sermon, and finally Benedic- 
tion of the Blessed Sacrament. 

One final detail should be men- 
tioned. The pilgrims brought with 
them and carried during the proces- 
sion, a picture of Our Lady of Czen- 
stochowa. It had been painted in 
Poland, brought to England, and this 
was the first occasion on which it had 
been venerated. The Polish people in 
the north of England hope to make 
this pilgrimage an annual event, and 
expect the number of pilgrims to be 
doubled next year. 

Ordination Class, St. Joseph's Province, England. Center, Right Rev. Bishop George 

Brunner, Bishop of Middlesbrough. Left to right: Fathers Victor Doran, Conrad Charles, 

Callistus Millar, Malcolm Reid, Timothy Cullen. 

buses. The pilgrims were led by eight 
of their national chaplains, and were 
received by the rector. Very Rev. Fr. 
Harold, C.P. 

The procession formed at 4:00 
p. m. and then made its way to the 
Calvary in the monastery grounds, 
the people saying the rosary in Polish 
as they walked. The Calvary contains 
Stations of the Cross, carved out of 
stone, which are at least 150 years 
old. The pilgrims proceeded immed- 
iately to make the Way of the Cross. 

This was followed by a Missa Can- 
tata, during which Confessions were 

Ordination to the Priesthood 

At 10:30 in the morning on the 
Feast of St. James, July 25, five Pas- 
sionists were ordained priests by the 
Right Rev. George Brunner, Bishop 
of Middlesbrough. The names of the 
newly ordained are: Fathers Victor 
Doran, Conrad Charles, Callistus 
Millar, Malcolm Reid and Timothy 

Besides the relatives and friends of 
the newly ordained priests, there was 
a large number of clergy present and 
also about 20 Passionist Sisters, some 

The Passionist 

of them bcins sisters of two of the 
students ordained that morning. 

rOwards the close of the ceremon- 
ies, Very Rev. Fr. PhiHp, first prov- 
incial consultor, read a telegram from 
the Holy See bestowing the Apostolic 
Blessing on the newly ordained 
priests and all those who would be 
present at their first 1 loly Mass. 


Father Boniface Connolly. C.P. 

Father Boniface Connolly, C.P., 
died at Mount Argus, Dublin, at the 
age of 84. Father had been an inxalid 
for almost 20 years. During this time 
he suffered a veritable martyrdom 
with exemplary patience. It was the 
opinion of all that Father Boniface 
died in the odor of sanctity. 

Out of respect for the wish of the 
saintly priest, it is impossible to say 
more about him. In his manuscript 
book of sermons, discovered on the 
day of his funeral, he had written a 
request in 1935 that, subject to the 
wishes of his superiors, nothing 
should be published in any news- 
paper, periodical or magazine con- 
cerning him beyond the date of his 
death and funeral. 

Silver Jubilee of Profession 

Brother Dominic Howard, C.P., 
celebrated the silver jubilee of his 
profession on August 27, at Mount 
Argus. Born in Glasgow, Scotland, 
Brother has lived the greater part of 
his life in Ireland, and is at present 
cjuestor for St. Paul's Retreat, Mount 


Refugees and Pilgrims 

1 he Passionists in Bethany are 
making it their ideal to continue dur- 
ing the present times the hospitality 
of Mary and Martha. During World 
War I they took care of the refugees 
Irom 1 ransjordania. During World 
War II they took care of the Polish 
Refugees and from 1948 to 1950 the 
Palestinian Refugees. Through the 
efforts of I alher Albert Salah, C.P., 
the house was arranged to take care 
of about a dozen pilgrims during the 
1950 ilolv Year. 

Alter Father Albert's departure for 
Rome, the present superior. Father 
Pius, with the cooperation of the rest 

October 1, 1957 

Corpus Christi Procession that takes place yearly at Bethany. 

of the community made arrange- 
ments for a greater number of pil- 
grims. The long stay of the Polish 
Refugees made it necessary to do a 
lot of repair work which took a lot 
of money. Today they can comfort- 
ably house some 40 persons. During 
Holy Week there were 50 in the 
house and at one time even as many 
as 70. Although the house was pack- 
ed, it seems that the pilgrims prefer 
to stay at the House of Martha rather 
than at a hotel or any other private 
residence, especially that of a Mussel- 
man. The Fathers receive manv let- 
ters from the pilgrims after their re- 
turn home thanking the Fathers and 
praising their hospitality. 

Corpus Christi Procession 

It is a sad fact that in Jerusalem, 
the city where Our Lord instituted 
the Blessed Sacrament, the Corpus 
Christi Procession is prohibited. The 
Cenacle was made a mosque and 
Christians were prohibited to pray 
there, even to make the sign of the 
Cross. After the armistice of 1948 it 
became Hebrew territory and now is 
a national I Icbrevv monument, erron- 
eousK' called the " lOmb ol Da\'id. " 
lodav in /\rab Jerusalem onlv two 
Christian processions are permitted— 
Palm Sundav and the closing of the 
month of May. 

Hnder the lirst Patriarch of Jeru- 
salem, Valerga, the Corpus Christi 
procession was permitted, but upon 

his death the permission was with- 
drawn. The Dominican Fathers be- 
fore and during World War II had 
the procession in their garden, but 
during the Palestine War it had to be 
discontinued. The Assumptionist 
Fathers also made an attempt, but it 
was stopped in 1950. 

Beginning 1951 the procession was 
held every year on the Bethany Hill 
where the Passionist Fathers and the 
Sisters of Charity have their houses. 
All the religious institutes of Jeru- 
salem and Catholic organizations at- 
tend and encourage the Passionists 
to continue the procession every year 
and not give it up. The church of the 
Sisters is the starting and ending 
point of the procession, but a great 
part of the procession takes place in 
the Passionist's garden. As yet, the 
Passionists in Bethany have no 


C.F.M. Congress 

The Hrst American Congress of 
the Christian Family Movement was 
closed on June ?>0, at Nazareth Re- 
treat House, of the Passionist Fathers 
in Monti\ide(). Delegates from many 
/\merican countries came there to 
study during a whole week, the dif- 
ferent problems concerning the home 
and family life. 1 he congress was a 
preparation for the Congress of the 
Laitv to be held in Rome in October. 

The families of Brazil, Chile, 


Bishop Albert Deane, C.P., former Gen- 
eral, who was consecrated bishop of Villa 
Maria, Argentina, on June 29. 

Cuba, Argentina, Paraguay, Vene- 
zuela, Spain, Peru, Urguay and the 
United States were present through 
their delegations. The national pres- 
ident of the Christian Family Move- 
ment of the United States, Pat Crow- 
ley, and his wife were present. All 
together, there were 93 families at the 

As a preparation for the Roman 
Congress, the questions considered 
were in one way or another de- 
pendant on the central theme: 
"What has the family to do in the 
formation of a basis for the apostolate 
of the laity." This central theme was 
divided into eight different subjects 
and discussed separately in table 
talks. Some of the papers delivered 
were: "The family and the religious 
formation of the apostle." "The fam- 
ily's apostolic area." The family and 
the vocational problem." 

At the same time a Family Week 
was held, and opened to all the pub- 
lic. The final paper delivered was 


entitled "The mystery of the family 
and of its mission," and given by 
Father Peter Richards, C.P. 

Congress for Missionaries 

During the last week of July a 
Congress for Missionaries was held 
in Buenos Aires. Thirty members of 
different missionary orders took an 
active part and among them were 
Passionists from Immaculate Con- 
ception Province. 

The subjects considered during the 
week were: "What is a Mission." 
"The preparation of a Mission." 
"Whole city Mission." "Parochial 
Mission." "Rural Mission." "The man 
in our Missions." "Missionaries' de- 
fects." "Coordination between Mis- 
sions and Spiritual Exercises." 

Two of these papers were delivered 
by Passionists. "The man in our Mis- 
sions" was presented by Fr. Mark 
Perdia, C.P.; and "The rural Mis- 
sions" was given by Fr. Frederick 
Richards, C.P. Father Mark was the 
secretary of the Assembly. 

The following are a few of the 
principal conclusions of the Con- 
gress: Missionaries insist that the 
word "Mission" ought only to be used 
according to its canonical and tradi- 
tional meaning, and not for any other 
kind of apostolate. It would be agree- 
able to all if isolated missions were 
not preached in cities of more than 
20,000 inhabitants, but rather mis- 
sions embracing the whole city. A co- 
ordination between missions and 
spiritual exercises is to be looked for, 
as a means of continuing and increas- 
ing the effects of the mission. Accord- 
ingly Missionaries suggest the crea- 
tion of pro-retreat commissions at the 



None of the Passionists in Mexico 
or their houses were injured in any 
way by the earthquake that was so 
widely publicized in American pa- 
pers, which claimed anywhere from 
100 to 300 dead and great destruction 
throughout the country. Actually, 
while the shock was terrific, and a 
number of buildings had fallen, the 
destruction was not as great as some 
papers made out. The final death toll 
was about 40 persons dead and 430 

injured— not just in Mexico City, but 
the whole Republic. 

It is true that in Mexico City a 
lot of buildings suffered. Some were 
torn and tattered. Many had shatter- 
ed windows. A few buildings were 
just piles of rubble with steel girders 
bent over like wilted flowers. But 
most of those that fell, were buildings 
of more recent times, probably built 
with very cheap steel. The buildings 
put up about 50 or 60 years ago took 
the quake right in stride. The Pas- 
sionist church and house in Mexico 
City dates from 1906 and though 
they felt the rock and roll of the 
quake, the Fathers there have not 
been able to find any cracks in the 

The adobe huts withstood the 
quake best of all. The Torre Latino, 
Latin America's tallest building— 44 
stories— a beautiful edifice of blue 
and stainless steel and glass— didn't 
even have a cracked window! 

New Arrivals 

Father Warren Womack, C.P., 
former editor of The Passionist, 
arrived from the States in August to 
teach English in the Preparatory 
Seminary of San Angelo. Father 
Warren will take the place of Father 
Joel Gromowski who has been in 
Mexico City for almost two years. 
Father Joel will return to Mater 
Dolorosa Monastery, Sierra Madre, 
Calif., as vicar of the community. 

On the 5 th of July three more Fa- 
thers from Immaculate Heart of 
Mary Province, Italy, arrived in Mex- 
ico. They are Fathers Michael, Ma- 

Fr. Peter Richards, C.P., of Immaculate 

Conception Province, Argentina, with 

members of the C.F.M. 

The Passionist 




1 1 w » it ■ 

1 > 1 

Religious Community in Apasco, Mexico. Left to right, Frs. Tarcisio, 
Hilarion, Nazario, Timothy. 

riano and Timothy. Father Michael 
is taking the place of Father Ger- 
mano, the Superior in Espiritu San- 
to. Father Mariano is stationed at 
Espiritu Santo, while Father Tim- 
othy has been assigned to Apasco, 
which is the first year of the Prep 
Seminary for Mexico. 

Prep Seminary 

The small Passionist house in 
Apasco is really the first year of the 
Preparatory Seminary in Mexico. 
There are 28 boys in Apasco to help 
them in the year of their adaptation 
to seminary life. This is the first year 
that the new boys were separated 
from the older ones. When they 
come back from their vacations, they 
will all go to the Seminary in San 
Angelo while the new boys for next 
year's class will go to Apasco. 


Provincial Chapter 

Early in July, the 12th Provincial 
Chapter of I loly Spirit Province was 
held in St. Pius X Retreat, St. Ives. 
The Chapter was presided over by 
Most Re\'. Fr. Malcolm, C.P., Supc 
rior General. At the Chapter the fol 
lowing were elected to office: Pro- 
vincial, Very Rev. Fr. (k^rard; Very 
Rev. Frs. Alphonsus and Xavier, two 
former provincials of Holy Spirit 
Province, were elected as consultors. 
The new master of novices is Very 

October 1, 1957 

Rev. Fr. James, while the new rec- 
tors are as follows: Marrickville, 
Very Rev. Fr. Benedict; Goulburn, 
Very Rev. Fr. Patrick; Adelaide, 
Very Rev. Fr. Dominic; St. Ives, 
Very Rev. Fr. Paschal; and Geelong, 
Very Rev. Fr. Augustine. 

Following the Chapter the new 
Curia appointed Frs. Raymund, Leo 
and John, superiors of East St. Kilda, 
Oxley and Hobart respectively and 
re-appointed Fr. Aloysius as provin- 
cial secretary and econome. 

St. Marie Goretti Celebration 

The annual celebrations in honor 
of St. Maria Goretti were held as 

usual in the Church and grounds of 
St. Brigid's, Marricksville on Sun- 
day, July 7. Approximately 4,000 
sch(X)l children and young people, 
besides adults and a goodly number 
of religious and clergy attended to 
honor the young Saint and invoke 
her intercession. A most interesting 
and instructive sermon was preached 
by Very Rev. Monsignor John Leon- 
ard, Diocesan Director of the C.Y.O. 
for the Archdiocese. 

New Monastery at Highton 

At Highton, near Geelong, work 
has begun and is now well advanced 
on the new monastery to replace the 
present retreat at Leopold. It is ex- 
pected that the new building will 
be finished early in 1958. 

Work on the additions to the 
monastery and new retreat house at 
Adelaide are progressing. Fr. Al- 
phonsus, C.P., at the invitation of 
Archbishop Beovich, is appealing for 
funds in the various parishes of the 
Archdiocese of Adelaide, and so far 
with success. Although much has al- 
ready been given toward the new 
building, much more is still needed. 

News in Brief 

Fr. Lawrence, Pastor of St. Brig- 
id's has been in Lewisham Hospital 
as a result of a bad fall outside the 
Church. He fractured his left wrist 
and right shoulder. . . . The "Doyen" 
of the Province, Father Francis, 
tripped on the front steps of the 
monastery and chipped a small piece 
of bone from his right shoulder. He 

First Year Prep Students at Apasco, Mexico, with the community and visitors. 


is still able to say Mass each morn- 
ing. . . . Fr. Sebastian is the newly- 
appointed Vocational Director, and 
has been busy visiting the schools, 
giving talks on the Passionist way of 
life and showing vocational films. . . . 


New Superior of 
Swedish Mission 

In accordance with the prescrip- 
tions of the "Statuta pro Missionibus" 
the appointment of a new religious 
superior for the mission in Sweden 
was due this year. On the 2nd of 
July, Very Rev. Fr. Harold Dom- 
merson, C.P., was elected to this of- 
fice. The election was confirmed by 
Most Rev. Fr. General and Father 
Harold assumed his new office on 
August 28. 

Father Harold, a former rector of 
St. Joseph's retreat, Highgate, Lon- 
don, was until his election as supe- 
rior of the Swedish Mission, rector 
of St. Paul's Retreat, Ilkley. 


Baptism and First 
Holy Commuion 

There were 27 Baptisms on Fri- 
day, August 9, and 31 First Commu- 
nions on the following Sunday in 

First Communicants at the Passionist Mission, Porus, Manchester, Fr. Dunstan Guzinski, 
C.P. is in the center. Rev. Allegre Martinez, O.S.A., left. 

the Passionist mission at Porus, Man- 
chester. The Baptisms were admin- 
istered simultaneously in the church 
by the Very Rev. William Whelan, 
C.P., Rev. Dunstan Guzinski, C.P., 
and Rev. Allegre Martinez, known 
in religion as Father Athanasius, an 
Augustinian priest, who is visiting 
Jamaica for the first time from Cara- 
cas, Venezuela. 

At the 9:30 a.m. Mass on Sun- 
day, August 11, there was a proces- 
sion of the First Communicants from 
the churchyard up the main aisle to 
their places in the church while the 
hymn to the Holy Spirit was sung. 

During the Mass, the Sisters led the 
Communicants in prayers before and 
after Holy Communion and Fr. 
Dunstan preached a fitting sermon 
on "This Is My Body." 

This year's two-week summer va- 
cation classes were conducted at the 
Church of the Assumption in Porus 
by two Sisters from Alpha Convent, 
Kingston, who came to Mandeville 
for this purpose. The attendance 
from both Williamsfield and Porus 
districts was quite encouraging with 
a daily average of 100 children pres- 
ent and a total of 145 enrolled for 
the period. 

MISSIONARIES TO JAPAN: Fathers Denis McGowan, C.P. (left) and Ward Biddle, C.P., sailed on Waterman freighter Topa Tope, 
with four Passionist Nuns from Pittsburgh, to Osaka, Japan. The Nuns will found their first Passionist convent in Orient. With 
their superior Mother Vincent (left) are Mother Mary, Mother Joseph and Sister Therese. 



' A 

December 1, 1957 




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KNIGHT OF MOLOKAI. Eva K. Betz. (10- 
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DECEMBER 1, 1957 




Bruce Henry, C.P. 



New Testament-Liturgy 

Roger Mercuric, C.P. 
Morol-Conon Low 

Forrest Macken, C.P. 
Old Testament 

Carroll Stuhlmueller, C.P. 

Barry Rankin, C.P. 

The Passionist is published bi- 
monthly by Holy Cross Province 
at Immaculate Conception Re- 
treat, 5700 N. Harlem Ave., Chi- 
cago 31, Illinois, U.S.A. It is is- 
sued on the 1st of the months of 
February, April, June, August, 
October and December. 

The Passionist is financed by 
the free-will offerings of its read- 
ers. There is no copyright. The 
Magazine is a private publica- 

The Passionist aims to help its 
readers attain more perfectly the 
twofold end of the Congregation. 
For this reason it offers a variety 
of articles and special feature 

Contributions by members of 
the Congregation are welcomed. 
Anything that will be of interest 
or help to us as Passionists will 
be accepted. Articles should be 
approximately 4000 to 5000 
words in length. 



by Sacred Congregation 


by Most Rev. Fr. Malcolm, C.P. 


by Dominic Hughes, O.P. 



by Cajetan Roponi, C.P., and John Baptist Pechulis, C.P. 


by Costante Brovetto, C.P. 


by Eugene Peterman, C.P. 


by Cyril M. Jablonovsky, C.P. 




VARIA 423 




Our Apostolate and Prayer. 

■ Many solutions are being offered to increase the effec- 
tiveness of our apostolate. But, perhaps it is necessary for 
us once again to reconsider the following words of St. 
John of the Cross and see if perhaps there is not too much 
activity in our life and apostolate and too little of a real 
life of prayer. 

"Let those who are very active and who believe they 
are encompassing the world with their preaching and 
outward works recall that they would profit the Church 
much more, and would be more pleasing to God, aside 
from the good example which they are giving, if they 
would spend even half of this time before God in prayer. 
. . . Certainly they would then accomplish more by a 
single act than they otherwise would by a thousand, 
since their prayer would merit this, and they would ac- 
quire spiritual strength. Without prayer, action is a vain 
beating of the air, accomplishing practically nothing, 
sometimes nothing at all, and occasionally even working 
harm" (Spir. Cant., Stanza 29, n. 2). 

In our day when we see the needs of souls, the many 
Catholics who have fallen away from the Church, etc., 
it is easy to believe that prayer is so much wasted effort. 
"There is work to be done. Souls must be saved." So the 
apostolic worker throws himself into the work at hand, 
often overlooking the most valuable aid he has to save 
souls— prayer. 

■ The work of saving souls is brought about by the 
grace of God. Words hit a man from the outside; God's 
grace touches his soul. An apostolic worker who would 
try to draw souls back from a life of sin and place them 
on the path of virtue without this grace would be, in the 
words of St. Paul, "sounding brass and a tinkling symbol." 

Theoretically all of us appreciate this. None of us 
deny it. But, how about its practical expression? In our 
day to day life and dealing with souls do we really ap- 
preciate the necessity of God's grace to help them? Do 
we speak much about the necessity of grace and still 
neglect the means of obtaining grace? 

■ One of the most efficacious means we have of mak- 
ing our apostolate more effective is prayer. Pope Pius XII 
has told us that after we have done all we can to en- 
courage souls to come to us and profit by our preaching 
and they will not come, that we are to win them by 
means of prayer. "Go out in search of those sheep who 
do not come to you of their own volition. With respect 
to those others who wish to remain hostile or apart, win 
them for the apostolate by means of prayer and penance 


which do not recognize any obstacles and are the most 
effective means of accomplishing all this" (AAS, XLV, 

Again the Holy Father said: "By preference We rec- 
ommended to all the practice of that most powerful in- 
strumentality which is the first, the principal, and most 
efficacious means when it is a question of any activity 
directed toward salvation, that is, prayer which rises to 
God in a fervent, humble and confident spirit" (AAS, 
XXVI, 142). 

When the Apostles were unable to drive out the devil 
from a certain individual our Lord told them: "This kind 
is driven out only by prayer and fasting." Perhaps this 
is the one means we are overlooking in our apostolate 
today. Of course we are spending the amount of time in 
prayer scheduled by our rule. But with what spirit? And 
what about a few extra hours of prayer? Our Rule makes 
special provision for this when it says: "If any one, 
moved by the fervor of his spirit, should desire to con- 
tinue his prayer. . . ." 

H We can understand the value of prayer for a suc- 
cessful apostolate when we consider the union of souls 
in the mystical body. For just as in the human body the 
good of one member profits the whole body, so in the 
mystical body the prayers of one benefits the whole. And 
when that prayer is continued it draws down a torrent 
of God's grace for souls. It also forms a prayerful spirit 
of humble dependence upon God in the midst of apos 
tolic works. 

The best proof of this truth can be found in the life 
of St. Paul of the Cross. 

Where did Paul draw that spirit and fervor by which 
he became the most distinguished missionary of his time 
and converted innumerable sinners to the Crucified, if 
not from a life of prayer and union with God? "In order 
to become a worthy minister of the apostolate," wrote 
Paul to one of his religious, "you ought to cultivate the 
interior life, keep yourself from distracting occupations, 
and very often, even a thousand times a day, if possible, 
betake yourself quickly with love and faith into the 
bosom of God" (L. Ill, p. 146). 

To another he suggested that he prepare himself for 
the missions by recollection of soul and the exercise of 
all the virtues. "Always be preparing yourself better for 
the sacred missions, especially by fervent recollection 
and the exercise of every virtue, because I believe that 
there you will touch the greatest means for (apostolic) 
work" (L. Ill, p. 148). 

■ Yes, the weapon we have at hand today to make our 
apostolate effective is prayer. It is by means of long hours 
of prayer, that we are going to obtain from God the 
grace that sinners need to come to our missions and profit 
from them. For, in the words of St. John of the Cross: 
"Without prayer, action is a vain beating of the air, ac- 
complishing practically nothing, sometimes nothing at all, 
and occasionally even working harm." 




The Passionist 



Use of Radio and Television 

by Sacred Congregation of Religious 

SINCE the first of Jiinuary 1954, 
when television was introduced 
into Italy, the Holy Father, in an im- 
portant exhortation, brought to the 
attention of the Most Reverend Ordi- 
naries of Places his own lively con- 
cern over the inHucnce which this 
new and powerful means of trans- 
mitting news, lacts and performances 
has been exercising on the moral and 
spiritual lives of souls. 

Such a marvelous product of mod- 
ern technology, which in so short a 
time has jiractically become axailable 
to all, has spread quickly enough to 
religious houses as well. On the other 
hand, it is worthy of note that in 
Italy also, where proposals, promises 
and the good will of some gave rise 

December 1, 1957 

to the hope that the programs v\'ould 
be contained within the limits of 
honesty and morality, such limits 
have not always been respected. 

In consequence thereof, the con- 
cern of the August Pontiff has in- 
creased with respect to the use of this 
instrument, at once so precious and 
so dangerous, particulary in the In- 
stitutes ol Christian perfection. 

In the religious life there is ques- 
tion, indeed, of safeguarding the dis 
cipline and well-lxMng ol the life, 
whi.h becomes endangered not only 
bv e\ident evils, but also by this in- 
flux of worldliness which causes one 
to lose the taste for sjiiritual \alues, 
and diminishes, olten insensibly, that 
desire for perfection which should 

alv\'ays be ali\e in every religious soul 
bound to so great things by virtue of 
religious perfection. 

THIS Sacred Congregation, follow- 
ing upon the Congress on the 
State ol Perfection held towards the 
end of 1950, has taken lively interest 
in regulating modern disccneries— 
cinema, radio, television— in their 
diverse asjiects with respect to the 
religious life, discipline and the apos- 

With [xnticular reference to radio 
and television, the Sacred Congrega- 
tion took advantage of the informa 
lion that emerged from the congress. 
Moreover, in the interest ol prejiar- 
ing and sendini; out an instruction 


from which one could estabhsh gen- 
eral norms, the opinions of Religious 
Superiors were sought, as well as 
those of other persons qualified by 
solid learning, religious piety, experi- 
ence in the religious life, and of var- 
ious nationalities and diverse char- 
acteristics. From these, the Superiors 
of the various Religious Institutes, on 
the basis of their particular spirit, 
disciplinary form, and from their in- 
ternal and external aims, could de- 
rive a more detailed and particular- 
ized regimen in regard to this matter. 

It is clear that, considering the 
good and evil aspects, the usefulness 
and the dangers which television pre- 
sents, the Sacred Congregation does 
not consider necessary an indiscrimi- 
nate elimination of it for all Religious 
Institutes, just as it does not intend 
to approve a full and absolute use or 
tolerance of the same. In the first in- 
stance, the danger would be incurred 
of too great an alienation from the 
social life which such Religious In- 
stitutes must live, in the midst of the 
world, to develop their social and 
religious activities. In the second in- 
stance, a religious would at once be 
drawn back into the world which he 
has abandoned, and gradually absorb 
that worldly spirit which is incom- 
patible with the religious spirit. 

By this the Church does not in- 
tend to reject whatever science and 
progress supply to mankind, and 
which can be directed to a good use; 
but she cannot, nor does she intend 
to deviate from the principle that 
"salus animarum suprema lex," and 
thus fall short of her proper mission. 
In view of the fact that Religious are 
the elect of the Church, there is ques- 
tion not only of eliminating grave 
and evident dangers of evil, but all 
that which can prevent or retard the 
path to perfection, which is their 
proper scope. 

IN A discussion on radio and tele- 
vision, one must naturally make 
certain distinctions. The exigencies 
of the contemplative life are one 
thing, and those of the active life 
quite another. With respect to the 
active life one must distinguish what 
is admissible as honest relaxation and 
amusement, and what the exigencies 
of the apostolate imply; and in the 
apostolate itself, what is admissable 
for their own instruction and experi- 
ence, and what Religious can permit 
to the faithful under their control 
and guidance. 

In view of the above considera- 
tions, this Sacred Congregation has 
thought it opportune to establish cer- 
tain fundamental norms and to call 
upon the Religious Superiors of each 
Institute to regulate these matters in 
more concrete terms in concert with 
their respective councils and in their 
particular spirit, so that what can be 
an efficacious help in the apostolate 
will not degenerate into spiritual 
ruin, or worse, into a general relaxa- 
tion of religious discipline. 

All things considered, this Sacred 
Congregation lays down the follow- 
ing principles, and reminds Superiors 
that they are to be observed "graviter 
onerata eorum conscientia." 

1) There exists no motive which 
justifies the introduction of television 
into communities of contemplative 
life, whether of men or of women. 
A radio may be tolerated for the 
sole purpose of permitting the religi- 
ous to hear addresses given by the 
Pope to the world and of receiving 
his blessing, or for some exceptional 
festivity of a religious nature. 

2) In Religious communities of 
active life: 

a) It can never be allowed a Religi- 
ous to possess a radio and much less a 

television set for private use, to be 
used freely and without control of 
the Superior. 

b) Radios or television sets must 
always and exclusively be kept in 
some community room or place acces- 
sible to all under the vigilance of the 
Superior or his delegate. 

c) Superiors shall be careful that 
the time given to television or to radio 
programs be so monitored that the 
occupations and duties proper to each 
be not hindered, viz., the apostolate, 
the practices of piety, the exercises of 
the common life, the time designated 
for rest, according to the community 

d) Superiors must forbid television 
and radio programs which, by reason 
of morality or worldliness, are not be- 
coming to the religious life. Besides 
news casts or programs of a religious 
or instructive nature, all others ought, 
or at least can, be considered unbe- 
coming to the religious life, and 
therefore to be prohibited if they are 
merely for the purpose of recreation. 

e) If evident reasons of the apos- 
tolate clearly demand some reason- 
able exceptions for certain deter- 
mined religious and in concrete cases, 
the decision on such exceptions shall 
always be reserved to the Superior, 
who, "graviter onerata conscientia," 
shall see to it that the danger be kept 
as remote as possible, careful that 
such exceptions be made only in 
favor of those religious who have a 
solid religious spirit, a wise experi- 
ence of life, and know well how 
to distinguish not only between what 
can be dangerous to themselves, but 
also as to what can be dangerous to 
others for whom the program may 
be provided. 

Father A. Larraona, Secretary. 
Father Palazzini, Sub-secretary. 
Rome, August 6, 1957 


The Passionist 

Transier ox 
Body or 

St. Vincent 

Letter of the Most Rever- 
end Father General, regard- 
ing the transfer of the body 
of St. Vincent Mary Strambi 
from the Basilica of Sts. John 
and Paul in Rome to the city 
of Macerata. 


Superior General ol The Congrega- 
tion Ot The Most Holy Cross and 
Passion Of Our Lord Jesus Christ. 
To All The Member Of The Same 
Congregation Peace and Health In 
the Lord. 

The Sacred Congregation of Rites, 
after ha\'ing consulted the wishes of 
the Most Eminent Cardinals Clem- 
ent Micara, Bishop of Velterni, Vicar 
of His Holiness in Rome, and Fran- 
cis Spellman, Archbishop of New 
York, Titular of the Basilica of Sts. 
John and Paul, having our consent 
as well, has seen fit to accede to the 
repeated requests of the Most Ex- 
cellent Bishop of Macerata and Tol- 
entino and of the whole Episcopacy 
of Piccno and by a rescript of the 
17th day of May, 1957, has granted 
permission for the transfer of the 
Body of St. Vincent Mary Strambi 
from the aforesaid Basilica of Sts. 

December 1, 1957 

John and Paul to the city of Macerata 
which for 23 years was the See city 
of the Saint. 

Communicating this news to all 
the members of the Congregation 
whether living in our retreats or in 
Missionary places, we think we are 
fulfilling our particular duty, because 
the relics of a disciple so dear to our 
holy Founder and of the second 
Passionist to be made a bishop ought 
to be counted among the greatest 
treasures which our Congregation 
possesses in the Basilica of Sts. John 
and Paul at Rome, in which likewise 
the body of Our I loly Father and 
1 ounder, Paul of the Cross is kept. 

Everyone knows how many times 
the Bishop of Macerata and the other 
Bishops of Piceno ha\c petitioned the 
Holy See and us for the remains of 
this holy Bishop e\en from the time 
of his beatification. Equally known is 
the reluctance we have felt to grant 
those wishes and pressing petitions. 

What moved such a distinguished 
group of bishops to make the petition 
was doubtless their conviction that 
"the faithful would derive immense 
spiritual benefits" from the presence 
of the sacred remains in the city of 
Macerata, as the most Excellent Dom 
Silvius Cassula said in the request 
sent the Supreme Pontiff, in which 


he also recalled how the year of can- 
onization of St. Vincent and the time 
in which his body was borne through- 
out Piceno stirred up "the most abun- 
dant signs of faith." What is more, as 
is evident from the letter of this 
group of bishops, such a presence is 
considered useful and inspiring to 
the Bishops themselves, at Piceno, 
who in this way will be moved to 
follow the example of the Holy Bis- 
hop, who was the model of the 
Shepherds of Piceno and remains 
their brightest gem." 

We, however, felt opposed to this 
request because we realized that we 
had in our possession an inestimable 
treasure, the common good of our 
whole Institute, which regarded the 
keeping of it and its nearness to the 
remains of our Holy Founder as a 
more vivid and efficacious presence 
and power of the pristine holiness 
of Passionists. 

Moved by supernatural motives 
and seeking in this matter the glory 
of God and the good of souls . . . we 
desired to find a suitable solution of 
the question without depriving Our 
Institute of the holy relics. After 
mature consideration and after hear- 
ing many times the opinion of our 
Consultors, we have settled upon this 

To this tranfer we have consented 
under the proviso that the Holy Body 
should remain the inalienable pos- 
session of our Institute and entrusted 
to the care of Passionists. 

The Bishop of Macerata immedi- 
ately approved this two-fold condi- 
tion for himself and his successors. In 
the forward of the Agreement, which 
is an integral part of the same, and 
which was signed on August 27, 
1957, it is stated: 

"The General Curia of the Passionist 
Fathers intends to retain for the Congre- 
gation the possession of the remains of the 
Saint (Vincent Mary Strambi) and the 
same General Curia because of the wishes 
of the Bishop and faithful of the diocese 
of Macerate and Tolentino is prepared to 
grant only the custody of the Saint's Body 
to the members of the Province of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary of the Pieta with the 
right of founding a hospice in the city of 
Macerata for the religious designated for 
such custody." 

Article XII of the Agreement clear- 
ly states: 

"If the Passionist Fathers would wish, 
or for whatever reason would definitely 


have to leave the Church of St. Philip, 
they shall have the right to transfer, even 
outside the diocese, the holy Body of St. 
Vincent Mary Strambi, of which, as it 
stated in the forward of this act, they have 
the full dominion." 

The Bishop of Macerata has made 
the founding of a hospice or resi- 
dence easier by granting the Passion- 
ist Fathers the perpetual use of the 
Church of St. Philip, in which the 
holy relics shall be kept, and of the 
adjoining house, and other buildings 
which are necessary for the life of a 
religious community. 

Thus on the 13th day of Novem- 
ber of the current year, 1957, the 
Sacred and Venerated Remains wall 
leave the Basilice of Sts. John and 
Paul and on the 21st day of the 
same month, the anniversary day of 
the departure of the Holy Bishop 
from the diocese on his way to Rome 
(in the year 1823), will make its 
triumphal entry into Macerata, after 
stop-overs in other places, which have 
special relation to the life of the Holy 
Bishop, in order to receive the hom- 
age and public veneration of the 

The entire Episcopacy of Piceno 
will participate in this solemn cere- 
mony headed by the most eminent 
Prince of the Church. 

Certainly the departure of the 
Sacred remains will occasion us great 
sorrow, as when a very dear member 
leaves from his family, but we find 
comfort in the thought that the Body 
of the Holy Bishop "will receive from 
the faithful a livelier veneration and 
a greater honor than those paid him 
until now." 

By Apostolic Brief of September 7, 
1957, St. Vincent Mary Strambi, 
having been publicly constituted the 
heavenly co-principle Patron of both 
dioceses, Macerata and Tolentino, 
has a new right to the affection and 
honor of the faithful. He will return 
to that city which in leaving, after 23 
years of episcopacy he thus saluted: 
"Oh, Macerata! I have always loved 
her and been loved by her; I will bear 
her in my heart"— and in which even 
today he is "felt to be alive, as though 
it were yesterday that the Holy Bis- 
hop died, with whom our tradition is 
connected and from whom a 1000 
beneficent Institutions take their 
origin" (Petition of the most Excel- 

lent Bishop of Macerata to the 
Supreme PontflF). 

To mention but a few of these In- 
stitutions: A seminary named after 
St. Vincent Mary Strambi, and the 
norms whereby it is being ruled are 
substantially the same as those which 
the Holy Bishop composed; many 
works of charity and education have 
arisen through his Inspiration and 
have been set under his patronage; 
churches, streets, etc. have been dedi- 
cated to his name. 

The Holy Body will be kept in the 
most beautiful church of St. Philip 
which was first dedicated to St. 
Philip Neri, and which has par- 
ticular relation with St. Vincent 
Mary Strambi. In the year 1820 he 
onened it anew to divine worship. In 
this church there still continues the 
"Oratorium Serotinum" directly es- 
tablished by him; and in the same 
Church is had the Confraternity of 
the Sacred Stigmata, which suppress- 
ed by Emperor Napoleon I in the year 
1807, was, through the efforts of the 
saint, restored to its first state. 

Dearly beloved sons, these are the 
causes which have moved us and the 
General Curia to grant the transfer of 
the Sacred Relics of the holy Pas- 
sionist Bishop: the certitude of in- 
creasing the devotion of the faithful 
towards him and the greater spiritual 
advantage of souls. 

Now we ask you, dear sons of the 
Passion, that in spirit you be united 
to the Bishops, Clergy and laity of 
the territory of Piceno who are 
acclaiming our holy fellow Passionist, 
and that by your prayers you increase 
such spiritual favors and while you 
ferventlv and piously invoke the 
Holy Bishop, earnestly beg him to 
continue to quicken our beloved 
Congregation by his spirit and his 

With these deep-felt sentiments, 
we impart to all of you our affection- 
ate paternal blessing. 

Given at Rome, in the Retreat of 
Sts. John and Paul on 20th of 
October, 1957. 

Malcolm of Mary, 
Superior General, C.P. 

Tharcisiua a SS. Sacremento 
Sec'y Gen. C.P. 

The Passionist 


HE mind of Christ is the mind of 
an artist. He without whose eternal 
exemplification is accomplished noth- 
ing of creation and whose temporal 
mission was to be the redemptive 
"splendor of the Father" is the first- 
born in divine artistry. At once the 
contemplative expression of the 
Father and the operative principle of 
creation,' the Word, eternal and in- 
carnate, is the contemplative out- 
flooding of Goodness through the 
artistry of Wisdom. To the image of 
the Only-Begotten of the Divine 
Mind and the most richly endowed 
of human intellects is fashioned with 
unique fidelity and vitality the apos- 
tolic mentality. 

The apostolic mind, imitating Christ 
and imitated by those intent upon 
the unhappily named "mixed" life, is 
both a consequence and a cause of 
the most intense and sublime of all 
artistic acts. The most audacious and 
yet delicate artistry ever attempted 
by men is involved in transforming 
sinners into thinking as Christ by 
thinking of Him. Themselves trans- 
formed by habitual grace and trained 
by actual graces, apostolic men exer- 
cise the artistic judgment that their 
intellectual ministrations may be the 
pattern and the instrument for the 
formation of Christ in souls.- By just 
such an artistic judgment the apos- 
tolic mind, realized in the episcopacy 
and shared in "mixed" religious in- 
stitutes, is basically distinguished 
from that of the properly contempla- 
tive or active endeavor or institute. 

The distinguishing feature o f 
"mixed" religious organizations, it 
may be assumed without further war- 
ranty than common sense, is to be 
judged, not by the occasional activi- 
ties of any of their members, but by 
the proper and avowed purpose of 
such institutes. Consequently, any 
analysis of the psychology of the 
"mixed" state of life assumes that all 
adventitious considerations have been 
eliminated. That active persons may 
be favored with contemplation or 
contemplatives engage in activity' is 
too obvious, although not always un- 
derstood, to be problematic. A nurs- 
ing Sister in mvstical union at a bed- 
side or a monk swatting flies in a 
stable do not alter the nature of their 

December 1, 1957 


Moi or 


M of life 


The distinguishing feature of "mixed" reli- 
gious organizations is to be judged, not by 
the occasional activities of any of their 
members, but by the proper and avowed 

purpose of such institutes. 


respective communities. Nor does a 
monk obediently writing books for 
popular consumption or even teach- 
ing theology to his brethren thereby 
fulfill his Order's avowed purpose, 
whereas a friar in any way commu- 
nicating the contemplative content of 
his mind would be attaining both his 
own and his Order's end. The proper 
function of an institute, then, is 
never its exclusive activity but always 
its principal one— that primacy being 
judged not materialistically by how 
many members are how often en- 
gaged in temporarily required works, 
but by that activity which is distinc- 
tive of the statistically incalculable 
spirit of the institute. 

The spirit of any institute, more- 
over, is variously realized by its mem- 
bers. Irrespective of their durability 
in a community or the community's 
endurance of them, religious may be 
classified as beginners, proficient, or 
perfect in their maturity in the spirit 
of their Order. While beginners are 
occupied in avoiding actions and atti- 
tudes contrary to the spirit of an in- 
stitute, the proficient foster in them- 
selves that elan in which the perfect 
are absorbed unremittingly. Someone 
less than proficient in charity, there- 
fore, might have made more than or- 
dinary progress in the spirit of his 
Order, while one more advanced in 
charity might be remiss in the spirit 
of his Order. Absorption of increas- 
ing percentages of one's actions in 
charity and in the spirit of one's com- 
munity are ideally, but not always 
actually, co-ordinated. To this any 
community's holy misfits bear wit- 
ness. The tempermentally or intel- 
lectually unfit may even be in a 
majority in a community without 
that community's immediately losing 
its character or their automatically 
losing their souls. God and any religi- 
ous founder are indulgent to sincere 
misunderstanding in the service of 
God. Intolerable, however, is the 
theologically erroneous attitude that 
the Holy Spirit reserves the bulk or 
even the best of divine grace for any 
one manner of life or that the spirit 
of an institute is evaluated funda- 
mentally by the personal perfections 
of its members. 


N APOSTOLIC or "mixed" institutes 
especially there is need for an 

evaluation of a distinctive spirit. 
Taught first to avoid prejudices— 
whether pietistic or "practical"— con- 
trary to apostolic life, the members of 
"mixed" institutes are by rule and by 
habits of mind bound to foster in 
themselves an evangelical admiration 
for the realities of God. Wonderment 
at God and His works so characterizes 
their thoughts that it distinguishes 
those of the "mixed" state of life from 
those whose principal concern is 
human activity disposing souls for 
grace. The apostolic admiration, un- 
like the contemplative, however, is 
not isolated from the context of com- 
munication; it is evangelical. This 
evengelical admiration demands apos- 
tolic art. 

The apostolic mentality excels that 
of the contemplative in much the 
same way as the artist surpasses the 
mere admirer of beauty. For either of 
the latter the object and the intensity 
of the experience may be the same, 
but the consequences will be differ- 
ent. For the admirer there is an awe- 
some uniqueness in the experience. 
He will be immobilized intellectual- 
ly, at least momentarily. Neither past 
nor future are meaningful to him, 
and he even eschews comparisons or 
relationships. His intimacy with the 
object of his admiration will be shat- 
tered, he thinks if he moves mentally 
in any expressive direction. A fear of 
losing the joy of his experience and 
a reverence for transcendent beauty 
envelop him. For an artist, however, 
the communication of his experience 
is intrinsic to his conscious state. His 
intuition is not isolated but relation- 
al. He conceives in the context of 
expression, since his art is a properly 
adjusted intuitive judgment of the 
communicability of his experience. 
Habitually aware of the rules of artis- 
tic reproduction, he apprehends with- 
out further analysis that what he 
knows may be made more commonly 
if not most intimately knowable. If 
the proper medium of expression is 
employed, the basic content, even if 
not the totality of his experience may 
be formed in other minds. Thus his 

Father Dominic Hughes, O.P., who teaches 
theology to the Trappist monks at St. Jo- 
seph Abbey, Spencer, Mass., is co-author 
with the late Father Farrell, O.P., of Swift 
Victory. This article is reprinted from 
Spiritual Life for September, 1957. 


admiration of beauty is naturally 

In the supernatural order, the apos- 
tolic mind is artistically evangelical, 
while the contemplative is an admir- 
er. The latter, whether beginner or 
perfect, is affectively poised in holy 
fear and intellectually immobile be- 
fore the Deity. Awe allows no move- 
ment to the mind, at least not beyond 
a most intimate orbit. In contact with 
a simply, perfectly, infinitely unique 
Being for a timeless, limitless, un- 
alloyed, uncomplicated, joyous ex- 
perience, the contemplative mind is 
supernaturally filled; its experience 
seems incommunicable. Even if but 
rarely contemplation remains cloister- 
ed in a single mind, to a contempla- 
tive its communication always seems 
anomalous. St. Teresa, describing the 
entrance into the Seventh Mansion, 
admitted as much by writing. 

"What surprises me most is this. 
You have already seen what trials 
and afflictions these souls have suf- 
fered because of their desire to die 
and thus to enjoy our Lord. They 
have now an equally strong desire to 
serve Him, and to sing His praise, 
and to help some soul if they can."^ 

That helpfulness is surprising to a 
contemplative because it involves an 
effort extrinsic to the contemplative 
life itself, and for that effort the con- 
templative is not necessarily immed- 
iately prepared by nature or by grace. 

For the apostolic mind an identi- 
cally intense contemplative act— 
whether of one beginning or one per- 
fect—will have a quite other con- 
sequence. A holy audacity and an in- 
vigorated intellectual agility inspires 
the apostolic mind. Galvanized by 
the experience of God, the apostle 
seeks to understand and express 
the Deity in terms of the analogies 
of divine perfection realized in 
creatures. Rather than rejecting as 
woefully inadequate all human con- 
cepts, the supernaturally artful apos- 
tle recognizes the causality of divine 
perfections throughout the however 
slightly similar forms found in nature 
and in grace. His joy overflows cas- 
cading down the hierarchy of creat- 
ed perfections mirroring the Divine. 
He is not so much saddened that 
creatures are so little like God as he 
is gratified that they are at all like 
Him and likely to improve through 

The Passionist 

his own ministrations. For him the 
infinity of God inxolvcs I lis unavoitl- 
ahle intimacy in all creatures as well 
as His unapproachable isolation 
above them. While Ciod's utterly sim- 
ple perfection is unrivaled, it must 
be consciously imitated, and to his 
generation the apostle is an organ 
expressing that divine vocation. In 
his experience of God he, like any 
artist, is not unconscious of time, lim- 
itation, complexity, and im[Terfection. 
Yet he is supernaturally confident 
that by his preaching and teaching 
he can— prescinding from any sacra- 
mental activity— communicate some- 
thing of the "form" of God. His dar- 
ing is begotten of experience in the 
mercy of God. f le is at least implicity 
conscious that he is a vessel of elec- 
tion, if in no way confirmed as a 
chosen soul.^ While, therefore, the 
contemplative according to his capac- 
ity may be filled with contemplation, 
the apostolic mind, however poor or 
perfect, by its habitual tendency to 
overflow artistically has the fullness 
of contemplation. 

AN APOSTOLIC plenitude of con- 
templation is not an uneasy 
wa\ering or compromise between 
contemplation and activity. It is a 
superior consummation of the two.'' 
The active institute without an in- 
trinsic source supplying contempla- 
tive content or the contemplative 
without active orientation is exceed- 
ed by a manner of life which has the 
motivation of the active and the con- 
tent of the contemplative. By its very 
nature and in its actual realization in 
any area or era the apostolic life con- 
tains formally and eminently the per- 
fections of both the contemplative 
and the active. While the contempla- 
tive life shines rather spectacularly 
when it flashes before the mind of 
men, the apostolic life is a constant 
illumination in the ways of God. 
Even within a tripartite Order, in- 
cidentally, of preachers and teachers, 
cloistered nuns and active Sisters, 
there is a pre eminence of the formal 
perfection ol contemplation and of 
activity among the apostolic men. 
The nuns and Sisters need not envy 
nor emulate one another, but either 
should more closely ajiproximate the 
superior and simplified— not minds 
but— mentality of the apostolic broth- 
ers. The simplicity of the apostolic 

mind, not unlike the simplicity of 
God which it mirrors, is often mis- 
understood. To either the contempla 
ti\e or active mind another factor, by 
its nature extrinsic, must be added 
for a mentality of Christlike fullness 
—not so to the apostolic. It is simple 
not because it is undeveloped in form 
(content) or finality (motivation), 
but because, despite its complexity, it 
is properly ordered. Precisely because 
of this order the apostolic mind filled 
to its current capacity with contem- 
plation has thereof the fullness. 

Ordered fullness in contemplation 
is neither acquired by nature nor is 
it an automatic endowment of habit- 
ual grace. It is a grace-perfected dis- 
position. If by nature those whose 
emotional and intellectual reactions 
are quick, even if fleeting, are best 
disposed for the active life, and for 
the contemplative those whose re- 
actions, even if slow, are lasting, those 
persons are best disposed to the apos- 
tolic life whose reactions are both 
quick and lasting. Of this St. Paul, 
St. Dominic, and St. Ignatius are 
illustrative. Although such a temper- 
ament may incline them toward be- 
ing domineering and irritable, it has 
the compensatory factor of making 
such persons intellectually enterpris- 
ing and energetic. Upon this natural 
basis graces operate, and through a 
soul's co-operation with these graces 
an apostolic mind is formed. 

The formation of an apostolic men- 
tality takes place principally, but not 
exclusively, through repeated acts of 
charity. That charity is distinctly 
aftected by an apostolic willingness 
to be anathema from Christ for the 
brethcrn." During the course of this 
li(e the apostolic-minded person seeks 
the public honor of God rather than 
a personal enjoyment of Him, which 
requires of him not only a love of 
neighbor but a greater love of God 
Himself." This evangelical hallowing 
of the name of God is a climax of 
love and a formative principle in an 
ever increasing percentage of apos- 
tolic acts. These acts of an apostle are 
elicited by mercy and expressed 
through the spiritual works of teach- 
ing the truths of Faith and counsel- 
ing in Christian morals. Yet as a 
preparation for these acts the practice 
of the supernatural moral \irtues is 

The apostolic person must merito- 
riously subject his bodily appetites 
to the discipline of his faith-filled 
mind by Christian temperance and 
strengthen them to the exactions of 
love by fortitude. Christian justice 
and prudence, however, are the pri- 
mary positi\'e dispositions for his wav 
of life. 

ALLIED to that virtue of justice in 
which the covenant of grace de- 
mands that each be given his due, are 
the virtues of religion and truthful- 
ness which are especially significant 
for the apostolic mentality. Like 
others "in religion" the member of a 
"mixed" institute is conscious of his 
unpayable debt to God which de- 
mands of him total dedication. Like- 
wise he is conscious of his moral in- 
debtedness to men who are in any 
way less conscious of Christ than 
himself. Because his mind has been 
endowed with the fullness of con- 
templation, he is moved to act in the 
virtue of truthfulness. His is not 
merely a disposition to respond cor- 
rectly to questions; it is a truthfulness 
of doctrine." The totality of truth 
within him, especially his knowledge 
of the unique way of salvation, he 
must manifest or be guilty of deceit 
and fraud. He cannot speak unless he 
speaks seriously, and he cannot speak 
seriously without speaking of the sup- 
ernatural order and the divine life in 
which we live, and move, and are. 
His constant will to fulfill his social 
indebtedness is not demanded so 
much by the worthiness of his fellow 
men as by their need. He too needs 
to preach Christ that honor should be 
gi\en to God and his own apostolic 
artistry should not be frustrated. 

The impulse toward apostolic activ- 
ity is based not upon emotion but in- 
tellectual preparation. Justice i n 
truthfulness requires of the preacher 
and teacher that no artistic flaw mar 
the apostolic communication of con- 
templated truth. That his contempla- 
tion should be rich in supernatural 
content is the work of ojvrating 
grace, especially through the Gift of 
Wisdom; that its communication 
should be imimpeded is the con- 
sequence of co-operating grace exer- 
cised through the deliberately foster- 
ed intellectual and moral virtues. If 

(Contintied on page -^25) 

December I, 1957 


St. Paul or tne Cross and tin 



'uRiNG his life as Founder, St. 
Paul of the Cross was a great friend 
of the Popes; he knew and had deal- 
ings with six Pontiffs, from Benedict 
XIII to Pius VI, and from all he re- 
ceived marks of great esteem.^ But 
Clement XIV surpassed them all in 
his attachment to the Founder of the 
Passionists for he regarded him not 
only as an intimate friend but as a 
father and showed him the venera- 
tion of a son. They were first ac- 
quainted in the beginning of Novem- 
ber, 1766,^ on the occasion of a visit 
which Fr. Paul, in the company of 
Msgr. Angeletti, paid to Cardinal 
Lorenzo Ganganelli. At that meeting 
St. Paul foresaw future events and on 
his return to the hospice exclaimed: 
"This Cardinal will not stop here, he 
will go forward, he will go up 

Towards the end of October, 1768, 
whilst living in the hospice near St. 
John Latern, St. Paul went to visit 
Cardinal Ganganelli.* As he was tak- 
ing his leave, the Cardinal offered to 
help him in whatever he could. 

"A time will come," St. Paul re- 
marked, "when Your Eminence will 
do much for us, very much, very 

"Oh, Father Paul, we can't always 
have things our way." 

"It will not be our way but accord- 
ing to the will of God." 

With that Fr. Paul turned to one 
of the bystanders and as he pointed 
to the Cardinal he spoke the prophe- 
tic words: "Brethren, behold the suc- 
cessor of the present Pope and you 
will see it in a short time."-'' 

February had hardly begun when 
Clement XIII died and was succeed- 


ed by Cardinal Ganganelli who took 
the name of Clement XIV. This 
manifest marvel increased the new 
Pope's esteem and veneration for the 
man of God. His conversations 
thenceforth with Paul of the Cross 
will prove to be a comfort, a refresh- 
ment and joy of spirit. Theiner, 
speaking of these meetings, remarks: 
"The venerable servant of God, Paul 
of the Cross, was his friend and com- 
panion; they discussed matters of 
sanctity and took a moment's recrea- 
tion, some respite from their serious 
duties."^ But the effect of these audi- 
ences which took from an hour to an 
hour and 45 minutes,^ the Holy 
Father himself revealed when in the 
course of one of them he explained, 
"We greatly treasure this conversa- 
tion and it comforts us much. This 
morning we have not admitted any- 
one to an audience, not even the 
Secretary of State, but only my 
Father Paul."^ 

With St. Paul of the Cross Clem- 
ent XIV waved all formalities; not 
only was the saint able to have an 
audience at will, but he was received 
by the Pope at the entrance of the 
room, was supported by the arm and 
led to the throne; sometimes he was 
received into a private study where 
chocolate was served. Once Fr. Paul's 
berrettino fell from his hands. The 
Pope picked it up and put it on his 
head. When St. Paul was old and 
sick, Clement XIV would send a 
messenger almost daily to visit him 
and bring him word of his condition. 
If he saw a Passionist in an audience, 
his first question was, "How is my 

Moved by such honor, St. Paul 
wrote on March 16, 1770: "The Pope 

The Passionist 


shows great favor to me and to the 
Congregation and treats me with 
liveliest charity and love."'" 

CLEARLY the relations between 
Clement XIV and St. Paul of 
the Cross ccnild not have been more 
intimate and cordial. Had they not 
been accompanied by special circum- 
stances, they might have remained 
within the scope of a particular I lis- 
tory of a religious Institute; as thev 
are, they touch on a great historical 
event and usher it into general his- 
tory. In July of 1733 the struggle 
between the Church and sexeral civil 
governments terminated in the sup- 
pression of the Society of Jesus. One 
can readily judge in what state of 
mind and in what perplexity the 
Pope found himself before coming 
to that decision. His confidence in 
the Founder of the Passionists being 
well known, it seems logical even for 
us to ask whether in such perplexity 
Clement XIV had not invited the 
opinion of his saintly friend on the 

II this were a question merely of a 
supposition made almost two centur- 
ies ago, it would not be worth one's 
while to relute it but since the doubt 
has presently vvoimd its way, serpent- 
like, into facts and for the last sev- 
eral decades has begun to take on the 
appearance of historical truth, I have 
beliexed it necessary to judge the 

by Cajetan Raponi, C.P. 

John Baptist Pechulis, C.P. 

merits of the question and to see 
what truth there is in it according to 
available documents. 

The first one to say that Clement 
XIV decided on the suppression of 
the Society of Jesus after a visit made 
to St. Paul of the Cross, was Father 
Julius Cesare Cordara, S.J." The 
meeting, according to him, would 
have taken place in the small house, 
now no longer extant, which the Pas- 
sionists had close to the Hospital of 
St. John Lateran. The Pope is said 
to have gone there privately, though 
accompanied by some persons of his 
court. When alone, Clement XIV 
would have manifested his perplex- 
ity, Paul would have reassured him 
and lo! the signed publication of the 
decree "Dominus ac Redemptor." 
Said Father Cordara: 

"The Pontiff, harassed by doubt, 
gave no decision, while he continued 
to pray earnestly for heaxenly light 
in considering this matter of highest 
importance. He even gave instruc- 
tions that the whole City of Rome be 
gi\'en to prayers and good works. He 
rcsoKed to do something further to 
learn the will of Cod more certainly. 

"There lived at the time in Rome 
Paul Daneo from Castellazzo, a city 
of the Province of Alexandria. He 
was a man distinguished for sanctity, 
the Founder of a new religious order, 
taking its name from the Passion of 


History has no positive data to affirm that the Founder of the 

Passionists had induced Clement XIV to decide upon the 

suppression of the Society of Jesus. 
December 1, 1957 



"To him on a certain day the 
Pontiff betook himself, fearing no 
loss of honor by bearing his majesty 
into a small and lowly house, and for 
a whole hour, alone and unobserved, 
he treated with him; no one doubts 
that they discussed in their session 
the suppression of the Society. 

'The Pontiff departed in a much 
more cheerful frame of mind than 
he had come and this was observed 
by his company and turned to a 
good omen. 

"But I am of the opinion that the 
Venerable man, seeing the present 
state of things, had persuaded the 
Pontiff that he should be of a great 
and upright mind, and if the peace, 
dignity and liberty of the Church 
could in no other way be restored, 
except by the suppression of the 
Society, he should not fear to sup- 
press it. He would be taking care of 
the whole church. This is the duty 
of the Supreme Pontiff. 

"The rest he should leave to God. 
He need have no doubt that in this 
way the Princes would be friendly 
to him, who are indeed the first sons, 
and at the same time, the patrons of 
the Church; but if they become hos- 
tile, the rights of the Church could 
not be maintained. 

"Religious orders, though many 
and various, have been established 
solely for the good of the Church; 
they can also be abolished, if the 
good of the Church requires it, in 
almost the same way in which a king 
can dismiss anyone of his soldiers, 
even though one of great merit in 
loyalty and virtue, if political reasons 
require it. 

"By these or similar words of such 
a man, I think, the Pope took cour- 
age, put away his fear, and proceeded 
to decree the suppression of the 
Society. Certainly a short time after- 
wards he signed his name to the doc- 
ument which had already been 
drawn up."^^ 

IN 1923, due to the efforts of G. 
Albertetti, there was published 
"De Suppressione . . . ."^^ From that 
time on the observation that St. Paul 
of the Cross had counseled Clement 
XIV to supress the Society of Jesus 
was repeated, with slightly different 
coloring, by Pastor^^ by Miscellanea 
Francescana'^'^ , by Enciclopedia Ec- 
clesiastical^ by C. Castiglioni.-^® 

To the reader of Cordara's account 
it soon becomes evident from the ex- 
pressions themselves, that he is recon- 
structing an hypothetical scene, using 
elements that are uncertain and in- 
determinate^^: "On a certain day" 
... "I am of the opinion ..." "by 
these or similar words ... I think" 
. . . "no one doubts that they dis- 
cussed the suppression of the 

For this reason I say it is a con- 
struction of an hypothetical case, be- 
cause it is lacking an historical 
foundation. According to Cordara's 
narrative, the visit should have taken 
place a short time before the publica- 
tion of the decree of suppression; 
therfore during the month of July, 
1773. Now there is not a single docu- 
ment of such a visit, not the least 
reference. It is true that towards the 
end of June, 1771, Clement XIV, as 
he told Fr. John Ma^y, was thinking 
of paying a visit to Our Fathers-^ ^ but 
that wish was not realized. We must 
conclude that as long as St. Paul of 
the Cross remained in the Hospice 
of the Crucified, that is up to Dec. 
9, 1773, he was never visited by the 

Is there then no truth in the 
account of Fr. Cordara? As in every 
legend, between the circumstances 
that have been changed or wholly in- 
vented, there is some truth at bot- 
tom, so is it in the present case. 
Legendary is the argument propound- 
ed and the motives adopted by St. 
Paul to set Clement XIV at ease; 
however, the substance of the fact, 
that is the visit of the Pope, is true 
and is historically demonstrated; only 
it did not take place at the time or 
in the place indicated. The time of 
the real visit was June 26, 1774; the 
place was the new Retreat of Sts. 
John and Paul. It was a friendly visit, 
private and familiar, with only a few 
persons in attendance on the Pope, 
but in a short while word of it got 
around the city and comments were 
being made.^" 

Regarding this visit we read: 

"In the month of May he (the 

Father Cajetan Raponi, C.P. is a member 
of Presentation Province, Italy. 
Father John Baptist Pechulis, C.P., who 
translated this article from the Italian, is 
lector of church history at Immaculate 
Conception Retreat, Chicago, 111. Father 
John Baptist received his licentiate in 
church history at the Gregorium, Rome. 

Founder) wanted to visit the Pope, 
which was the last time. During the 
following month of June, on the feast 
of Sts. John and Paul, the Pope him- 
self visited St. Paul. On seeing the 
Holy Father, the aged Founder ex- 
claimed, 'Today salvation has come 
from God to this house.' After the 
Holy Father permitted the religious 
and some seculars to kiss his foot, the 
Pope retired with the Servant of God 
to talk with him in his room. When 
he left, he was much consoled and 

As witness in the processes, Father 
John Mary added that the visit took 
place towards evening, that the Pope 
stopped to pray in the basilica where 
he was received by the Saint, that 
having gone up to the monastery, he 
was led into the room where a throne 
had been prepared. . .^^ 

After the community had paid its 
respects to the Holy Father, there 
was a private conversation between 
the Pope and the Saint. If July 21, 
1773 had not already passed, it would 
be interesting to know what was said 
in that conversation; one might sus- 
pect that it had something to do with 
the suppression of the Society of 
Jesus; but we are now at June 26, 
1774. At any rate it would not be 
without interest to know what the two 
personages did speak of in privacy. 
Brother Bartholomew, C.P., the only 
one admitted to their conversation, in 
order to assist Father Paul, who was 
sick— tells us that "the Servant of 
God spoke with the Holy Father of 
God and of His goodness, and did so 
with such spirit, really superhuman, 
that the Pope in admiration was lis- 
tening with arms folded and his head 
inclined. . ."^^ 

Fr. Cordara, who began his Com- 
mentaries at Calamandrana, Alessan- 
dria, towards the end of 1774-* wrote 
with some knowledge of this visit 
sent to him by some friend, as though 
he had gathered the information 
from public opinion-^* 

IF WE set aside the visit of the Pope, 
are there grounds for suspecting 
that St. Paul had made the suggestion 
in some previous audience, or by 
latter, or even by a third person? I 
say, unhesitatingly, that we cannot 
admit the first hypothesis, at least 
from Dec. 1770 to Dec. of 1773. In 


The Passionist 

this period, because of a long illness, 
there was no audience. It would have 
to be on December 8, 1770, as Clem- 
ent XIV himseir ad'irmed that he had 
need oF speaking with his saintly 
friend; but that was not possible, 
e\'en though his carriage had already 
come from the apostolic palace. From 
the previous e\ening, throughout the 
whole night the Holy Founder "had 
such a fierce attack from the demons, 
along v\'itli such a keen sense of de- 
reliction and desolation of soul, that 
he had to pass the whole night in 
great pain and torment."-" 

Consider now the history of the 
three subsequent years. 1771: On 
May 10 he dictates (in his corre- 
spondence) "As you know this is the 
sixth month that I have been con- 
fined to bed."-' On July 12th: "It 
seemed that I was a bit better, but 
now I am worse without hope of re- 
covery . . . from my bed of pain 
where I have been confined for seven 
months . . ."^". On July 27: "I have 
been confined to bed these last eight 
months and I am drawing ever near- 
er to my final end."-" November 2, 
came, and still he was not to quit his 

i772: On April 11th, St. Paul is a 
little better, he may get up for an 
hour a day, but he is still weak and 
subject to spells of dizziness.'^^ His 
getting up means simply he may sit 
up out of bed. To walk he had to 
use crutches and the help of two 
religious.-'- Even by May 29, he tells 
us that he is "a little better," but 
can't do much walking. '•'•' In July he 
is still without strength''^ and does 
not say Mass.'*-'' In October he gets 
up for a couple of hours with the 
help of others.-'" On Dec. 25 he gives 
thanks "from his bed where he passes 
his days with his usual grave infirm- 

nii: He starts the New Year by 
saying that by orders of the doctor he 
must remain in bed continually.-'*' 
On January 26 he adds: "I am always 
in bed and my miseries continue now 
for the third year. . . ."''" In February 
it is much the same'"; on May 17 
he says he is a little better, but still 
cannot walk^' and is so weak that to 
go to the room of Father Candido he 
has to lean on one of the religious 
and use a cane. In itself it should 
ha\'e been hardly an effort, instead 

he says he made it "with the greatest 
difficulty and afterwards felt more 
fatigue than he used to in the past 
after walking 30 miles."^- 

However slowly, he continued to 
improve and during the Octave of 
Corpus Christi he was able to say 
Mass three times^'; then he was able 
to say Mass on feast days and on 
some other days-** from the feast of 
St. Bernard he was able to say Mass 
every dav, although still with difficu- 

On the 30th of October, when he 
had heard that the Pope had return- 
ed from his summer residence, he 
wrote to welcome His Holiness. He 
was still very weak, but his desire to 
see the Vicar of Jesus Christ was so 
keen, that it made him say: "I hope 
in God to go within a few days to 
the Apostolic Palace to kiss the feet 
of His Holiness; this is my exceeding 
great desire. "■*" 

We do not know the precise date 
of the audience but we do know that 
it was very cordial. Father John Mary 
tells us that when the Holy Father 
returned to Rome, St. Paul, after 
three years, wanted to be taken to pay 
his respects to the Pope, to extend his 
welcome and to return thanks, with 
great humility, for all the kindness 
shown to him. The Pope on seeing 
him unexpectedly after so long a time 
rejoiced greatly, as though seeing one 
who had died and was restored to life 
again and the Servant of God re- 
marked: "Holy Father, if I am still 
alive, I owe my life, after God, to 
Your Holiness. I put great faith in 
your command to wait.*^ I prayed to 
the Lord for it and He heard me."-*** 

JUST as there is no evidence that St. 
Paul had treated by word of 
mouth about the suppression of the 
Society of Jesus so is there none to 
show that he has done so by letter. 
Of the period from 1770 to 1773 we 
have almost a hundred letters; in not 
one of them is there the least refer- 
ence of a judgment regarding the 
Society of Jesus. The Saint appears 
to be informed of the dire straits of 
the Pope and of the Church; he 
makes clear allusion to the campaign 
being conducted against the Society; 
one might say that in his expressions 
he wishes to indicate the growing 
keenness of the struggle but nowhere 

do we find a s ingle expression to 
show that St. Paul of the Cross in- 

On May 28, 1772 he writes: "Con- 
tinue to pray ... for His Holiness 
and for the present needs of Holy 
Church for they are hard pressed on 
all sides. '^" Later he returns to the 
same subject of prayer for the Pope 
and for the church, on March 30,^'" 
on Julv ll,-"'' on Oct. 8,-^*- and on 
Nov. B.--'-' 

In his letter of Jan. 1, 1773, he 
says: "I recommend to you the needs 
of Holy Church, now more grave and 
pressing than ever. His Holiness. 
. . ."-''^ Thus does he continue to the 
following Julv. Compare the letter of 
Jan. 26, '''' that of Feb. M;''' that of 
March 27,^" those of April 16 and 
17,-''« that of Mav 26,--^» and finally 
that of July 21. «» 

The frequent recalling of the 
events taking place show that Paul 
of the Cross shared in the sufferings 
of the Pope and in the trial that the 
Church was undergoing but thev do 
not warrant the conclusion that there 
was direct communication with 
Clement XIV. It was possible to learn 
many things from public hearsay and 
others from friendly exchanges with 
some person of standing, for example, 
Zelada, who was close to the Pape. 

Some grounds for suspicion could 
likely be had from a letter without 
date, but certainly of October 1773, 
which says: 

"I have always had the hope that 
the very great piety and charity of 
Your Holiness would give us some 
church and house. Thus indeed Your 
Holiness has designed to give me 
hope when I asked for it, in case of 
the suppression and ... of the 
Society of Jesus, whether their Novi- 
tiate would be given to us for the pur- 
pose and Your Holiness has deigned 
to tell me that Your Holiness had 
this in mind. . . ."®' 

Mention is made, it is true, of sup>- 
pression, but in case that should hap- 
pen. Only too well the saint foresaw 
that it would take place; and, as 
others were doing, he t(K)k occasion 
to ask for some church and house 
that would remain unoccupied, mak- 
ing the observation that the Novitiate 
of St. .Andrew would be the Ix'st 
adapted to the spirit of the Institute. 
That this request had no influence 

December 1, 1957 


upon the suppression is borne out by 
the fact that its fulfillment long re- 
mained suspended and uncertain. As 
late as Sept. 15, 1773, St. Paul was 
not sure how and when his request 
would be granted."^ 

DESIRING to have a monastery in 
Rome,"'^ St. Paul began negoti- 
ations in October of 1747.-"* When in 
1767 the hospice of the Crucified was 
opened, he exclaimed: "We will not 
remain in this hospice. This is like 
the grain of mustard seed, which is 
very small but later becomes a great 
tree. You will see into what a Church 
and what a religious house this 
Hospice will develop.""'"' 

After Cardinal Ganganelli became 
Pope, St. Paul did not lose the oppor- 
tunity to have a monastery in Rome 
and Clement XIV resolved to satisfy 
his wish in the best way he could. In 
a letter of May 26, 1770, we read: 
". . . Wait and see that God will pro- 
vide us with a house and a church; 
the Holy Father has his mind set on 
it but we must wait for His Divine 
Majestv to open the way and from 
the looks of things that will not be 
far off. . . ."«« By June 27, 1770, he 
still did not know how the Pope 
would grant his request: "The Pope 
is minded to give us a house and a 
church, but at present there is none 
to be found. Perhaps a new one shall 
be built, but Our Lord will take care 
of it.""" 

On July 17, 1772, he says in one 
of his letters: "Pray . . . that if it is 
for the greater glory of God, His Hol- 
iness gives us a house here in 
Rome."«8 In 1773 the hopes of the 
Saint begin to be realized: after hav- 
ing said on March 27, "I have cer- 
tain hope that the Divine Goodness 
before long will provide us with a 
house here in Rome""® he dictates on 
May 26 these words obscure in them- 
selves but very clear to Mr. Fossi for 
whom he meant them: "... I hope 
we shall have . . . before the present 
year is finished";''^" however, on June 
19 he still employs a phrase of sus- 
pense:" . . . most of all if God should 
provide. . . ."''^ 

The hpyothesis that St. Paul in- 
fluenced the Pope's decision through 
a third person is not to be rejected 
a priori; but we hasten to add that it 
remains a simple hypothesis. During 

the three years of his illness there 
was no meeting between St. Paul and 
the Pope. Still Clement XIV kept 
himself well-informed about the sick- 
ness of his holy friend: "Often he 
sent someone to visit him, (at times) 
using the good offices of Msgr. 
Angeletti, now deceased.""- Often- 
times the confessor of Clement XIV, 
P. Maestro Sangiorgi, visited him.'^ 
His Holiness . . . frequently renewed 
the injunction that he postpone his 
death and be obedient, now . . . 
through Cardinal Zelada, at that time 
a Monsignor, at other times . . . 
through Msgr. Angeletti ... at still 
other times through Fr. Francis, all 
of whom he used to send to visit him 
in His name.''^* 

We know furthermore that the re- 
lations between Msgr. Zelada and 
Paul were of the friendliest. For the 
Holy Founder Msgr. Zelada is "... a 
most worthy prelate . . . one of the 
most outstanding in Rome, to whom 
the Congregation is greatly ob- 
liged.""'"' On the other hand Msgr. 
Zelada had a great esteem for the 
saint and apparently favored him 
with his confidence. Frojn March 27, 
1773, St. Paul knew that Msgr. 
Zelada would soon be made a Cardi- 
nal."" And on April 17, after having 
said "that in this month (Msgr. 
Zelada) will be made, God willing, 
a Cardinal"^' he ordered prayers for 
the Church, for the Pope and for 
Msgr. Zelada, and renewed the rec- 
ommendation on July 21.''® 

Bearing in mind the place occu- 
pied by Zelada in the pontifical court 
and the part he had in the suppres- 
sion of the Society of Jesus, one read- 
ily surmises that in his visits with 
Saint Paul the topic of the suppres- 
sion was entered into and that he 
(Zelada) gave his opinion of events, 
as friends are wont to do in discuss- 
ing their problems. But that this was 
done in the name of the Pope in 
order to have an opinion that might 
serve him as a norm, is historically 

In view of the circumstances such 
a supposition does not seem possible. 
To give a just judgment, to be used 
as a norm in a most serious decision 
such as the suppression of the Society 
of Tesus, required more than holiness 
and the experience of governing a 
religious Institute; there was need of 

a profound knowledge of the exter- 
nal condition of the Church, of the 
intrigues of the courts, of their aims, 
and of the means they had to do the 
Church harm. 

ST. Paul of the Cross was not a 
diplomat nor was he ever found 
in the midst of diplomacy. His word 
would have been that of one incom- 
petent and to seek it would signify 
the lack of the most elementary pru- 
dence on the part of the Pope and 
Cardinal Zelada. 

In conclusion, history has no posi- 
tive data to affirm that the Founder 
of the Passionists had induced Clem- 
ent XIV to decide upon the suppres- 
sion of the Society of JesuS. Should 
any doubt remain, it is totally re- 
moved by the explicit testimony of a 
contemporary who lived at the side 
of St. Paul of the Cross and was his 
confessor at the time, as well as his 
assistant in the government of the 
Congregation. Father John Mary of 
St. Ignatius Martyr, C.P., the auth- 
oritative historian of the Congrega- 
tion, has these explicit words: 

"On the evening of August 16, 
about 7:00 o'clock, occurred the sup- 
pression of the renowed Society of 
Jesus and this sad news was heard by 
our Father with great wonder. He 
adored the secret, inscrutable judg- 
ments of God, hidden and secret it 
is true but always just and right. May 
it be permitted us to make here a 
brief observation. 

"It seems that Divine Providence, 
in its admirable ways, arranged mat- 
ters in this affair in such fashion that 
God's well-beloved Servant neither 
should have nor could have any part, 
neither for nor against, neither unto 
good nor unto evil. 

"In those three years during which 
the auestion of the mentioned sup- 
pression was being treated, he re- 
mained confined to his bed; when it 
was finally setded, he began to get 
UP. Hence one gentleman of discre- 
tion, on hearing that Father Paul had 
begun to sav Mass, said in confidence 
fo a friend: 'See, the affair of the 
Jesuits is finished. Lest tongues wag 
about this Servant of God, as though 
he were counsellor to the Pope for 
such a suppression, the Lord kept 
him to his bed; but now he is well 
(Continued on page 429) 


The Passionist 


of St. Paul 


Chapter three continues remembrance of the Passion and 
First Mystical Death. 

I :iH ultimate pcitcction of interior 
union with God will be had, when, 
every created intermediary between 
the soul and its lli^hest Good hav- 
ing vanished, the soul, ever increas- 
ing in generosity, will experience that 
it has given its whole being, all its 
energies, to the powerful and exclu- 
sive Divine Action. 

In the doctrine of the Saint of the 
Passion, two important moments de- 
mand our attention on this way. First 
of all, there is the conBdent abandon- 
ment into the hands of the Father of 
the soul which is undergoing the 
mystical agony and death. Finally, at 
the consummation of the mystical 
death, the perfect fruition of the 
Divine Nativity is already had, by 
which the soul is introduced, in a 
mysteriously real way, into the bea- 
tifying bosom of the Father. 

The spiritual attitude of the soul 
in the face of the Lord's consolations 
was indeed a state of interior naked- 
ness and of pure intuition of God. 
But in this way it was still something 
of a means, and the \ery metaphors 
used give the impression of a soul, 
poor and in adoration on the one 
hand, and of God, reached only by 
gifts and by the apex of the soul, on 
the other. 

But now the appeal is made more 
intimate and pressing, and the soul 
must ascent to the Father with its 
vN'hole being. St. Paul of the Cross 
cautions the soul: 

"Continue to remain in your noth- 
ingness and surrender yourself al- 
ways more to the lo\ ing bosom of the 
I leavenly Father. Repose there, and 
take long sleeps of faith and holy 
l()\e, without many reflexions on 
yourself. "'-'■' 

The tender and poetical interior 
worship of strijijiing onescll ol the 
gilts of prayer in order to oiler praise 
to God, is an act of giving place to 
the reality which it symbolized: the 
gifts in fact cease, and the soul then 
must Inid something else to lashion 
its worship ol adoration. I he Lt)rd 
will teach the soul what "to be sur- 
rendered to Him" means.'-' Then 
there is no need to I>e frightened il 
the tree has lost its leaves and c\en 

Decembeu 1, 1957 


its flowers. It is the time for its 
fruits/-^ for deeply rooted virtue. 

St. Paul of the Cross is pleased 
with the new state of the soul: "Her 
present condition is better than the 
past, because at first she abounded in 
sweetness, but now all is bitter and 
therefore more in conformity with 
the Most Holy Life of Jesus Christ. 
Be faithful to God; do not thrust 
aside your customary exercises and be 
resigned, silent in interior and ex- 
terior sufferings, accepting all from 
God and kissing the loving hand of 
the great Father which strikes you 
with the rich lash of love,— which 
strikes to heal you and to enable you 
to lead a dying life so that you might 
reach that mystical death which is 
rich with every good, because it 
brings with it great detachment from 
every created thing, by attaining per- 
fect union with the Highest 

In this state, better than the first, 
the mystical death assumes the aspect 
of perfect and confident abandon- 
ment, as a passage to a phase of life 
more divinely active than the preced- 
ing one. 

IT IS not easy to describe the sense 
of void which the soul experi- 
ences when it becomes aware that 
"the holy desires and pious affections 
toward the Highest Good, and the 
doing and suffering of great things 
for His love and glory, when it was 
pleasing to Him, meanwhile endur- 
ing whatever He commands the soul 
to suffer gladly and with great resig- 
nation to His Most Holy WilF'^^^ 
like fragile flowers, have fallen away. 

In the sphere of consciousness the 
soul is no longer able to discern any 
sentiment of fervor. The habitual 
knowledge of its own nothingness, 
the certainty that "some rust, some 
dirt and dust always clings" to the 
spirit "without our being able to per- 
ceive it"i28 ^^^ make it fear that the 
fire of Divine Love is extinguished 
or weakened: and this divine love is 
the one thing which the soul wants to 
see shine forth in the interior sanc- 

St. Paul of the Cross, once he is 
certain that fidelity in the exercise 
of virtue is not lessened,^^" encour- 
ages and teaches the soul how to 
apply itself to the prayer of introver- 

sion, which is enriched with greater 
light, by revealing a new degree of 
configuration to Jesus Crucified: 
abandonment in the hands of the 

"Be quiet there (I speak of the 
superior part of the soul), and use 
the prayer of Jesus Christ agonizing 
in the garden. Jesus then remained 
in His divine prayer in agony and 
sweat blood, and uttered no com- 
plaint. But more than once He said: 
'Father, Thy Will be done.' O most 
sublime and tender prayer! for all 
holiness is summed up in these 
Divine words. 

"Thus should you do, my daughter. 
In the midst of the greatest desola- 
tion and agony of spirit, speak to the 
sovereign Divine Father, but say to 
Him in the deep center of your soul, 
in a pure spirit of faith and love: 
'Father, Thy Will be done.' And 
then say: 'Into Thy hands, O Lord, 
I commend my spirit'; and then die 
that mysical death which is more 
precious and more desirable than life. 

"Abandon your spirit then into the 
hands of God, and then you will see 
the marvels of love which His 
Divine Majesty will work in it."^'^° 

The attitude which these words in- 
dicate is somewhat like that which 
overtakes Peter the Apostle near the 
Lake of Tiberias, when Jesus asked 
him if he loved Him. Perhaps no one 
more than Peter at that moment 
knew so well his own nothingness 
and the infinite transcendance of 
God Incarnate Who stood before 
him. But his own greatness was pre- 
cisely in not wanting to search into 
his own heart, an abvss of darkness, 
but in preferring to abandon himself 
in the thousands times tested Heart 
of the Lord: "Lord, Thou knowest 
all things; Thou knowest that I love 

Something similar happens here. 
The "holy desires" can perhaps be 
much less holy before the eyes of 
God inasmuch as we imagine our- 
selves receiving them.^^^ Not so the 
humbled heart which is open wide 
to the Divine Mercy, and peaceful 
under the scourge, which, whether it 
be pure trial or veritable suffering, is 
always wielded by the Hand of 
Love.''^'^ There is in this attitude a 
sign of advanced purification and 
essential union with the infinitely 

lovable Will of the Father. 

But this impulse of the spirit 
which without harming the soul's 
humility, enables it to experience 
God's presence so intimately, is pos- 
sible and justified only if the soul 
learn to accept the Cross together 
with the One Person Who can do it 
for pure love: with Jesus. 

ST. Thomas points out how one 
cannot speak of the personal love 
of God for us, save inasmuch as we 
are loved in Christ. ^'^^ 

Here precisely is the characteristic 
abandonment, full of humble joy, 
which was conceived by St. Paul of 
the Cross— aware as he was of the 
extremely diverse meaning which the 
recognition of the supreme right of 
the Divine Will to crucify us acquires 
when it is given by one "who makes 
the sufferings of Christ his own,"^^^ 
in which there is nothing else save 
love and mercy. 

"He who wants to be holy, loves to 
follow the Divine footsteps of Jesus 
Christ faithfully, to be made the 
opprobrium of men and the outcast 
of the people, because he knows that 
he is guilty of Divine lese majesty 
for having sinned. He who wants to 
be holy, loves to be hidden from the 
eyes of the world,— takes sweetness 
for bitterness and bitterness for 
sweetness; his food is to do the Most 
Holy Will of God in all things; and 
just as this is done more in suffering 
than in joy, the true servant of God 
thus loves pure suffering, accepting 
it without measure,— from the Most 
Pure Will of the Lord. ... Oh fortu- 
nate the soul which is entirely cloth- 
ed with Jesus Christ and completely 
penetrated by His most Holy Suffer- 
ings,— if he is entirely immersed and 
plunged into the deep sea of Divine 
Love and here, detached from every 
created thing, rests on the bosom of 
the beloved Good! The Lord effects 
this divine work in humble souls, 
who abide in interior solitude, even 
in the midst of the noisy affairs of 
the world."^^'' 

From this moment on then, the 
Passion of Jesus is imprinted on the 
apex of the soul as the sole, formal 
motive of hope— as that which gives 
repose and peace, even though the 
presence of the Father is no longer 
perceived save through His merciful 


The Passionist 

scourge. The peaceful and fearless 
expectation of Divine help, which 
Jesus had in the Passion, is communi- 
cated to the soul. Together with this 
there is given the ineffahle happiness 
of the present infinite paternal love; 
it is thus the expectation which is 
totally glorified— even the sensihle 
nature. '•'' 

In the beginning of our work we 
cited one of the most classical propos- 
itions of Fenelon which was con- 
demned.''"* The abyss which separ- 
ates that alleged imitation of Christ 
from the authentic one preached by 
St. Paul of the Cross along with the 
most genuine Catholic mystical tradi- 
tion, is c\'idcnt. In the first, the sor- 
rowful abandonment in which the 
1 leavenly Father leaves the soul con- 
sumes it in despair, whether condi- 
tional or definitely framed in the 
erroneous invincible conviction of 
rendering homage to the infinite 
Power and Justice of Cod. 

In the second, the gaze of the soul 
is still fixed on Christ Crucified in 
order to share in His inexpressible 
sorrow. We find again, it is true, the 
s)!rov\ful cry: My Cod, My Cod, 
Why hast thou forsaken Me? But the 
gaze of the soul lifting itself to the 
Crucified no longer brings its gaze 
back to itself. Enlightened by the 
understanding of love, sustained by 
the supreme revelation which the Fa- 
ther makes of Flimself in Christ, the 
soul dares to appropriate to herself,— 
after the sufferings of sudden aban- 
donment, even the ineffable solace of 
abandoning herself in turn into the 
hands of the Father, with the secure 
confidence of seeing herself tenderly 
received. Thus the last words of Jesus 
resound in her: "Father, into thy 
hands I commend my spirit."'^" 

It is very significant that these 
words are never met with again in 
dubious mysticism and in that which 
has been condemned. It does not 
seem that even the Mystical Doctor, 
St. John of the Cross includes it 
within his own perspectives,— at that 
unique point in which the greatest 
jxTlcction of the soul is vaguely rep- 
resented, when after the footsteps of 
Christ the soul has arrived at the 
supreme desolation and abandon- 

Confident abandonment is, on the 
other hand, splendidly described by 

St. Francis de Sales. ^'" Our Saint 
will draw his inspiration from this as 
well as from his own personal my- 
stical experience and intuition, just 
as later on, in the same question of 
the mystical death, one of his great 
disciples, the Venerable Dominic of 
the Mother of Cod, will also draw his 
inspiration from the same course. '"•" 
One understands how St. Paul of 
the Cross, unlike the false mystics, 
cannot admit that the intuition of the 
Patient Humanity of Christ could be 
lost, even in the greatest trials. '^^ To 
detach oneself from this even for an 
instant would mean to lose every 
reason for hope— to lose implicity 
even the security itself of walking a 
road which is truly mystical. On the 
contray, the soul, which from the 
time it has made of its union with 
Cod one sole sacrificial act, cannot 
even think that God would be 
pleased to repudiate in any way 
whatever an adoration of spirit and 
truth which it attains, clothed with 
the most loving sufferings of Jesus 

THE DEPTH of the divine opera- 
;ions, far removed from the 
senses, makes it difficult to under- 
stand them. However, in the spirit of 
St. Paul of the Cross it seems to us 
that a sense of repose after the prac- 
tically definitive abandonment of 
every search for God outside of His 
Divine Good Pleasure is clearly in- 
dicated. The bitterness already clear- 
ly manifests the divine love by itself; 
purity of intention is easily discerni- 
ble and in prayer it is enough sim- 
ply to say: "Father!" . . . because all 
the grace of abandonment and of the 
blessedness of the Passion floods the 
soul of faith and love, keeping it in 
serenity and peace. 

"I feel that you are despoiled of 
every consolation, and I thank God 
for it, because now you will be more 
conformed to the Divine Spouse who 
was deprived of every consolation 
whilst I le remained dying on the 
Cross. But in such abandonment He 
made a great sacrifice, and perfected 
it with the final Divine words which 
He spoke; and these were: "Father, 
into Thy hands I commend my 
sjiirit." And having said this. His 
most holy soul breathed its last in the 
hands of the Eternal Father and 

accomplished the work of human Re- 
demption. Do you likewise. . . . Now 
you are in agony on the most preci- 
ous bed of the Cross; what remains 
then for you to do, if not to breathe 
forth your soul in the bosom of the 
Heavenly Father, saying: Most sweet 
Father, into Thy hands I commend 
my spirit? And having said that, die 
then happily that precious mystical 
death about which I have spoken to 
you at other times. "^''■* 

The insistence on the fact that it 
was a matter of a mystical death 
which took place in the superior part 
of the soul, confirms the judgment 
that it was a purely spiritual grace of 
jieace in the will where the paternal 
love shines forth through the Passion 
of Jesus. 

"In such a state you must remain 
in prayer in perfect nakedness and 
poverty of spirit, with the superior 
part of the soul attentive to God . . . 
in peaceful silence without interior 
or exterior complaint, except it be an 
infant's cry, as, for example: O my 
Father, Eternal Father, thus it is, 
whatever is pleasing to You is also 
pleasing to me . . . And having said 
this with Jesus Christ breathe and 
die in Christ the mystical death of 
holy and pure love. . . ."'^^ 

THE grace of this state is that of 
a savory contemplation of accom- 
plishing the Divine Will which is 
sovereignly free to manifest its pre- 
dilection with the spiritual sweetness 
of love, or with this nailing of the 
soul in an apparent incapacity for 
spiritual life. 

"Oh blessed is that soul which 
stands crucified with Jesus Christ, 
without relishing or seeing Him, be- 
cause it is deprived of every sensible 
consolation! Oh fortunate that soul 
which in such abandonment of every 
consolation \vilhi>i a}id without, feeds 
itself on the Divine Will, bows its 
head and says with Jesus: Father, 
into thy hands I commend my spirit, 
and dies mystically to all that is not 
Cod, in order to live the divine life 
in Ciod in the very bosom of the 
I leavenly Father,— entirely clothed 
with Jesus Christ Crucified, that is. 
entirely united to I lis sufferings, 
which the lov ing soul makes its own, 
though the union of charity with the 
Highest Good."'*' 

December 1, 1957 


Significantly, St. Paul of the Cross 
speaks of the soul "dead and buried 
in the Divine Good Pleasure."^*^ 

"I rejoice very much in hearing 
that you are crucified with Christ, 
which is the most efficacious means 
of reaching the perfection of holy, 
pure and spotless love. . . . Live then 
always more abandoned and dead by 
mystical death in the Divine Good 
Pleasure, and keep your heart in con- 
tinual peace in spite of so many dif- 
ficulties and trials which you can 
meet up with,— putting them to death 
in the Divine Good Pleasure, which 
cannot will anvthing save the 

"The Most High Lord from all 
eternity has willed and is pleased that 
you should suffer such anxieties of 
spirit, and of body, from the devils 
and from creatures. Contemplate 
them then with the eye of faith in 
their origin, and caress the good 
pleasure of God by ejaculatory pray- 
ers or affections of the spirit."^*^ 

In the first mystical death, the gifts 
were separated from the Giver, in the 
contemplative gaze; now instead it is 
like a true experimental separation 
of the superior life of the soul from 
all the rest of earthly existence. The 
soul lives entirely hidden in God, 
and there,— outside of time as it were, 
contemplates the trials of its mortal 
existence, of which it already has a 
foretaste of their fruit in Christ. 

"You must flee from yourself as 
from a plague, outside of the tem- 
poral, and hide yourself in the deep 
bosom of the Great Heavenly Father 
outside of time in eternity. You ought 
to hide yourself in Jesus Christ, be- 
cause by staying hidden in Christ, 
you cannot be, save where He is . . . 
'in the bosm of the Father.' I speak 
to you in the language of most holy 
faith. The Most High will enable 
you to hide in sinu Patris and will 
teach you in an unexplainable way, 
provided that you remain in your 
nothingness, in a passive way."^^" 

To express this truth more vividly, 
St. Paul of the Cross very often en- 
larges the metaphor of dwelling in 
the bosom of the Father, by showang 
the soul "how a true infant is re- 
born in the Divine Word, and nursed 
on the sacred breasts of the infinite 
Love of God."i°i 

THE MIND seems to discern in the 
hope of a more perfect mystical 
death the extension— in a mysterious 
but real way,— of the influence of the 
glorifying power of the Cross to its 
whole being. 

"It is necessary to die mystically to 
everything; and still the feeling of 
the natural inclinations and the 
motions of the passions which never 
die, as long as we are alive,— are not 
to be considered at this time. But it 
is necessary to await patiently the 
visit of the Sovereign Master, for, as 
God accepts this painful waiting very 
much, he then surrounds the soul 
with such burning rays of His grace 
that He dries up all the bad humours. 
If the natural inclinations and the 
motions of the passions do not entire- 
ly die, they remain however so dead- 
ened that they offer no impediment 
to the loving repose of holy contem- 
plation, and the soul begins to ex- 
perience the effects of that holy 
mystical death, which is more preci- 
ous than life, for the soul lives a dei- 
form life in God: ... I live, now not 
I, but Christ lives in me, said the 
great Christ-loving Apostle."^^^ 

This total quiet— a non-essential 
effect of mystical death, can even be 
lacking, although one can hope for 
it. The Saint notes what "agony one 
has to suffer in waiting patiently and 
meekly for the holy mystical 
death. "^'^^ In another letter too, 
where the context recalls the agony 
of the Cross, the conclusion is not— 
as at other times— such as to identify 
the act of supreme abandonment 
with the mystical death, but he ad- 
vises : "follow His repose on the Cross 
until such a time arrives as the preci- 
ous hour of true mystical death."^^* 

This further grace, still remaining 
in the realm of naked faith, is more 
notably passive. It effects a more rad- 
ical transformation and tears away 
the soul totally and definitivelv from 
all that it knows of the earthly. In 
some way it brings even the sensible 
being into the eternal— and not only 
the apex of the soul. The soul "will 
be completely hidden, as St. Paul 
says, in Jesus Christ in God and will 
be in that deepest solitude which it 
desires, with total detachment from 

Father Costante Brovetto, C.P., is a mem- 
ber of Immaculate Heart Province, Italy, 
and Editor of Fonti Vive. 

every created thing."^-'"''' 

"The Holy Gospel— the Saint 
again cautions, revealing the source 
of his thought— says that if the grain 
which is sown does not die, it re- 
mains alone and without fruit. But 
the poor grain which is sown in order 
to die and to bear fruit,- how much 
it must endure! rain, and snow and 
wind and sun. . . . Thus the soul is 
a grain which God sows in this great 
field of the Church. In order that it 
bring forth fruit it is necessary that 
it die by means of sufferings, con- 
tradictions, sorrows, persecutions. . . . 
When then it is dead to everything, 
in the midst of its sufferings, it brings 
forth abundant fruit, as long as it is 
disposed to be ground and reduced 
to good wheat, to be made into a pure 
white bread, kneaded with the Most 
Precious Blood of the Divine Lamb, 
in order that it might be put on the 
royal table of the great King of 

The full mystical death, for which 
the soul is disposed after being 
already reborn from the first, will cer- 
tainly bring with it an ineffable 
treasure of grace. 

"You must remain in silence and 
hope in this precious agony in which 
your spirit finds itself. Neither 
should you let any complaint escape 
your lips save this sweet complaint 
of love and resignation: Father, into 
Thy hands I commend my spirit, but 
you must say it in the depth of the 
spirit in God. In such a manner that 
the agony will end when it shall 
please the Heavenly Father, and you 
will die that mystical death more 
precious than life and you will rise 
in Christ Jesus to a new deiform life 
of most pure love, 

"Do you understand me? Silence, 
resignation, abandonment in the 
bosom of God and let Him do what 
He wants: I mean that when your 
soul is abandoned with deepest resig- 
nation in the bosom of the Heavenly 
Father, let Him do His work. Oh, 
how much I should like to say! But 
the tongue and the pen do not know 
nor can it be expressed."-^ ^'^ 

{Continued on page 427} 


The Passionist 


Mary as Dauj^hter of Israel, gathered lo 
gether in her person God's Preparation ot 
twenty centuries to lead men to Faith. In 
Mary, God loiind one who was perfectly 
prepared lo recei\c the Uevchitioii oj 

By Eugene Peterman, C.P. 

La Santa Notte, by Carlo Morotto. 

Daughter of Israel 


THE sioRV is told that a certain ecclesiastic came to 
visit the Italian painter, Carlo Maratta. 1 he church- 
man arrixecl at the studio unannoiniced, while the artist 
was at work on his Famous painting "La Smuta Notte." 
I le stood behind the painter, fascinated by the masterful 

December 1, 1957 

touches of the artist's brush. Rut it was Maratta's vision 
of the Madonna that enthralled him. .\s he _i;azed ujxin 
the yet unfmished canvas, he whisjx'red out loud, "A cosa 
pcnsatc, Maria mia!— What are you thinking of, Mary!" 

Ihe question is natural. It is bidden by the artist's vi 
sion of the tender beauty of a >oung mother, aglow with 


the warm and overwhelming love of 
a woman who, for the first time, 
holds her child to her breast. Here is 
the Virgin-Mother rapt in adoration 
and contemplation of her divine Son. 
The question rises spontaneously, 
"What are you thinking of, Mary?" 

This is the same question that pur- 
sues all our thoughts of Mary when- 
ever we endeavor to consider how the 
Mother of Jesus regarded her Son as 
His human life unfolded before her. 
St. Luke tells us that Mary pondered 
in her heart the things she heard and 
saw (cf. Lk. 2, 19; 2,51). But what 
were the thoughts she kept turning 
over in her mind? What were her 
feelings on that unforgettable night 
at Bethlehem when the Messiah, the 
Promised One of Israel, was born in 
a forsaken cave? What did she think 
as He grew to manhood in the quiet 
little town in the hills of Galilee? She 
was there at the beginning of Christ's 
public ministry (cf. Jn. 2, 1 ff; Lk. 4, 
14 ff). She was among the people 
who flocked to listen to His words 
(Mk, 3, 31 ff). And was she there 
when His words were so hard to 
understand, that many left Him and 
walked no more with Him say- 
ing, "This is a hard saying" who 
can listen to it?" (Jn. 6, 62). She 
witnessed the rejection of Christ by 
the oflficial leaders of the People of 
God, (Mt 27, 42); His frightful cru- 
cifixion and the desertion of His fol- 
lowers (cf. Jn 19,25). She saw the 
risen Christ. She was present at the 
birth of the Church, and as a mother 
helped it take its first halting steps 
(cf. Acts 1, 14). 

These are very difficult questions 
even to ask accurately, much less, to 
answer sufficiently. Actually, it 
means if we are to answer them at 
all, getting into Mary's mind, as it 
were. For how can we know how 
Mary regarded Christ and His life, 
unless it is first determined to what 
extent and in what manner the Mys- 
tery of Jesus was revealed to her. 

In our endeavors to understand the 
mind of Mary, we cannot help but 
read our experience of Christ into 
hers. We come to Christ with His 
life already lived. We see it from the 
beginning to the end. We view the 
whole pattern of Redemption from 
Bethlehem to Calvary with its crown- 
ing glory, the resurrection. We come 

Father Eugene Peterman, C.P., a member 
of Holy Cross Province, is lector of dog- 
matic theology at Immaculate Conception 
Retreat, Chicago, 111. Father Eugene re- 
ceived his doctorate in theology at the 
Angelicum, Rome. 

to the Words of Christ, and they are 
presented to us integrally. They are 
all of a piece, and so much so, that 
to refuse to accept any one of them, 
to deny any one of them brings the 
whole edifice down at once. 

Not only that. We see the Old 
Testament in the light of the New 
Testament. We understand this later 
revelation as fulfillment, as a plan 
completed, as a progress brought to 
perfection. More than that, we are 
helped in our belief, and our con- 
victions are shored up by the solid 
foundations that the steady work of 
Christian Tradition has laid. We 
have seen Christianity work. We 
have seen it welded to the everyday 
lives of men and women in the ex- 
ample and lives of the saints. Further 
as theologians, Christ and His mes- 
sage have been presented to us in a 
unified and integral system of 
thought, with all the implications and 
consequences of His teachings drawn 
out under the light of Faith by the 
powerful intellects of the saints and 
doctors of the Church. 

THIS is what our Christianity in- 
volves. Here is how we are Chris- 
tians. But what of Our Lady? She 
saw Christ's life lived. She watched 
the plan unfold, and the progress of 
revelation, and the economy of the re- 
demption in evolution. She saw noth- 
ing completed. From the very first 
Mary believed that Christ was the 
Messiah. Yet did she see clearly, from 
the first, what this meant? The 
Messiah had come. But how was the 
world changed? Why had not the 
nations come from the ends of the 
earth to pay homage to Yahweh, as 
the Prophet Isaiah had promised? 

Some men have thought that all 
this presented no problem at all to 
Mary. They believe that God reveal- 
ed to her the future of her Son. They 
think that she had read the prophets 

This article is the first in a series of four 
articles showing that in Mary, the purpose 
of the Old Testament was achieved. The 
articles will attempt to prove that as a 
Daughter of Israel, Mary gathered up in 
her person God's preparation of twenty 
centuries to lead men to faith. As a per- 
fect Israelite God found her fully prepared 
to receive the revelation of Christ. 

SO closely and with such insight and 
faith, that she knew the whole course 
of His life, its meaning and its 

Or some have said that the thirty 
years at Nazareth with Christ were 
filled with revelations; that Christ 
must have told her, as His mother, 
the details of the Messianic work. 
Or perhaps, as spouse of the Holy 
Spirit, she was His confidante, re- 
ceiving many revelations about the 
mission of her Son. In other words, 
they think of Mary as being a Chris- 
tian in the manner in which we are 
Christians. To be His mother and so 
closely associated with Him in His 
redemptive mission, she needed to 
have her faith implemented with all 
this fullness of knowledge that the 
whole of Christian tradition brings to 
us. They do not want to say that she 
came to Christ with the same manner 
of expectation, the same waiting on 
His words, the same faithful holding 
to the truth of Christ's words and 
promises— even when to all appear- 
ances they had failed— as the other 
devout Israelites who were her con- 

But why can it not be said that 
Mary's faith in Christ was much the 
same as that of the other men and 
women with whom she stood as she 
listened at the fringe of the crowd 
to the words of Her Son, except that 
her faith was shorn of any weakness, 
and untouched by the effects of sin? 
Why can it not be said that even 
though Mary was the mother of 
Jesus, the test of her faith was greater 
than that of any human being, and as 
much greater, as her holiness was 

We would like to manifest that 
Mary had no special need of revela- 
tions to respond spontaneously to 
God's demands, or to cooperate fully 
with His designs. Her preparation for 
this test of Faith lay, from first to last, 
in her formation as a devout and per- 
fect Israelite. She was what God had 
meant the whole nation to be when 
He would send His Son and take His 
flesh from this nation. This nation 
would be the link between God and 
men. They, His special people, were 
to worship His Name, to keep alive 
in the memory of mankind God's pri- 
mordial promises, and then, after 
they had received the "Salvation*' 


The Passionist 

God would send to mankind, they 
were to spread it to all the nations of 
the earth— had they only listened to 
His words, kept I lis commands and 
let themseKes be formed by Gods 

In Mary, the purpose of the Old 
Testament was achieved. God's de- 
sign to lead men to Faith, and 
through Faith to salvation, met no 
obstacle in Mary. As a Daughter of 
Israel, she gathered up in her per- 
son God's preparation of twenty cen- 
turies to lead men to faith. And as 
a perfect Israelite God found her 
fully prepared to receixe the revela- 
tion of Christ. 



God prepared mankind to receive His 
Revelation through Faith. He set aside a 
people, and by directing their history. He 
instituted a cuhure in which a people was 
formed with a certain mentality. This 
mentality would enable them to receive 
the Fullness of Grace and Truth that came 
with Christ. 


BEFORE the detailed examination 
of the di\'ine action that formed 
the mind of the People of Israel, 
there is one important and basic un- 
derstanding about the Old Testament 
that must be continually held in the 
forefront ol our mind. I he Old Test- 
ament is a living history of the peo- 
ple of God. It is living, in this sense, 
that the record of the mirahilia Dei 
has the same purpose as the wonder- 
ful works themseh'cs. 1 here in times 
past, God performed these marvels 
among His people to reveal Himself 
to them. And here in Sacred Scripture 
they are written so that men who did 
not experience them in their own 
lives could, by belief in them, come 
to the same knowledge of God. 

The Book of Deuteronomy is full 
of the command of God "to remem- 
ber." "You must remember all the 
experiences through which the Lord, 
your Ciod, has led you. Only take 
care and watch yourselves well that 
you do not forget all the things that 
you saw with your own eyes and that 
they do not slip Irom your mind as 
long as you li\e, but that you impart 

them to your children and your chil- 
dren's children. Fix them in your 
mind. Talk about them when you are 
sitting at home, when you go on a 
journey, even when you lie down. 
Bind them to your hand as a remin- 
der. These, my laws, must be worn 
on your forehead as a mark' (Dt. 6, 

Sacred Scripture tells of singular 
events in a particular time and place, 
yet these external e\'ents have an in- 
ner significance independent of any 
rigidly defined time and place. It 
traces for men a universal pattern of 
the way God reveals Himself. By pre- 
senting to each of us personally the 
history of the people of God, it 
teaches us what are the habitual re- 
actions of fallen human nature to the 
lo\'ing advances of God; the reactions 
of man-to-be-redeemed to the redeem- 
ing action of God. 

E\'ery de\'out Israelite was made to 
understand that the history of their 
people was his own history. "Now 
all these things happened to them 
as a type, and they were written for 
our correction" (I Cor. 10, 11). What 
the history was meant to accomplish 
in the nation, it was meant to accom- 
plish in each individual. It is true, 
that not all the Israelites penetrated 
to this universal and spiritual mean- 
ing to the point of being able to grasp 
the full implications of God's revela- 
tion. But many arrived at the point 
of at least being able to ask the ques- 
tions God intended to answer very 

The events left a deep impress on 
the mind of the people. The written 
record retraced the features of that 
impress and kept in sharp relief the 
memory of the events and the lessons 
learned from them. The descerning 
I lebrevv, the holy men and women 
reli\cd in their lives the whole his- 
tory of their people: the call of God 
to come to Him by Faith, the sojourn 
in the desert, the entry into the 
Promised Land, and the captivity. 
Abraham, Moses, and David; Sarah, 
Deborrah, and Esther; and Samuel, 
EzekicI, and Osee, all were people 
familiar to their thoughts and often 
on their lips. 

Those other individuals who, as 
Jeremiah said, "I lave eyes but see 
not, and ears but hear not" (cf. Jsr. 
5, 21) we must disregard, just as God 

disinherited the rebels in the Desert 
of Meriba saying, "In this desert they 
shall die to the last man" (cf. Num 
14, 35). Israel as a nation was desig- 
nated to be the storehouse of God's 
revelation, but the treasure, in all its 
fullness, was held in a small inner 
chamber. Those Israelites whose lives 
were steeped in Sacred Scripture, 
whose thoughts grew out of God's 
revelation, whose speech was filled 
with God's words, are those who pass- 
ed on to their children the genuine 
mentality of the Israelite. These are 
the men and women who are the true 
Israelites. It is in their lives that we 
can trace the progressive preparation 
of the minds of men to receive the 
fullness of Grace and Truth that 
came with Christ. 

THE work of the Old Testament 
was one of education. Mankind, 
rugged, course and earthy, must be 
able little by little to receive God's 
gifts. Indeed, he must be empowered 
to receive nothing less than God 
Himself. To begin His revelation, 
God had to withdraw men from idol- 
atry, and carnal-mindness. God is 
pure Spirit, not made with hands, 
and He is worshipped in spirit and 

In his first letter to Timothy, St. 
Paul writes, "It is His will that all 
men be sa\'ed and be led to recognize 
truth" (1 Tm. 2, 4). And in Romans, 
Paul writes, "From the foundations 
of the world men have caught sight 
of His invisible nature, His eternal 
power, and his divine attributes, as 
thev are known through creatures" 
(Rom. 1, 20). 

In other words, God uses \isible 
things of sense to lead men to the in- 
\isible truths of the spirit. "See how 
the skies proclaim God's Glorv— how 
the vault of hea\cn bctravs His craft- 
manship," cries the Psalmist CPs. 18, 
2). And the Liturev sings of this too 
in the Christmas Preface, "Recogniz- 
ing God visibly, we are drawn bv 
I lim to the love of things unseen." 

So it is, that God began His work 
of preparing the minds of men, by 
teaching them in much the same 
manner as human teachers. God 
adapts Himself to the capacities of 
men and the slow, plodding gait of 
their minds. Like a good teacher of 
children. He shows men new things, 

December 1, 1957 


and leads them to an understanding 
of them from knowledge they already 
possess. He lets men read new truths 
out of their own experience. 

St. Athanasius wrote, "God deals 
with men like a good teacher, com- 
ing down to their level and using 
simple means. Man had turned from 
the contemplation of God above and 
was looking for Him in the opposite 
direction, down among created things 
of sense. But God in His great love 
for us, met our senses— meeting us 
half-way, so to speak— so that those 
who were seeking God in sensible 
things might come to a knowledge of 
Him through the works He did." 

The minds of men were not only 
weak. They were debilitated by sin, 
encumbered by a natural ignorance, 
an ineptitude for handling concepts 
of immaterial things, and preoccupied 
with things of sense in a life of hard 
phvsical labor that was relieved most- 
ly by indulgence in the pleasures of 
sense. God could have infused into all 
humanity at once the knowledge and 
understanding required to come to 
Faith. He could have given this to 
all the individuals of one nation. God 
did not do this. Why? Because then 
men's faith would not be their own, a 
thing they come to, Deus adjuvante 
et aspirante. Their faith would not 
then be a full human act. God did 
not do it in that manner because He 
sovereignly respects the work of His 

At the outset it is evident that it 
is a tremendous work of God to lead 
men to Faith. It is a work that will 
be in slow and patient preparation 
for ages to come. Not only must 
God prepare men's minds, but He 
must hold these concepts there and 
sustain in men's thoughts the idea of 
immaterial things. Why, it is like the 
struggle to roll a heavy stone up the 
side of a mountain. For it is always 
ready to plunge to the bottom the 
moment it is let go! 

Nevertheless, there is no other way 
for men to come to God but Faith. 
"Truly, Thou art a hidden God!" said 
Isaiah (Is. 45, 15). Yet, since God 
wills men to come to the Vision of 
Himself, He must unveil Himself. 
The ancients thought that no one can 
see God and live. This is true. In 
Cardinal Newman's poem, "The 
Dream of Gerontius," when the soul 

is brought to the throne of God, it is 
as if it were hurled into the heart of 
the sun and it cries out, "Take me 
away!" In much the same manner 
would the intellect of man, at that 
unformed stage cringe before a full 
revelation of God. 


(GEN. 2, 10). 

IN THE Old Testament, one reads 
the history of the formation of the 
people of God. It is the record of how 
God progressively revealed to this 
people His existence and His nature. 
It is the story of the fate of God's 
covenant with men, and the moral in- 
ability of the people to keep the com- 
mand of God, "You must be holy be- 
cause I am Holy" (Lv. 19, 2). En- 
shrined in their history is the meas- 
ure of their sinfulness, their apart- 
ness from God, their need of His sal- 
\'ation. From the depths of its misery 
the soul of the people cried out, "The 
\vhole head is ailing and the whole 
heart sick. From the sole of the foot 
to the head there is no health in it. 
Nothing but blows and bruises and 
bleeding wounds that have not been 
pressed nor softened with oil" (Is. 
1,6). "O rend the heavens and come 
down!" (Is. 63, 19). To bring men 
to that state of mind, was the purpose 
of the Old Testament. Then, they 
would be able and ready to receive 
the salvation God willed to send 

Now we see a very wonderful 
thing when we consider the manner 
in which God educated men to re- 
ceive revelation. God's wav was to 
take the ways of men. The history of 
Israel is the story of a divinely in- 
stituted and directed culture in which 
a people was formed with a certain 
mentality. The formation of this cul- 
ture follows along the same lines as 
the developments of other national 
cultures. Briefly, let us explain what 
we mean by the mentality of the 
people, and outline an over-all pat- 
tern of how it is formed. 

Trying to trace the beginning of 
an ancient culture, is like trying to 
find the source of a great river. As 
you go upstream and approach the 
tributaries, as wide or perhaps wider 
than the river itself, you are forced 

to decide which is the tributary and 
which is the mainstream. So it is 
with the culture of a people. You 
find many tributaries. You see that 
the mainstream is continually swell- 
ed by the cultures of many other na- 
tions emptying into it. And here too, 
you have to decide which stream is 
the river and which the tributary. 
Even supposing you do accurately 
trace the mainstream, scarcely ever do 
you find a definite source. There is 
a parallel in the beginnings of a cul- 
ture. History does not penetrate to 
dim beginnings. Yet where history is 
blind, legend always sees. Every an- 
cient people has a legend that con- 
nects its origins to some great ances- 
tor who leaves the land of his birth 
for a new land. His family becomes 
numerous, then rich and powerful. 
The family grows to a clan, and locks 
itself in an intimacy that we moderns 
cannot begin to understand. 

What they have in common is not 
onlv blood, but a common way of life 
and common memories. They sing 
the same songs, and squatting before 
the campfires at night, they tell the 
same familiar stories. The experience 
of the clan is the experience of each 

The clan becomes a people and 
the same bonds that held the clan 
together widen and expand to in- 
clude the many more individuals who, 
make up the people. There is a pool- 
ing of knowledge and experience, a 
faithful handing on of memories and 
traditions. But not onlv do facts pass 
from parents to children, but atti- 
tudes these facts have formed, cus- 
toms that have grown out of their 
b'story, and outlooks that the collec- 
tive exnerience of the people has 

These people haxe a cast of mind 
as distinctive as their cast of features.' 
They are a people thinking along 
the same lines, living in the same 
land, and hoping for the same good 
things in life. Each individual must 
necessarily submit to the formation 
that his own people presents to him. 
It is inescapable. Every man must 
live in the context of a particular age 
and in a particular culture. 

But the mind of the people, so to 
speak, is always in evolution. There 
are periods of fruitful development. 
There are times of decline, of transi- 


The Passionist 

tion and stress. There are oecasions 
when contact with the culture of an- 
other nation is hke the touch of 
spring on a winter woods. The com- 
mon people leave the mind of the 
nation untouched. Rather, they are 
formed by it. It is the great men who 
contribute to the donnee of the men- 
tality of their people. Their extraordi- 
nary gifts enable them to guide and 
direct the movements of the nation. 
The ordinary people are the backbone 
of the people. They hold on firm- 
ly to what is given. It is the inspired 
men, the men with unusual vision 
and breadth of mind who give the 
people new things to hold on to. 

There, in brief outline, is the for- 
mation of the iiientality of a people 
—what the Germans call "Wehan- 
schauung." It includes the customary 
thoughts, the habitual attitudes of a 
man toward himself, his fellow men 
and whatever he calls God. It con- 
tains his formed convictions about 
what is valuable and worth seeking 
in life, his studied prejudices, his 
connatural tendencies and disposi- 
tions, the motives for his hopes and 
yearnings, his ambitions and enthus- 
iasms. It was into such a framework— 
that of the development of a culture 
—that God placed the re\'elation of 
\ limself to men. 

CAME A SEA" (ECCL. 24, 43). 

THE history of the People of God 
opens with the story of a man 
who left his father's house and set 
out for a new land. What a small be- 
ginning for a river that would one 
day reach the level of its banks, and 
then flood the whole earth! This first 
moment of Israel's history was one of 
its greatest moments. For Abraham 
did not lea\'e the city of LIr and set 
out for a land unseen except by the 
command of God. The Lord said, 
"Leave vour land, relatives and your 
father's house for the land that I will 
show you, and I will make a great 
nation of you, and make your name 
so great that it will be used for bless- 
ings" (Gn. 12. 1-3). 

God's first demand of Abraham 
was Faith. But at the same time, God 
tempered the diflkulty of this act. 
God made him a great promise, offer- 

ing as a reward for his Faith, the ful- 
fillment of the desire foremost in the 
heart of every patriarch in the East; 
the possession of a fine land, and 
numerous offspring. God also re- 
mo\'cd the occasion of falling back 
into idolatry by sending him to a 
different country. The Semites con- 
sidered gods as indigenous to a cer- 
tain place and that they had no 
power apart from it. Little did Abra- 
ham realize what God's promises con- 
tained. Nonetheless, Abraham be- 
lieved God. His act of Faith was the 
beginning of the preparation of men's 
minds for the full 'revelation that 
would culminate in the mystery of 
Christ. His act of faith, as primitive 
and rudimentary as it was, spanned 
the abyss that separates creatures 
from the Creator. It was like the thin 
cable that is fired across a great 
chasm, which, when it is secured on 
the opposite side, draws over the 
heavier cables, which will carry the 
men and materials needed to con- 
struct the bridge. This act of Faith 
was vague and indefinite. Yet com- 
pared to our own, it is identical. St. 
Paul in Romans confirms this. "Abra- 
ham, hoping against hope, believed 
and it was credited to him as justice" 
CRom. 4,18). Sacred Scripture calls 
Abraham, "God's friend," and the 
/\rabs to this dav refer to Abraham 
as the "EI Kahl'it." Who this God 
was, Abraham did not know. He did 
know that God had spoken, and that 
He had made a great promise to him 
and his posterity. That is the great 
truth that he faithfully passed on to 
his children. 

To Isaac and then to Jacob, God 
repeated the identical promise that 
He had made to Abraham. These 
were the select men to whom God 
revealed Himself. They, in turn re- 
lated the revelation to their families 
who also came to a knowledge of 
God. His name? They called Him, 
the God of Abraham of Isaac, and of 
Jacob (Ex. 3, 15). 

1 Icre at the very beginning of the 
historv, when you re\ie\\^ the promise 
of God to give them a fine land, to 
make their descendents as numerous 
as the stars of the sky. and bring 
the other nations of the earth to such 
an admiration of them that they 
would invoke blessings on one an- 
other through God's people, you be- 

gin to see a reason to explain that 
peculiar trait of the Jewish mind, its 
eternal restlessness. They seem to be 
a people never satisfied— continually 
looking for something else. They are 
a forward-looking nation as no other 
people has ever been forward-look- 
ing. Israel has always had its eyes 
fixed on posterity, on something won- 
derful yet to come. 

The story of Israel has no mean- 
ing if it is not interpreted in the way 
the Jewish people themselves have 
interpreted it; that is to say, the story 
of a people whom God has set aside 
as a "chosen people." The innumer- 
able efforts that have been made to 
explain away all that is original in 
their history by recourse to contem- 
porary races and the surrounding 
cults can only have been made in de- 
fiance of the evidence, and in the 
interests of a preconceived view. 

FOR four hundred and thirty years, 
the memory of God's revelation 
lay like a seed in frozen ground. The 
single hint that God was not forgot- 
ten is the statement in Exodus that, 
"the midwives stood in awe of God" 
(Ex. 1, 17). But when the overlords 
of Egypt mo\'ed to destroy the de- 
spised makers-of-bricks and gatherers- 
of-straw, God remembered His peo- 
ple and raised up Moses to be the 
leader of the people in a series of 
CN'ents so rich in revelation of the 
nature of God, that the next step of 
the human mind's progress to God 
v\'()uld seem more like a giant's leap, 
than the faltering paces of a voung 

The work of Moses was two-fold; 
to lead the jieople out of Egypt to 
the threshold of the Promised Land, 
and to teach his people the true 
nature of the God thev ser\'ed by 
means of the Co\enant. The plagues 
of Eg\pt, the sudden change of 
events that put the Egyptians at the 
mercy of the Israelites and permitted 
them to lea\e the land of bondage 
with rejoicing, despoiling their cap- 
tors as they left (cf. Ex. 12. 33-?6; Ps. 
lOS. 37), were the experience God 
gave the whole nation, so that out of 
it. thev could imderstand what Moses 
would tell them in his first address. 
"It was not because you were the 
greatest of all peoples, (indeed you 
(Continue J nu pa^e 428) 

December 1, 1957 


At every turn of our religious 
Hie as Passionists, we can find Mary. 
She is a sure guide, 
a good teacher 
and OUT best inspiration. 

ST. Paul of the Cross bids us have 
Mary for our chief patroness. 
This may be called the easiest point 
of our fioly Rule. It is also in line 
with our general Catholic tradition 
and practice. 

Yet, having her for chief patroness 
must mean more than seeking her 
prayers and the benefit of her in- 
fluence with God. The best compli- 
ment we can pay people is to want 
to BE like them. So also with Mary; 
the highest honor we can pay her is 
to follow her example and inspira- 
tion. Doing this we shall not only 
please her and win her favor, but 
better yet, please Him! This is indeed 
the genius of Mary that she always 
draws souls closer to Christ her Son. 
Well might He have said, "Be Ye 
perfect as your heavenly mother is 
perfect and you shall also thereby be 
pleasing to Me." 

Take another look at the Gospel 
for your best inspiration from Mary. 
More especially note the words 
spoken to her, by her or about her. 
A whole program of religious per- 
fection can easily be gathered here. 
It is striking how many "parallel 
places" to our lives as religious and 
apostolic men that we find in Mary. 
Indeed a Passionist can find in her 
example and words, a complete "phil- 
osophy of life" that will serve for his 
daily inspiration. 

"Hail full of grave the Lord is with 
thee." In these first words spoken to 
Mary, we see what it is that God 
looks for in a human soul— sanctify- 
ing grace. To Him a human soul is 
dead or alive accordingly. Mary was 
complimented for being full of grace. 
This fulness to be sure was due to her 
Immaculate Conception and of course 
that unique privilege is beyond our 
reach. However, growing in grace 
and being as full of it as possible is 
our business as religious. In fact "the 
life" as we have come to call our 
religious life, has its whole purpose, 
and value in the chances it gives us 
to develop THE life of grace. It 
should then be a big inspiration for 
our daily religious life to know we 
are not only living the life of grace 
but growing full of grace with Mary. 

By grace, our theologians explain, 
God dwells with us. So the words 
spoken to Mary again have special 
meaning and inspiration. "The Lord 
is with thee." So actually the indwell- 
ing means God is in our Company. 
Our Lord gave us this assurance by 
that excellent practical definition of 
grace, "If any man love Me, he will 
keep My word and My Father will 
love him, and we will make our 
abode with him." So we can say that 
by grace. He keeps company with us. 
Our part is clear and obvious: prac- 
tice the Presence of God. This is not 

a make-believe affair. He is truly 
here: "the Lord is with thee." 

To make each of the Divine Per- 
sons in our souls feel at home, to en- 
tertain the Blessed Trinity properly 
is our main concern as religious. We 
need guidance in the art of proper 
etiquette to God living within. Sure- 
ly Mary can best teach us the proper 
approach and attitude toward each 
Divine Person. We need the confi- 
dence of a child when approaching 
the Father; we should have a loving 
comradeship with the Son Who is 
like a Friend stopping in for supper 
("He will sup with Me and I wdth 
Him"). And towards the Spirit we 
must be docile pupils because it is 
He Who works in us "to will and to 
accomplish." Certainly our chief pat- 
roness is both qualified and willing to 
teach us this all important etiquette 
of entertaining God in our souls- 
making Him feel at home as our com- 
panion. Mary helps religious practice 
the Presence of God. 

At first Mary was puzzled by her 
unique vocation as announced by the 
Angel. However, once she under- 
stood clearly what it was that God 
wanted of her she gave her answer: 
she said "yes" to God's proposal. In 
the most sublime and significant sen- 
tence ever spoken by a mere human 
being she said simply, "Behold the 
handmaid of the Lord; be it done 
unto me according to thy word." It 
was only after that sentence was pro- 
nounced that the great work of the 
Incarnation began. Bethlehem was 
only nine months away. 

Mary accepted her vocation by 
these beautiful words. Here is inspir- 
ation for every religious. Our success 
depends on our accepting and living 
our vocation. We must repeat in turn 
and apply Mary's sublime sentence in 
our living the religious life. "Behold 
the servant of the Lord: do with me 
as you will." With these fundamen- 
tals of humility and obedience, we 
build our religious life. 

All the masters of the spiritual life 
insist on these fundamentals of hum- 
ility and obedience. From Mary we 
receive the inspiration necessary to 
practice these virtues. She assures us 
that it was her humility that God re- 
garded and because of it lifted her 
to the dignity of the Divine Mater- 
nity. The God of truth regards the 


The Passionist 

humble soul because it reflects Him 
best. Humility is truth: His Image is 
not clouded by pride. 

Obedience is the other corner stone 
oF the religious life. To live it well, 
we have not only the inspiration of 
her example, but the benefit of her 
advice. In fact the only words of ad- 
vice that we have from Mary are the 
best words of advice anyone can ever 
give us. "Do whatever He tells you." 
To be sure, she said that much later 
at the marriage feast of Cana. But, 
we can ponder those words of hers 
a long time and get much inspiration 
for the daily living of our religious 

These virtues of Mary— humility 
and obedience— are essential to our 
development in yet another way. The 
formation of the "Alter Christus" 
both in our Students and those al- 
ready Ordained is the work of the 
Holy Spirit. Christ was formed in 
Mary by Him and Christ must be 
formed in us in the same way. In 
proportion as we have the proper dis- 
positions of soul, that is of mind and 
will, Christ will be formed in us. 
The perfect dispositions of Mary, 

perfect humility and perfect obedi- 
ence, plus the work of the Holy 
Spirit are needed in our formation 
and development into other Christs. 
To make sure you have the right dis- 
positions, look to Mary for inspira- 
tion. She will help you grow into the 
perfect "Alter Christus" that our 
priestly vcKation demands. The Holy 
Spirit will have His way and do 
wonders— if He finds her dispositions 
in us. 

The virginity of Mary can afford 
much inspiration and help for our 
lives of celibacy as Religious. We, 
like Mary, serve the cause of Christ 
in chastity and find strength in the 
Virgin Most Pure. St. Paul of the 
Cross rightly counsels us to cultivate 
and ardent devotion towards the Im- 
maculate Virgin, Mother of God. 

There is much inspiration for us 
also in the second joyful mystery— 
the Visitation. Take a good look and 
you will find in this mystery guid- 
ance enough for all your dealings 
with others, whether this be only in 
our recreations, or our apostolic activ- 
ity on missions, retreats and other 
works. You see Marv's readiness to 

be of help— she went with haste. And 
what she accomplished is the perfect 
pattern lor all our activity for others. 
She had Christ in her life and she 
brought Him to others. She also sanc- 
tified a man by her voice. When she 
was complimented on her virtue she 
quickly turned the compliment to a 
hymn ol praise to God. This much 
the Scriptures teach us. We may go 
further with the aid of our imagina- 
tion and say that in all those three 
months she practiced genuine charity 
both of word and deed. 

Here we find the perfect program 
tor all our activity for others. In our 
own way, with the diflerence of time 
and place and minor circumstances, 
we can follow Mary in her social life 
as seen in the Visitation. We can 
bring Christ to others: we have Him 
to share with others. Since faith 
comes by hearing, a miraculous thing 
as was the case of Mary's \oice sanc- 
tifying John the Baptist, nonethe- 
less, we really can and must make it 
our ambition to sanctify people by 
the sound of our voice— and at least 
nc\er scandalize. We can always take 
occasion to raise men's minds to God 

Mary's place 
in the life 
of a Passionist 



and His plan for men's salvation. 
Without breaking out into a hymn 
like the Magnificat, we can indeed 
lift men up to God. Finally, our con- 
versation generally along with our 
general conduct will be better for 
thinking of Mary as she helped Eliza- 
beth and practiced real love of neigh- 

We can also look in on the other 
recorded visit of Mary— the Marriage 
Feast of Cana. Again we see Mary 
dealing with the neighbor and giv- 
ing us a few points for our lives. 
Note first her very real interest in the 
human joys of people. Her consider- 
ateness stands out in wanting to save 
the young couple from embarrass- 
ment. What seemed a small matter 
really meant much. Consider also her 
initiative to do something for others; 
her doing what she could; her refusal 
to discouragement; her setting an ex- 
ample of faith in her Son. Some or 
all of these elements can find their 
parallel in our dealings with others, 
in our so-called social contacts. Note 
especially that after she did her part 
and told Our Lord about it, she re- 
tired and let Him take over. She does 
not come in for her share of the 
credit for what happened. Consider 
the final results— a stronger faith in 
Christ in His followers— "His dis- 
ciples believed in Him." 

Certainly we can follow Mary's 
guidance here too. For circumstances 
will open numerous ways— trains, 
buses, hospital visits, parish socials 
and various contacts; all adding up to 
making Christ Crucified stand out. 
In any case, our presence anywhere, 
even at a wedding, should make peo- 
ple "believe in Him." Therefore, in 
the Visitation of Mary wdth Elizabeth 
and the Marriage Feast of Cana, we 
have inspiration and encouragement 
and guidance for all our work and 
activities and our social contacts in 

THE Holy Rule directs that our 
meditations shall be on the Eter- 
nal Truths and on the Life, Passion 
and Death of Our Lord. The Direc- 
tory for Missions and retreats also 
makes it definite that we preach these 
same realities— the eternal truths and 
the Passion. To do this well, we can 
do no better than take Mary for our 
guide, of whom it was written that 
"she pondered these things carefully 

in her heart." Look into the Immacu- 
late Heart: it is opened by the seven 
swords. You will find many thoughts 
revealed there. The seven sorrows 
serve as guides for our prescribed 

The big all important problem of 
the salvation of individual human 
souls is clearly seen in that first sword 
to pierce his heart. "This Child is 
destined for the fail and for the rise 
of many. ..." Through the tear- 
dimmed eyes of Mary we can see all 
humanity dividing itself by this sign 
and each soul taking sides for or 
against Christ. Henceforth, she is 
very interested and vitally concerned. 
She wants her Son to make good His 
ambition to save that which was lost. 
She meditated well on the value of a 
soul, on the purpose of life. She, 
above all, is qualified to teach us how 
to meditate fruitfully on this first 
eternal truth— that we might provide 
first of all for our own salvation and 
then diligently to labor for the sal- 
vation of others. 

The Flight into Egypt shows us 
Mary clutching her Baby to her 
breast and running away from the 
danger of losing Him. She used the 
natural means at her disposal! No 
presumption on the miraculous. We 
can see here what to do about sin 
and its dangerous occasions. Run 
away from danger! As soon as we see 
the warning, we must do our part. 
We must use the natural means as 
well as the supernatural. In like man- 
ner, the main task in our preaching 
about sin is to get people to avoid the 
dangers and occasions of sin. In 
honor of her second sorrow Mary will 
help us in this difficult but important 
task of convincing souls about the 
danger of sin. 

The loss of the Boy Jesus in the 
Temple was a very painful experi- 
ence for Mary. It was the only occa- 
sion on which she uttered anything 
like a complaint, "Why has Thou 
done so to us?" The pain of loss was 
a horrible experience. Her words re- 
mind us of Christ's cry on the cross, 
"Whv hast Thou forsaken Me?" The 
cry of Christ and the complaint of 
Mary afford us a meditation on the 

Father Cyril Mary Jablonovsky, C.P., a 
member of Holy Cross Province, is sta- 
tioned at Holy Name Retreat, Houston, 
Texas. Father Cyril is an active mission- 
ary and retreat master. 

meaning of hell and its worst torture 
—the pain of loss! "Seeking him sor- 
rowing" all our lives is worth while if 
only we find Him in the end and 
avoid the actuality of hell. With 
Mary's help, then, we shall acquire 
a vivid conviction of the meaning of 
hell and we can share it with souls 
through our preaching. The doctrine 
of hell need not be ignored on a 
Passionist mission. One who has 
often meditated on Mary's pain of 
loss will be able to preach it effective- 
ly and not over-emphasize the mo- 
tive of fear. Penetrated with her pain 
and sorrow we shall keep our balance 
in our meditations and preaching. 

THE death-march of Christ going 
to Calvary will teach us to med- 
itate well on death. Again we watch 
Mary as she sees Him going to His 
death. She will teach us to see this 
reality which is before us with the 
proper faith and hope. She will show 
us that what matters most is not the 
manner of death, but that our will be 
centered on God in order that we can 
say at the end, "It is finished;" my 
soul I will to God. The Christian 
view of death must include hope. 
And, looking at the death of Christ 
with Mary will insure our proper per- 
spective. We will also be taught by 
her to preach about death and judge- 
ment with the proper balance of. 
Christian hope and fear. 

On Calvary we see a small group 
standing with Mary. These truly mar- 
velous words are written about Mary 
on this occasion: "Now there stood 
by the Cross of Jesus, Mary His 
Mother." We should note that phrase 
telling what Mary did. She "stood 
hy" Him. Against that coarse mob 
on Calvary, against Caesar's might 
and against all the hordes of hell- 
she stood, loyal to the end! In battle 
one stands or falls! With Mary we 
can stand if we are true sons of the 
Passion. Here we find our best in- 
spiration as Passionists— Mary stand- 
ing by Him! 

Earnest and consistent meditation 
on the Passion will prepare us for 
our work in the Church. We take 
our stand on the Mission platform 
and like Mary we stand by Him! 
This is a glorious role indeed and to 
do it worthily we need help. There 
(Continued on page 422} 


The Passionist 





Our attention has been called to two differences in the 
Psalter texts of the Marietti and Mame editions of the 
Breviary— differences which cause some confusion in the 
recitation of the Ofhce in choir (cf. our earlier response 
on a somewhat similar difficulty in The Passionist, Au- 
gust 1, 1957, p. 297). 

The j^resent problem concerns the intoning of the 
Psalm 19 in the Third Nocturn of Monday Matins and 
Psalm 47 in the Second Nocturn of Wednesday Matins. 
In both cases the Marietti edition indicates (by the dou- 
ble dagger) that on doubles the Psalm begins at the 
asterisk, while the Mame edition would have the Psalm 
intoned from the beginning, as the first half of the 
Psalm is not completely identical with the preceding 
antiphon. Checking with the latest Typical Edition, we 
find that Mame is correct in both cases. These psalms 
are to be intoned from the beginning, not the asterisk. 

It will be useful to note also that the Mame edition 
in the Office of the Dead for the Third Nocturn has an 
incorrect reading in Psalm 39, verse 16. The correct text 
reads: "Obstupescant confusione operti "" qui dicunt mihi: 
Euge, eugc." Mame reads: "Obstupescant propter con- 
fttsioneni sjiam. . . ." In this case the Marietti edition 
is correct in accord with the Typical Edition. 


How can the apparent discrepancies hetween St. John's 
account of Our Lord's hurial and that in the Synoptics 
he reconciled, especially in view of the Shrmid of Turin? 

For a long time the differences between St. John's 
account of Our Lord's burial and that in the Synoptic 
Ciospels have been noted. St. John describes a fuller, 
more perfect burial than that described in the Synoptics. 
F"or example, he speaks ol the use ol myrrh and aloes, 
while the other Evangelists tell us that these were pre- 
pared later by the women in order to anoint the Body of 
Christ on Easter morn. St. John tells us that Jesus was 
wrapped in linen cloths "alter the Jewish manner of 
preparing for burial," while the Synoptics state that Jesus 
was wrapped in a linen cloth. 

These differences in narrative have been harmonized 
in various ways. Extreme rationalist critics simply deny 
the entire Johanninc account as unhistorical and use the 
Synoptic narratives to show that Jesus' burial was very 
simple and that perhaps he was not even truly dead. In 
an important article in the Revue Bihlique in 1936 the 
Dominican exegete, F. M. Braun, interpreted the Syn- 
optics in the light of St. John, maintaining that Jesus' 
body was washed and anointed and given a complete 
and definitive burial. y\t once it was seen that this view 
conflicted with the data of the Shroud, and so recent 
writers have tended to explain the differences by inter- 
preting St. John in the light of the Synoptics. A full 
statement of the problem has recently been given by 
W. Bulst, S.J. in his The Shroud of Turin, pp. 77-101. 

It is my opinion that we can arrive at a better solution 
of the problem by a different approach. In accord with 
recent biblical exegetical principles I believe we should 
tackle the problem from the question of the genesis of 
the Gospel narratives and the special purposes of each 
Sacred Writer in narrating this event. 

The story of Our Lord's burial was a part of the earliest 
Christian preaching or catechesis. Thus St. Luke in- 
cluded it in an example of St. Paul's early preaching 
(Acts 13, 29). The Apostle himself in writing to the 
Corinthians included the burial as among the truths of 
the Gospel which he had recei\'ed from the first Apos- 
tles and which he had handed on to his con\crts (I Cor. 
15, 1-5). Writing to the Romans (whom he had not 
evangelized personally) he could take it for granted that 
these Christians knew of Our Lord's burial and its rela- 
tionship to Christian Baptism (Rom. 6, 3-4). Finally, 
the accounts in the Synoptic Gospels show that the Sa- 
cred Writers themselves were using earlier (oral or writ- 
ten) sources. By thus studying the genesis of the nar- 
ratives we are assured that the essential facts of the 
burial are historical— actually took place. 

If we now ask why the story of the burial was in- 
cluded in the primitive Christian catechesis or preach- 
ing, we will find two reasons. The first and more funda- 
mental was apologetic— to answer the attempts ol the 
Jews to discredit the truth of the resurrection. Our Mat- 
thew shows that this purpose was explicit (in the nar- 
rative about the guards, 27, 62-66 and 28, 11-15). 

This apologetic purpose prompted the E\'angelists to 
select those details of the burial catechesis which would 
re-enforce the reality of the burial and so also of the 
empty Tomb on Easter morning. St. Mark, for example, 
emphasized the fact that Jesus was really dead— a fact, 
he adds, that was verified even by Pilate (15, 44). All 
four writers stress the fact that Jesus was buried bv men 
who were honorable in the city and practically strangers, 
not by his chosen followers— this would answer the charge 
that the disciples had buried him hastily and later re- 
moved the body. St. John in his turn adds that the burial 
was properly carried out— in response to the accusation 
that Jesus was not really dead. If, therefore, we read 
the narratives closely, we will see that this apologetic 
purpose was operative throughout. 

The second reason lor the early C hristian s interest in 
Our Lord's burial lies in the close connection that thev 

December 1, 1957 


perceived between the burial and baptism. St. Paul is 
witness to this interest (Rom. 6, 3-4). It would not be 
surprising to find this interest manifest also in our Gos- 
pel account of the burial. Perhaps herein lies the rea- 
son why the writers stressed the linen cloth in which 
Jesus was wrapped— for in Baptism we are clothed anew 
in Christ (cf. Gal. 3, 27). Again, the fact of Our Lord's 
being buried in a new tomb may have been included 
to point out that Christian Baptism is something new 
and different. Taking these "hints" for what they may 
be worth, we believe that the baptismal motif is indeed 
apparent in St. John's account. He alone has told us of 
the role of Nicodemus at the burial. He explicitly refers 
us to Nicodemus' first visit to Jesus at night (19, 39 and 
3, 1) and so to the entire baptismal discourse on the 
occasion of that visit (3, 1-17). By including Nicodemus 
in his narrative and then referring his reader to the bap- 
tismal discourse, St. John surely intended to remind us 
of the connection between the burial and Christian 

If we keep in mind these purposes of the Sacred 
Writers, we will see at once that they simply chose for 
their narratives those incidents of the burial which 
would best serve their purposes. At the same time we 
should conclude that none of the Writers intended to 
give us an action-by-action account of the burial. What 
they told us is sufficient to show us that Jesus was really 
buried and really rose again, and that by Baptism we 
share in this burial and resurrection. 

We are certain then that there are no contradictions 
between the Sacred Writers, but we have not been given 
by anyone of the Writers a complete action-by-action 
account of the burial. And it is highly doubtful whether 
we can discover such a complete account by trying to 
harmonize all the details told us in the gospel narratives. 
Such a harmonization was not intended either by the 
Sacred Writers or by the Holy Spirit. We should be 
content with the historical and theological truths ex- 
pressed in the inspired narratives— these were what they 
intended to give us— not asking more of the writers than 
the fulfillment of their purposes. 

In regard to the Shroud we would say, then, that it is 
arbitrary to deny its authenticity simply because it does 
not fit in with one's interpretation of the text or one's 
harmonization. On the other hand we should not force 
the sacred text to coincide with a detail which the scien- 
tific investigation of the Shroud seems to demand, but 
which did not interest the Sacred Writers. 

The Scriptures, independently of the Shroud of Turin, 
affirm the reality of Our Lord's burial— and this with the 
divine authority of the Holy Spirit. The Shroud may 
confirm this same truth— but with the authority of sci- 
ence and history. The differing probative force of each 
should ever be kept in mind. 

Roger Mercuric, C.P. 


Is it necessary to actually HOLD the station crucifix 
to gain the indulgences for the Way of the Cross, and 
how great must he the difficulty to get to church in order 
to henefit from the station crucifix? 

A crucifix blessed for the indulgences of the Way of 
the Cross is usually to be held in one's hand during the 
prescribed prayers (e.g., twenty Paters, Aves and Glorias 
for the plenary indulgence). Such was required in the 
original grant of Pope Clement XIV, January 26, 1773 
("col tenere in mano un crocefissetto . . . ," AAS, XXIII 
(1931), 523). This was confirmed October 20, 1931, by 
authority of Pope Pius XI in a Decree of the Sacred 
Penitentiary (ibid., 522). 

Several people unable to go to church, for instance in 
a hospital ward or nursing home, can "make the stations" 
in a group if only one of the group holds the crucifix in 
his hand (S. C. Indulg., January 19, 1884, quoted by 
De Angelis, De Indulgentiis, editio altera, p. 187, and 
Heylen, Tractatus de Indulgentiis, editio 6, p. 125). The 
one holding it might be, for example, the chaplain, a 
nurse, or a patient. The others in the group are to com- 
pose themselves for prayer, putting aside any external 
occupations that impede internal attention to a devout 
recitation of the prescribed prayers. These prayers may 
be recited alternately or the group may simply follow 
them mentally while they are recited by one person 
(canon 934, 3). 

Further, when manual labor or some other reasonable 
cause (e.g., doing house work; driving a truck or a car) 
prevents a person from holding the crucifix in his hand, 
he may gain the indulgences, provided that during the 
recitation of the required prayers he carry the crucifix 
with him in any manner (cf. Sacred Pententiary quot- 
ing Pope Pius XI, November 9, 1933, AAS, XXV (1933), 
502-503). For example, it might be in his pocket or hang- 
ing from his neck or dangling at his side. (However, it 
is not sufficient that the corpus be merely painted on or 
impressed in the cross, De Angelis, op. cit., p. 185, Hey- 
len, op. cit., p. 123). 

The ill and the infirm, moreover, who cannot hold 
the crucifix without grave inconvenience, can still gain 
all indulgences of the stations simply by kissing it or 
even merely looking at it. This is to be done with a 
loving and contrite heart. Also, if it is possible, such 
persons are to recite some short prayer or ejaculation in 
memory of the Passion and death of our Lord Jesus 
Christ. This is the simplified form. Since some authors 
do not mention it, it seems best to quote the documents 
directly. On March 25, 1931, the fuller requirements 
were decreed, "infirmi qui pium exercitium VIAE CRU- 
SIS nee in forma ordinaria nee in forma statuta a 
Clemente XIV die 26 Januarii 1773, per recitationem 
scilicet viginti Pater, Ave et Gloria, absque gravi incom- 
modo vel difficultate peragere valeant, omnes et singulas 
indulgentias, eidem pio exercitio quomodocumque adne- 
xas, lucrari possint vel osculando vel etiam tantum 
intuendo, cum affectu et animo contrito, in aliquem 
Crucifixum ad hoc benedictum, eis vel a sacerdote vel 
ab aliqua alia persona exhibitum, et recitando brevem 
aliquam orationem vel precem iaculatoriam in memoriam 
Passionis et mortis Jesu Christi Domini Nostri," AAS, 
XXIII (1931), 167. About seven months later, October 
20, 1931, the following modification was made, "si quis, 
vi morbi, vel tantum osculari vel intueri tantum queat 
in Crucifixum ad hoc benedictum, non vero addere pre- 


The Passionist 

cem iaculatoriam, indulgentiam plcnariam consequi non 
impediatur," ibid., p. 523. 

)ii * * 

Now we turn to the second part of the question. The 
difficulty to approach a church or chapel to make the 
Way of the Cross need not amount to physical impos- 
sibility. Such is the explanation ot De Angelis, op. cit., 
187 and Heylen, op. cit., 124. They go on to detail 
baby sitting, distance from the church and nursing the 
sick, as well as travel, imprisonment and illness. They 
agree with Sleutjcs, whom De Angelis quotes directly, 
that it suffices to have a truly reasonable motive, that is 
"incommodum mediocriter grave, ' whereby one is im- 
peded from visiting canonically erected stations here and 
now. This would be \erified by circumstances like bad 
roads to church, or icy walks and paths for elderly peo- 
ple, or a regulation for a religious to be in her room or 
within a wing of the hospital or convent after a certain 

Answers to Questions 

The purpose of the Answers to Questions section is 
to provide our Readers with ready answers to questions 
that touch closely upon our Possionist way of life. Ques- 
tions on Law, Custom, Theology, Liturgy and Sacred 
Scripture that hove o special interest to Passionists will 
be answered. Priests who hove specialized in these sub- 
jects have graciously consented to answer these ques- 
tions. Our Readers ore invited to send their questions to 
the Editor who will forward them to those handling this 
special subject. 

During Missions and on other occasions many of our 
Fathers have noted that a larger number of people have 
applied for membership in the Calvarian Society because 
of a brief explanation of the use of the station crucifix. 
Also, promises to make the stations once a week rather 
than once a month, or even once a day rather than less 
frequently, have apparently been prompted by an un- 
derstanding of the many reason allowing one to use the 
station crucifix. 

Forrest Macken, C.P. 


Must the epistle and gospel, read to the feople on 
Sunday morning, he a translation of the Latin Vulgate, 
the liturgical text? 

Before answering this question, it will be helpful to 
clarify what is meant by the official authenticity of the 
Latin Vulgate. The disciplinary decree Insuper of the 
Council of Trent (DB 785786) declared that "the same 
well-known Old Latin Vulgate edition, which has been 
approved by the long use of so many centuries in the 
Church, is to be held as authentic in public readings, 
disputations, preachings and expositions." Without pass- 
ing judgment upon the original text or other translations, 
Trent guaranteed the fidelity of the Vulgate in matters 
of faith and morals. Its texts must be considered demon- 
strative in proving Catholic doctrine. Pius XII gave an 
official interpretation of this decree of Trent in his en- 

cyclical Divino Afflante Spiritii (n. 20-22): "Its authen- 
ticity is not specified primarily as critical [i.e., faithful 
critical translation] but rather as juridical [i.e., faithful 
witness to Catholic doctrine]. Wherefore this authority 
of the Vulgate ... by no means prevents— nay rather 
today it almost demands— the corroboration and confirma- 
tion of this same doctrine by the original texts." The 
Vulgate therefore remains the official liturgical text for 
the Missale Romanum, Rituale, Pontificale, etc., but in 
explaining this liturgical text to the people, we are urged 
to use translations from the original sources. 

Very Re\'. Fr. James M. Voste, O.P. (then secretary 
of the Pontifical Biblical Commission) wTOte: "The orig- 
inal texts being also authentic or authoritative, and a 
priori more genuinely the inspired word than the Latin 
text which is a human translation, it clearly follows that 
the versions made from the original texts are preferable— 
ceteris paribus. ... As regards spiritual or private lit- 
urgical books in the vernacular, such as the so-called mis- 
sals for the laity and prayer-books, . . . the Tridentine 
decree on the ipuhlic use of the Latin Vulgate does not 
concern them at all. ... A version from the original 
texts will be a priori more intelligible than a version 
from a translation. The same may be asserted today as 
regards preaching according to the grand example of 
our Holy Father, who in his inestimable discourses never 
quotes a biblical text which is not proved to be con- 
sonant with the original Hebrew or Greek. ... By the 
word 'preaching' is to be understood all the readings and 
explanations of the Sacred Text, which are made in 
church to the faithful." Fr. Voste then added an impor- 
tant footnote: "This is the true meaning of the answer 
of the Pontifical Biblical Commission "De ^'ersionibus 
Sacrae Scripturae in linguas vernaculas' (Aug. 22, 1943), 
since in the last paragraph, which treats of the reading 
of the Biblical text by the priest celebrating the Mass, 
viz., from the altar, there is added: 'integra manente 
facultate illam ipsam versionem (Vulgatam), si expediat, 
ope textus originalis vel alterius versionis magis perspi- 
cuae apte illustrandi.' Thus in fact, it is the version of 
the original text criticallv established which will be read. 
. . ." [Catholic BiblicarOuarterly 9 (Jan., 1947) 9-25]. 

On the authority of Fr. Voste, the epistle and gospel 
on Sunday morning can be read from any of the mod- 
ern Catholic translations: Spencer (1901-1937), West- 
minster (1913-1935) or Kleist-Lilly (1954). These are all 
taken directly from the original Greek. The current con- 
fraternity translation of the New Testament is from the 
Vulgate. The Confraternity of Christian Doctrine is pre- 
paring a new translation from the original text (Fr. 
Richard Kugelman, C.P., is on the board of translators), 
but this is not scheduled to appear until the Old Testa- 
ment is completed. The translations of Msgr. Knox are 
from the Vulgate. 

Carroll Stuhlmueller, C.P. 

December 1, 1957 


Meeting the Vocation Crisis, edit- 
ed by Rev. George L. Kane, 
Newman, ix and 204 pp., 

IN THIS fourth book he has edited 
deahng with the subject of voca- 
tion, Fr. George Kane is again con- 
cerned with showing the need of and 
the means to obtain vocations to the 
sisterhood, brotherhood, and priest- 
hood. Meeting the Vocation Crisis is 
a series of essays he has collected 
from periodicals, demonstrating how 
those called to the religious and 
priestly states forsake what might be 
a fine career among men for a 
finer career with God. Yet to achieve 
this finer career, each author points 
out, the victim granted a vocation 
must be willing to run the gamut of 
personal sacrifice. The essays are in- 
structive and argumentative in estab- 
lishing the truth that the problem of 
obtaining an adequate supply of sis- 
ters, brothers, and priests has become 
a kind of "necessities of life" prob- 
lem in the modern functioning of 
the Church. Hence, with almost a 
grim earnestness the various writers 
show how every adult may find one 
or other way of increasing vocations. 

The editor has evidently studied a 
good bit of the recent periodical liter- 
ature dealing with this subject. One 
is led to such a surmise because of the 
superior thought content and presen- 
tation of the matter. 

Fr. Kane has arranged the essays 
under six headings: 1) Promoting 
and recruiting vocations; 2) Parental 
objections; 3) The Priesthood; 4) 
The Sisterhood; 5) The Brotherhood; 
6) The Lay Apostolate, 

Seven essays develop the generic 
question of how to promote and to 
recruit for vocations. Most of the 
writers in this section of the book 
have an established name in voca- 
tional literature. We may be sure, 
therefore, that their reflections and 
suggestions will be both communi- 
cative and activating. Our own Fr. 
Godfrey Poage has the lead article as 
he outlines a set of principles of 
guidance and techniques. Bishop 
William Griffin discusses the place 
parents\have in warming their chil- 
dren to the splendor of dedication to 
God's intimate service. Vocational 
publicity is treated in some detail. 
Perhaps the most significant essay in 
this section is Archbishop Cushing's 

Reviewers Wanted 
Reviewers are wanted to review books 
to appear in future issues of The Pas- 
sionist. If any of our Readers are inter- 
ested, please send in your name to the 
Editor, indicating what type of book you 
would like to review. 

go-and-do-it presentation of the re- 
storation of the sense of vocation to 
life. He forcefully points out to who- 
ever has a vocation the work of mak- 
ing more meaningful to you the im- 
pact of God's providence over them 
in their choice of a particular kind of 
life. If they look upon the diverse 
ways of life as callings from God and 
not just as professions, the Archbis- 
hop points out, then these Catholic 
young people can help to lessen the 
spirit of secularism; they will increase 
a broad Christian atmosphere, from 
which they themselves may more 
eagerly want the priestly and religi- 
ous life. 

Two articles very pointedly handle 
the problem of parental opposition. 
Very common, but so hard-to-get-rid- 
of, difficulties befog fathers and 
mothers rather often, when they con- 
front the question of allowing their 
children to enter God's service. "John 
and Mary are just thirteen; they are 
too young to go to a Prep school," 
they say. Again, "Young people 
ought to see something of the world 
first," they insist. Well, any parents 
making such complaints against a 
child's vocation will be certainly halt- 
ed by the calm but forthright rejoind- 
ers of Fr. Jude Senieur, Capuchin. 

A section is devoted to vocation to 
the priesthood, containing articles 
which emphasize the particular 
"jobs" of the priest today. For ex- 
ample. Bishop Fulton Sheen depicts 
the vast missionary goal that each 
diocesan priest must have. The late 
Fr. Daniel Lord, S.J., outlines the 
great adaptation the American priest 
must make if he is to exercise his 
ministry efficiently. Gratitude and in- 
spiration are given to the Serra Move- 
ment for its work in helping to 
finance the priesthood. 

Four papers take up the problems 
connected with vocation to the sister- 
hood. Best of this is the very healthily 
modern, dynamic advice of Catherine 
DeHueck to women religious anxious 
to augment their forces. 

The one lacuna of the book is the 
section on the Brotherhood. We have 
here but one essay and that on the 
teaching brothers. Their work in con- 
tributing to the formation of leading 
lavmen for the Catholic apostolate is 
ably demonstrated by Sylvester 
Juergens, S.M. However, no word 
can be found in this book that puts 
in its proper place the so necessary, 
so devoted calling of the Marthas of 
the monastery. Perhaps Fr. Kane was 
unable to find a satisfactory account 
of this aspect of religious life. If that 
were the case, one wishes that he 
would have taken pen in hand to fill 
out his treatment of the brothers, 
especially this group so richly deserv- 
ing of, but so seldom getting, a spot- 
light performance. 

Aside from this one memorable 
omission, this collection of essays is 
quite a clear picture of the present- 
day condition of the vocation prob- 


The Passionist 

By utilizing the contacts with 
young men and women that come 
our way in our ministries: missions, 
open and closed retreats, parish work, 
writing, etc., we Passionists will find 
suggestions in the book for being not 
just sowers but also reapers in the 
har\'est of \'ocations. 

Germain Legere, C.P. 

Warrenton, Missouri 

The Worship of the Church, by 

William O'Shea, S.S., Newnnan 
Press, xiv and 647pp., $7.00. 

FATHER William O'Shea, professor 
of liturgy at the Sulpician Sem- 
inary in Baltimore, offers the public 
a development of his lectures and 
mimeographed notes on liturgy in 
The Worship of the Church. This is 
a book that our Students will find 
helpful as a supplement to their 
liturgy course, and which our Priests 
may turn to in order to refresh their 
memory on liturgical matters. 

Father O'Shea conceives of the 
liturgy course as something more 
than a study of rubrics. From the 
contents of this book we can judge 
what this course should embrace and 
the manner in which it should be 
presented. He begins with a prelimi- 
nary and basic study of the nature 
of the liturgy as such. His course in- 
cludes the study of rubrical actions, 
words, and music, the requisites for 
a liturgical service (altar, vestments, 
vessels, etc.), but all in their proper 
theological and historical background. 
He offers his students a detailed 
study of the liturgical year, the his- 
tory and de\'elopment of the Roman 
Mass and Office, and concludes the 
course with the Sacraments, Sacra- 
mentals, and extra-liturgical devo- 
tions. We agree whole-heartedly on 
such a content and method of pre- 
sentation for the seminary course in 

To \()ice one criticism, we would 
have preferred to see the present 
book make clearer which precise mat- 
ters are required by the rubrical laws 
of the chruch and which are deemed 
proper according to sound liturgical 
principles. The judicious addition of 
references to sources would have re- 
mcned from the reader's mind any 
doubts in this matter. We might add 
that the writer's remarks on the "ver- 

sus populum ' altar must be corrected 
or modified by the recent decision of 
the Sacred Congregation of Rites 
(A.A.S. 49, 1957, 425-426). 

Roger Mebcurio, C.P. 

Louisville, Kentucky 

Virgil Michel and the Liturgical 
Movement, by Paul B. Marx, 
O.S.B., Liturgical Press, 466 
pp., $5.00. 

THE most pressing duty of Chris- 
ians is to li\'e the liturgical life. 
These words of Pius XIII are a 
complete xindication— if any a r e 
needed— of a great priest and leader, 
Dom Virgil Michel. He gave to an 
exhausting degree the 22 years of his 
priesthood to put this message over. 
It was not easy and he died worn out 
on the last dav of the liturgical vear, 

The first portion of the life, deals 
with his early training. The answer 
he gave to the Abbot of St. John's 
when asked why he did not consider 
the priesthood is more revealing. 
After his ordination, he was sent to 
Europe and there began his real 
training for his liturgical apostolate. 
The biography breaks off here to give 
a chapter on the meaning of the 
liturgy. Then follows an historical 
treatment of the stirrings of the 
movement in this country and the 
actual launching of this great work. 
Virgil Michel faced great opposition 
from the very beginning. He ad- 
mitted that the liturgy was regarded 
as the pious sport of some enthusiasts. 
But, from its earliest days Virgil 
Michel saw the danger and warned 
of fighting shy of too great emphasis 
on the externals. He said that this 
was the source of greatest misunder- 
standing of the liturgy by bishops, 
priests and even Benedictines. He 
said that once the internal spirit is 
caught, the externals will take care of 
themselves. In this section generous 
praise is given to all the pioneers of 
the liturgical movement in America 
as well as objective treatment to the 
opposition it faced. 

One of the ama/ing leatures of the 
life of this 20th century monk was 
his wide interests. This biographv 
deals with liturgy and life— the role 
liturgy has in giving life to the world. 
The meaning of baptism, the niysti 








































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cal body, the apostolate, all are treat- 
ed. Then follows liturgy and educa- 
tion and here we have his eflForts to 
integrate worship with instruction— 
to make a unified whole of creed, 
code, cult. Virgil Michel was only 
partially successful in trying to fill 
the need for adequate textbooks. His 
efforts to integrate liturgy and cul- 
ture are then developed— the role of 
women in the modern world, the 
place of work, an analysis of art and 
architecture are only a few of the 
many facets of this modern monk. 
Lastly, there is treated his work with 
social and philosophic thought. His 
development of the place Thomism 
has today is a challenge to any teach- 
er of philosophy. Obviously one who 
did so much, who wrote so much, is 

open to criticism. And his author 
does not hesitate to point out how 
his energies went too far afield in the 
area of economics. 

The book itself is an objective and 
measured judgment of a great pioneer 
who is still sorely missed. It fails to 
some extent in bringing out his per- 
sonality—particularly h i s relations 
with his fellow religious and his 
Abbot. But it more than makes up for 
this as a fascinating study of the 
liturgical movement in this country. 
Particularly, it is a must for all those 
who see the liturgy not as sanctuary 
etiquette or Gothic vestiments or a 
well-modulated voice but as the most 
pressing duty of Christians today. 

RiAN Clancy, C.P. 

Des Moines, Iowa 

The Three Stages of the Spiritual 
Life, by J. Grimal, S.M. 3 vol- 
umes, Bruce, $8.00. 

FAiHER Grimal is not unknown 
among modern spiritual authors. 
The translation of his three volume 
work on the spiritual life has been 
awaited eagerly by English speaking 
audiences. Under the direction of Fr. 
Buckley, S.M. this task of translating 
has been ably done. However, the 
finished work is received with mixed 
reactions— at least by this reviewer. 

First of all, for instance, it is hard 
to justify Bruce's action in putting 
out a work of 370 pages in 3 separate 
volumes and thus forcing the price 
to $8.00. 

Secondly, when we compare this 
work to such standard works in spirit- 
ual theology as Arintero, Tanquerey, 
Lagrange, de Guibert, it falls far 
short of the mark. It is in no sense 
an exhaustive treatment; and some 
of its omission are rather startling. 
With exception of a brief treatment 
of meditation, there is no further 
treatment of prayer life or contem- 
plation. (Perhaps a welcome change 
to the usual brawl on acquired versus 
infused contemplation.) Some of the 
virutes receive consideration, but 
only a few, and not where you would 
expect the treatment. 

His second book on the illumina- 
tive or proficient stage of the spiritual 
life is very sketchy. It resembles very 
little the traditional approach that 
has been classic since the time of St. 

John of the Cross. 

Not until his third volume does he 
treat of the Mystical Body, or even 
mention at any length, Grace, Doc- 
trine of the Indwelling or role of the 
Holy Spirit. The notions, funda- 
mental to the Christian Life are dealt 
with in the volume devoted to speci- 
fic characteristics of the full union 
with Christ. 

These things are pointed out lest 
the brethren be unwittingly misled 
by the gradiose title. This is not a 
comprehensive work on Spiritual 

Once we understand that, the book 
has much to offer. And, we must 
grant the right and duty of every 
writer to reject what he judges extra- 
neous to his thesis. Within the 
bounds, of his thesis this writer, a 
master in spiritual guidance, has 
given much practical advice. "It is 
thus under the inspiration of Jesus 
that the Three Volumes like the 
stages of the spiritual life which they 
describe, find unity and complete- 
ness. Perhaps the constant reminder 
of this presence and this action of 
Christ Jesus throughout the whole 
conduct of our life in God constitutes 
the sole originality of these studies in 
spiritual theology, if originality they 
do possess." 

These three volumes are entitled: 
I, True Conversion of Heart; II, . 
True Work of Progress; III, Trtie 
Life of Union with the Father. Con- 
sidering these three works as a series 
of studies on these three topics, then 
we must give his output high praise. 
He has consulted most of the best 
spiritual authors in his writing. Deal- 
ing more with problems in the 
psychology of the spiritual life, 
Grimal's books are easy to read and 
eminently practical. He uses a scrip- 
tural approach to the various stages of 
the spiritual life and eschews scholas- 
tic controversies. 

Noteworthy is a consistent Chris- 
tocentricity and positive approach 
throughout. He tells us: "Just as the 
first two volumes seek to emphasize 
above all else the role of Christ the 
Saviour in the work of conversion 
and progress, so the third volume 
aims to describe the supreme culmi- 
nation of this work as our participa- 
tion in the life of filial love of Jesus 
for the Father," 


The Passionist 

One pro\cn \aliic this book has 
for us: it is a \'cry good book for the 
public spiritual reading in the Choir 
after Vespers. It has been used for 
over a year in at least two of our 
monasteries, and has been a very wel- 
come change to the omnipresent 

To sum up: the work has great 
utility for us in a field in which it is 
hard to find satisfactory works— that 
ol public spiritual reading. As far as 
prixate use among the brethren is 
concerned, it is a good book in the 
ever expanding field of modern 
spiritual writings. 

CoLiiMKiLLE Regan, C.P. 

Scranton, Pennsylvania 

Priest of the Plague: Henry 
Morse, S.J., by Philip Cara- 
man, Farrar, Straus and Cud- 
ahy, xi and 201 pp., $3.75. 

IN THIS slender \olumc of 185 pages 
both history and biography are 
\ividl\' presented. The price is steep 
—$3.75— but the subject is treated in 
a concise, objective and living man- 
ner. The author chose an unknown 
priest of the 17th century and these 
action-filled pages will do much to 
make him an inspiration for many a 
priest of today. Father Henry Morse 
is seen moving against the compli- 
cated background of history both in 
England and on the continent. How 
the Catholics paid for their faith, 
above all how they clung to the Mass, 
how the English authorities were 
loathe oftentimes to enforce the laws 
against them, is part of this book. 
One of the most disturbing features 
of the book is in the conflict among 
the English clergy. This scandal, 
solved only a century later, figured 
largely in the life of this priest espe- 
cially during his training in Rome. 

The life of I lenry Morse was high- 
lighted by the terrible plague that 
swept London. He spent months in 
the thick of it, tending the sick, 
spiritually and physically. His priest- 
hood, however, involved far more 
than this for he was a priest over 30 
years. I le was twice imprisoned, 
twice exiled. In prison he made the 
Spiritual Exercises for 30 days. Later 
he was to use the Exercises in an 
unique way to jam once empty 
churches for lenten services. I Ic was 

an army chaplain and ga\e retreats 
to soldiers. He had a quick temper 
but did much to conquer it— so much 
so that when he was accused of 
cowardice during the plague he did 
not defend himself. 

At last, however, his time ran out. 
Arrested for the last time he was con- 
demned to martyrdom. The book 
closes with the moving sight of hun- 
dreds coming to obtain his last bless- 
ing in prison. He said his last Mass 
at 4 o'clock in the morning— the Mass 
of the Trinity to mark the consum- 
mation of his life. A few hours later 
alter asking pardon for his hastiness 
of temper he was executed— a priest- 
martyr. A book like this— without 
adornment or frill— does much to 
show to what heights a man can 
ascend who accepts the priesthood of 

RiAN Clancy, C.P. 
Des Moines, Iowa 

The Shroud of Turin, by Werner 
Bulst, S.J., translated by Steph- 
en McKenna, C.Ss.R. and 
James J. Galvin, C.Ss.R., 
Bruce, xviii and 167 pp., 34 
plates, $4.75. 

THE debate on the Shroud of 
Turin continues! It is a debate 
that should interest every Passionist, 
for if this relic is authentic, then we 
have here one of the most precious of 
Passion relics. 

Father Bulst has maintained a high 
level of discussion in the pages of this 
present work. This was noted by 
Francis Filas, S.J., in his review of 
the book in Theological Studies (16, 
1955, 648-649) and the present re- 
viewer in Rooks on Trial (15, April- 
May, 1957, 413-414). This fact alone 
makes the present work important, 
for so frequently discussions pro and 
con on the Shroud have been con- 
ducted on a far too emotional basis. 

In many ways Father Bulst is only 
the editor of TJw SJiroiid of Tifriw. 
Originally the book was planned as a 
symposium in which experts in vari 
ous fields would discuss the jiroblems 
of the I urin relic. It was deemed ad 
\ isable, howexer, to ha\e one author 
undertake the actual composition in 
tavor of a more cohesive unity. 
Nevetheless, the specialists were re- 
peatedly consulted during the prepar- 

Richord Rolle's Lament for 
the Passion 

(14th Century— for the Feast of the 
Holy Cross) 

My truest treasure so traitorly taken, 
So brutally bound w ith biting bands, 
How soon by your serxants were you 

And for my lo\e harried with hard- 
iest hands. 

well of my weal so wrongfully 

So pulled out ol prison to Pilate at 

To deadly dishonor all silent you 

As they cast in your \ isage their 

skner and slime. 

1 lope of my healing so high to be 


So charged with the cross, so creviced 
with thorn. 

Full sore to your heart the hammer- 
ing clanged, 

Your back bowed to breaking with 
weight overborne. 

() knightiv defender from foes in the 

In love you alighted at exensong tide, 
Your mother and comrades unlacing 

your shield 
All wept as they looked, the wounds 

were so wide. 

Prince peerless, a poor man presumes 

now to pray: 
Your merciful meaning let me not 

But wind up my will to stay with 

you still. 
In my bosom be buried and bring 

me to bliss. 

Sister Mary Jeremy. O.P. 
(Reprint (torn America, Sept. 14, 1957) 

ation of the separate chapters and the 
entire text of the manuscript was 
carefullv rechccked before the final 

LInder the heading The History 
ol the Shroud ' the author discusses 
the memorandum of Peter d'Arcis to 
Clement \'II. He shows that this 
lourleenth century text does not de 
serve unqualified credence for the 

December 1, 1957 


writer was far from impartial. The 
argument that Peter d'Arcis proved 
that the Shroud was painted by a 
contemporary artist cannot, in Bulst's 
view, be sustained. On the other 
hand Bulst states: "It is certain that 
the ancient owners (and Clement 
VII with them) did not regard the 
Cloth as the true Shroud of Jesus. 
But it is equally certain that they did 
regard it as a precious relic worthy of 
veneration, a copy, even miraculously 
made perhaps, of the true Shroud of 
Christ" (p. 15). Bulst concludes that 
history neither proves nor disproves 
the validity of the claims for the 

The strongest arguments in favor 
of the Shroud are drawn from photo- 
graphy, artistic technique, the nature 
of the fabric, and medical investiga- 
tions. Photography has shown that 
the image on the Shroud is a nega- 
tive. The artistic techniques and 
styles of fourteenth century France 
differ entirely from the image on the 
relic. A study of the cloth's fabric 
points to a linen material of the Near 
East from around the first Christian 
centuries. It is of a twill weave un- 
known in medieval France. Medical 
investigations point conclusively that 
on the Shroud we have an imprint 
from a real human corpse. In fact, 
physicians are in rather universal 
agreement that the Shroud is auth- 

In the field of archeology certain 
conclusions are not so readily arrived 
at. Scholars still discuss the presence 
of a sedile or suppedaneum, as well 
as three or four nails. Neither arch- 
eology nor the image on the Shroud 
permit a final word on these points. 

The New Testament texts on Our 
Lord's burial have been variously in- 
terpreted. Bulst himself presented an 
opinion in Verhuin Domini 1953, 
only to reject it in the present work 
in favor of another interpretation (cf. 
p. 88-89, and footnote 179). The 
present reviewer has discussed the 
scriptural problems elsewhere in this 
number of The Passionist (p. 411). 

The author concludes in the final 
pages of his work to the authenticity 
of the Shroud as the very Shroud in 
which Jesus was buried. However, 
this conclusion should be seen in the 
light of an earlier statement: "The 
facts of the sufferings and death of 

our divine Sa\'iour do not stand or 
fall with the truth or falsity of the 
Shroud of Turin" (p. ix) and this 
other statement: "Admittedly, there 
are still a number of unanswered 
questions about the Shroud" (p. x). 
In all fairness to the scholarship dis- 
played in this book we can conclude 
that the debate on the Shroud of 
Turin still continues! 

Roger Mercurio, C.P. 
Louisville, Kentucky 

Medical Ethics, by Charles J. 

McFadden, F. A. Davis Co., 

fourth edition, $4.25. 
Medical Ethics, by Edwin F. 

Healy, S.J., Chicago, Loyola 

University Press, 1956, $6.00. 

Morals in Medicine, by Thomas 
J. O'Donnell, S.J., Newman, 

Moral Problems in Hospital Prac- 
tice, by Patrick Finney, CM., 
revised and enlarged by Pat- 
rick O'Brien, CM., S.T.D., Her- 
der, $4.75. 

OCCASIONALLY the missionary, re- 
treat master, or confessor will 
be confronted with moral problems 
touching on medicine. The purpose 
of this review is to give a brief analy- 
sis of four of the latest books dealing 
with this difficult topic. 

Fr. McFadden's Medical Ethics 
still remains about the best one-vol- 
ume summary available on the mar- 
ket. It endeavors to treat ethical prob- 
lems from the religious, philosophi- 
cal, and scientific asDects, and it is 
probably the best introductory work 
to medical ethics. The book is especi- 
ally good for priests since it supplies 
many "secondary" scientific facts to 
bolster philosophical arguments and 
also brings in considerations regard- 
ing both Canon and Civil Law. A 
trained moralists will recognize that 
Fr. McFadden tends at times to be 
somewhat over-conservative in his 
opinions, but this is due to the fact 
that the book was written for those 
untrained in ethical speculation. The 
"Ethical and Religious Directives for 
Catholic Hospitals" contained in the 
Appendix is out of date; it is to be 
hoped that a revi.sed edition of this 

book will contain the new "Direc- 

Fr. Healy's Medical Ethics is per- 
haps the best one-volume reference 
book available in medical ethics. It 
does not go into any lengthy specula- 
tive explanation of moral principles, 
but it tries to elucidate matters by cit- 
ing innumerable practical cases. The 
book is primarily written for doctors, 
but a priest will benefit greatly by 
reading the chapters on "Special 
Problems of the Married" and "The 
Physician as Counselor." The book 
also has extensive bibliographies for 
further reading. 

Fr. O'Donnell's Morals in Medi- 
cine is an especially authoritative 
book from the viewpointof the medi- 
cal facts contained in the text: twelve 
doctors gave advice and assisted in 
the preparation of the manuscript. 
The book is a rather brief treatment 
of medical ethics, but it does treat 
many problems not contained in 
other works. It also brings in a good 
deal of Canon Law. In general one 
should be familiar with more detailed 
explanations of medical procedures 
and their problems before reading Fr. 
O'Donnell's work. 

Fr. Finney's Moral Problems in 
Hospital Practice is a self-confessed 
"practical handbook." It is written in 
a catechetical question-answer format 
and is intended for an audience, 
which is not competent to weigh the 
speculative reasoning in any great de- 
tail. In the back of the book there is 
a convenient Medical Vocabulary, 
explaining most of the technical 
terms used. The work would be a 
good book to recommend for handy 
reference for the busy doctor or 

John Francis Kobler, C.P. 
Warrenton, Missouri 

Meditating the Gospels, by Em- 
eric Lawrence, O.S.B., Litur- 
gical Press, 1957, xxiii and 
460 pp., $3.90. 

ONE complaint that we hear over 
and over again is that medita- 
tion books savor of exercises in men- 
tal gymnastics. While there can be 
no quarrel with the fact that medita- 
tion is meant to engender solid con- 
viction, it all too often ends in a 
sterile— and stifling— intellectualism. 


The Passionist 

Books and Pamphlets 

By Father Stephen 

Sweeney, C.P. 























Order from: 
Rev. Stephen Sweeney, C.P. 
Saint Ann's Monastery 
1239 St. Ann's Street 
Scranton 4, Pennsylvania 

Father Emeric nxoicls this pitfall 
skill! Lilly. Mc'ditatiui!, the Gospels is 
indeed "a meditation book with a dit- 
leienee, " as Father Leo Trese re- 
marks in the Introduction. There are 
two parts clearl) discernible in each 
of the pagc-and-a-half-long selections: 
a consideration and an application. 
What is different is that even in the 
consideration, Father Emeric talks 
directly to Our Lord, instead of talk- 
ing about Him. This approach gives 
the whole book the distinctly con- 
versational tone so conducive to 

Meditcitiiii!, the Cospels is arranged 
according to the Church Year. There 
is a meditation on each of the Gos- 
pels of the Proper of the Time as 
well as the Proper of the Saints— 
with the Common of the Saints and 
the Voti\e Masses coming in be- 
tween. There must be over 300 in- 
di\idual meditations, each beginning 
with a one-sentence summary of the 
Gospel and ending with a verse to 
serve as the prayer for the day. 

This book has not much to ofler 
the Passionist for his own prayer, but 
it can pr()\'e helpful in his apostolate 
of instructing others in the art. Since 
it is not a book (ihoiit meditation but 
of meditations, it can be used as a 
jiractical follow ujx Once wc have 
im]wrted the fundamentals of men 
tal i)rayer, we can recommend this 

book and urge the faithful to pray 
in accordance with the thoughts 
there developed. Gradually the\ will 
learn by doing and will be able to 
carry on their own personalized con- 
versation with Christ. 

/\s we have indicated, Meditating 
the Gospels is directed especialK to 
the laity. To the priest and the reli- 
gious it will seem to belabor the ob- 
vious. Oftentimes it will be irrelevant 
to one's deepest needs and desires. 
Its chief merit lies in presenting Cios- 
liel themes and e\ents in a context 
ol genuine prayer. 

Barry Rankin, C.P. 
Chicago, Illinois 

Suggested List of Recent Books 
FOR Passionist Libraries 


Acts of the Apostles, by G. Ric- 
ciotti, Bruce, $7.50. 


The Christ of Faith, by K. Adam, 

Pantheon, $6.00. 
Sacred Heart in ihe Life of the 

Church, bv M. Williams, Sheed 

and Ward, $3.75. 
Theology for Beginners, bv F. 

Sheed, Sheed and Ward, $3.00. 


Canon Law Supplement for 1956, 
bv Bouscaren, O'Connor, Bruce, 


History of Catholic Church, 
Vin, by Mourret, Herder, $1.00. 

Red Book of Persecuted Church, 
by A. Gaiter, Newman, $5.75. 


Mercy LInto Thousands: M. 

Cath. Mc/\ulev, by Sr. M. B. 

Dcgnan, R.S.M., Newman, $6.50. 
Golden Door: Life of Mother K. 

Drexel, by K. Burton, Kenedv, 



Manual For Novices, bv F. DuHev, 
C.S.C, I lerder, $3.50.' 

Communal Life, A. Pie, O.P., edi- 
tor. No. 8 Relig. Life Series, New- 
man, S4.50. 


World, J. E. Haley, C.S.C, cdi 
lor, Notre i^anic, S3. 75. 

Yoke of Divine Love, bv 11. Van 
Zeller, O.S.B., Newman, S3.75. 


Satirical Letters of St. Jerome, 
Gateway, $1.25. 

I lisTORY OF English People, bv St. 
Bede, Penguin, $.85. 

Life of St. Teresa of /\vila by 

Herself, J. ^L Cohen, Penguin, 

In rRODucTioN to Devout Life, by 
St. Francis de Sales, Image, $.85. 

Christ of Catholicism, by A. 
Graham, hnage, $.95. 

Questions and Answers H, Pre- 
cepts, by E. I. Mahoney, New- 
man, $L25. 

Seeds of Contemplation, by T. 
Merton, S.25. 

No Man an Island, bv T. Merton, 

Seven Storey Mountain, T. Mer- 
ton, $.65. 

CiiLSON Reader, A. Pegis, editor, 
Sheed and Ward, $.95. 

Perfect }oy of St. Francis, by F. 
Timmmermaus, Image, $.75. 

The Lord My Light, by Joseph 
Rickaby, Newman, $.85. 

This is the Faith, by F. J. Ripley, 
Catechetical, S.50. 

Handbook of the Catholic Faith, 
by N. C. M. VanDoornik, Image, 

Woodstock Papers (shortly): 
Divine Maternity of Mary, by W. 

Burghardt, S.J., $.95. 
Patristic Testimonies on Death 

of Mary, bv W. Burghardt, S.J., 

Problem of Pluralism in Amer- 
ica, by J. C. Murray, S.J., $.95. 
Catholic Primer of Eclimenical 

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Outline of Cathoi ic Theology, 


The Thomisi Reader. Thomist 
Press, $2.50. 

December 1, 1957 




To the Editor: 

It is pleasing to learn that "How Fill 
the Pews" has been read. One, signing 
himself "Interested" has indeed shown 
genuine interest. Usually through discus- 
sion we encounter varied views and diverse 
ideas, all of which may contribute to en- 
lightenment. I compliment this writer both 
for his observations and a willingness to 
express them. Some of the conclusions 
arrived at however, do not seem suggested 
by the text of said article. 

a) It can hardly be true that our type 
of mission fails in its appeal to both pas- 
tors and people. How else account for 
numerous requests for repeats coming in 
from pastors who have observe